Elements and the periodic table 2010

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Elements and the periodic table 2010

  1. 1. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />list the 3 types of elements.<br />define allotrope.<br />identify metals, nonmetals, metalloids, groups and periods within the periodic table.<br />define metal, nonmetal, and metalloid<br />define malleable, ductile, luster, and brittle.<br />
  3. 3. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table <br />All matter is composed of one or more elements.<br />Elements are referred to as the “building blocks of matter”.<br />
  4. 4. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table(don’t copy)<br />There are approximately 110 elements known.<br />Only 90 elements are commonly found in nature.<br />Information about the element are summarized in the periodic table.<br />The Periodic Table<br />
  5. 5. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table<br />group – vertical column of elements<br />There are 18 groups of elements.<br />Groups are sometimes referred to as families.<br />period – horizontal row<br />There are 7 periods in the periodic table.<br />Note that the bottom 2 rows are not periods. They are parts of periods 6 and 7.<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table<br />There are 3 types of elements in the periodic table.<br />The staircase feature divides up the elements by type.<br />Metals are to the left of the staircase.<br />Nonmetals are to the right of the staircase.<br />Metalloids are located along the staircase.<br />
  8. 8. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table<br />metals – good conductors of heat and electricity<br />Most elements are metals.<br />All metals are in the solid state at room temperature except one (Hg).<br />
  9. 9. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table(don’t copy)<br />Example Metal – Aluminum<br />Aluminum is an excellent conductor. Aluminum is use in high voltage transmission lines.<br />Aluminum metal more flexible, lighter in weight, and less expensive than copper.<br />Aluminum foil is very malleable and exhibits luster.<br />
  10. 10. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table<br />nonmetals – poor conductors of heat and electricity<br />Nonmetals are brittle. (They are not malleable and ductile.)<br />Nonmetals exist as solids, liquids, and gases at room temperature.<br />
  11. 11. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table(don’t copy)<br />Example Nonmetal – Carbon<br />Graphite, a form of carbon, is used in pencils.<br />Solid carbon is brittle.<br />
  12. 12. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table<br />metalloids – have properties of metals and nonmetals<br />Metalloids are semiconductors.<br />There are 6 metalloids: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te.<br />
  13. 13. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table(don’t copy)<br />Example Metalloid – Silicon<br />Silicon is one of the most economically important elements.<br />Because silicon is an excellent semiconductor it is the main element used in the manufacturing of integrated circuits and circuit boards. <br />Silicon is used to manufacture computers, televisions, cell phones, I-pods, and video game systems.<br />
  14. 14. V. The Elements and the Periodic Table(copy the term allotrope only)<br />Some elements exist in more than one form.<br />allotropes – different forms of the same element<br />Although the example substances to right are made of carbon atoms, their properties differ dramatically because their carbon atoms are arranged differently at the atomic level.<br />Examples: allotropes of carbon - diamond, graphite, and Buckminster fullerene<br />

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