II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />
Objectives:<br />know the location and function of the ozone layer.<br />2.	know that the ozone hole is caused by a catego...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />90 % of ozone exists in the upper earth’s atmosphere called the stratosphere. ...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />The ozone layer acts as a shield (or natural sunscreen) to protect the earth’s...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) have been found to be a serious threat to the ozon...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example CFC Compounds<br />CH4 – methane<br />CH3Cl - chloromethan...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example CFC Compounds<br />CH4 – methane<br />CH3F - fluoromethane...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />CFC compounds are nontoxic, nonflammable, inexpensive, and readily...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example aerosols:<br />
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Aerosol Can Operation<br />Aerosol cans contain a compressed gas o...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Because of growing concern over ozone depletion, most industrializ...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)Graph of Worldwide CFC Production<br />
Worldwide CFC Production vs. YearOzone Hole Area Size vs. Year<br />
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Ozone is produced by uv radiation from the sun.<br />	O2 + energy ...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Molecules of CFC compounds break down when they encounter ultravio...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />Example Ozone Hole Images<br />
Where is the ozone hole within the ozone layer?<br />
Oct. 19803.27 million sq. mi.<br />
Oct. 198518.79 million sq. mi.<br />
Sept. 1990 21.05 million sq. mi.<br />
Sept. 199626.96 million sq. mi.<br />
Sept. 200030.31 million sq. mi<br />
Sept. 200526.77 million sq. mi.<br />
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />
What would happen if the ozone hold would continued to grow?<br />Ex. 1 – Effects on Humans<br />Ex. 2 – Effects on Ecosys...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />A decrease in ozone leads to an increase in exposure to harmful ul...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example 1<br />Increased exposure to harmful uv radiation from the...
II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example 2<br />An increase in harmful uv-radiation could kill micr...
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Notes ii -the ozone layger and the ozone hole

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Notes ii -the ozone layger and the ozone hole

  1. 1. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />know the location and function of the ozone layer.<br />2. know that the ozone hole is caused by a category of gases called CFC’s sometimes referred to as freons.<br />3. write balanced chemical equations for the production and destruction of ozone.<br />
  3. 3. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />90 % of ozone exists in the upper earth’s atmosphere called the stratosphere. <br />A small percentage of ozone exists at ground level mostly in the form of smog.<br />
  4. 4. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />The ozone layer acts as a shield (or natural sunscreen) to protect the earth’s surface from harmful ultraviolet (uv) radiation.<br />More O3 in the upper atmosphere results in less uv radiation that reaching the earth’s surface.<br />Less O3 in the upper atmosphere results in more uv radiation reaching the earth’s surface.<br />
  5. 5. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) have been found to be a serious threat to the ozone layer.<br />CFC – compound composed of carbon, fluorine, chlorine and hydrogen<br />freon – trade name for CFC’s (du Pont)<br />
  6. 6. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example CFC Compounds<br />CH4 – methane<br />CH3Cl - chloromethane<br />CH2Cl2 - dichloromethane<br />CHCl3 - trichloromethane<br />Molecular Models<br />
  7. 7. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example CFC Compounds<br />CH4 – methane<br />CH3F - fluoromethane<br />CH2F2 - difluoromethane<br />CHF3 - trifluoromethane<br />Molecular Models<br />
  8. 8. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />CFC compounds are nontoxic, nonflammable, inexpensive, and readily convert between the gaseous and liquid states.<br />CFC’s have been widely used for <br />Aerosol-spray propellants<br />Refrigerant<br />Solvents<br />Foam blowing agents<br />
  9. 9. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example aerosols:<br />
  10. 10. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Aerosol Can Operation<br />Aerosol cans contain a compressed gas over a liquid product to be dispensed (hair spray, deodorant, paint, oil, etc.)<br />CFC gases were commonly used as propellants within aerosol cans.<br />A variety of non CFC compounds are currently used (N2, CO2, etc.) depending on the application.<br />
  11. 11. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Because of growing concern over ozone depletion, most industrialized nations have banned the production and use of CFC compounds.<br />
  12. 12. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)Graph of Worldwide CFC Production<br />
  13. 13. Worldwide CFC Production vs. YearOzone Hole Area Size vs. Year<br />
  14. 14. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Ozone is produced by uv radiation from the sun.<br /> O2 + energy -> 2O<br /> O + O2 -> O3<br />Ozone is destroyed by uv radiation from the sun.<br /> O3 + energy -> O2 + O<br />
  15. 15. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Molecules of CFC compounds break down when they encounter ultraviolet (uv) radiation from the sun in the earth’s upper atmosphere.<br /> CH3Cl + energy -> CH3 + Cl<br />Chlorine atoms react with ozone to yield chlorine monoxide and oxygen.<br /> Cl + O3 -> ClO + O2 <br />One CFC molecule can result in the destruction of 100,000 O3 molecules.<br />
  16. 16. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole<br />Example Ozone Hole Images<br />
  17. 17. Where is the ozone hole within the ozone layer?<br />
  18. 18. Oct. 19803.27 million sq. mi.<br />
  19. 19. Oct. 198518.79 million sq. mi.<br />
  20. 20. Sept. 1990 21.05 million sq. mi.<br />
  21. 21. Sept. 199626.96 million sq. mi.<br />
  22. 22. Sept. 200030.31 million sq. mi<br />
  23. 23. Sept. 200526.77 million sq. mi.<br />
  24. 24. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />
  25. 25. What would happen if the ozone hold would continued to grow?<br />Ex. 1 – Effects on Humans<br />Ex. 2 – Effects on Ecosystems<br />
  26. 26. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />A decrease in ozone leads to an increase in exposure to harmful ultraviolet (uv) radiation from the sun.<br />
  27. 27. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example 1<br />Increased exposure to harmful uv radiation from the sun to result in (but not limited to):<br />increased rates of sunburn<br />Increased rate of skin cancers<br />cataracts<br />premature aging of skin (wrinkled, leathery appearance<br />Example Skin Cancer Images<br />
  28. 28. II. The Ozone Layer and the Ozone Hole(don’t copy)<br />Example 2<br />An increase in harmful uv-radiation could kill microscopic algae called phytoplankton within the earth’s oceans.<br />Example effect:<br /> phytoplankton←krill←fish←humans<br />Food Chain Diagram<br />
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