UPHEAVALS IN CHRISTIANDOM DISASTERS OF 14TH CENTURY A. THE PLAGUE B. CONFLICT IN THE CHURCH 1) W/ RISING SECULAR POWERS 2) WITHIN THE INSTITUTION ITSELF
THE PLAGUE * 1/2 POP. WIPED OUT * CULTIVATION CEASED - FAMINE ENSUED * SOCIAL REBELLION & SUBSEQUENT CRACKDOWN BY UPPER CLASS
“ JACQUERIES” THE COLLAPSE OF SOCIAL ORDER LED MANY AMONG THE LOWER CLASSES TO CHALLENGE AUTHORITY AND DEMAND POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPROVEMENTS
WAT TYLER’S REBELLION 1381 The peasants pledged their allegiance to Richard, and handed him a petition which asked for the abolition of villeinage, for labour services based on free contracts, and for the right to rent land at fourpence an acre. They demanded an end to all lordship beyond that of the King, that the Church's estates be confiscated and divided among the wider populace and that there be only Bishops throughout the whole kingdom.
CHURCH TROUBLES BY 1300 - POWERFUL, COMPLACENT CHURCH BECAME CORRUPT TROUBLE W/ SECULAR RULERS * EDWARD I (ENG) , PHILLIP THE FAIR (FR) SOUGHT TO TAX THE CHURCH POPE BONIFACE VIII - UNNAM SANCTAM - BULL OF PAPAL SUPREMACY
*PHILLIP JAILED B. VIII - INFLUENCED CARDINALS TO ELECT FRENCH POPE “ BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY” FRENCH POPE MOVED PAPACY FROM ROME TO AVIGNON, FRANCE
GREAT SCHISM OF THE WEST TWO POPES WERE CHOSEN AT THE FOLLOWING PAPAL ELECTION - ONE FOR ROME AND ONE FOR AVIGNON THE SCHISM DAMAGED CHURCH CREDIBILITY
JOHN WYCLIF, JOHN HUSS - QUESTIONED THE NECESSITY OF THE CHURCH IN QUEST FOR SPIRITUAL SALVATION Wyclif - 1324-84 Execution of John Huss - 1415 HOW DID THE CHURCH REACT TO THESE CHALLENGES?
THE CONCILIAR MOVEMENT *The Church called councils to discuss probles *Papacy united under Martin V *Martin bans future councils to reassert papal authority *Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438) - Gallican (French) church declared supremacy of councils and independence from papal authority