Plagiarism & Copyright

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  • 1. Plagiarism and Copyrights Ferdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDUC190 – Computers in Education
  • 2. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, to "plagiarize" means
    • to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
    • to use (another's production) without crediting the source
    • to commit literary theft
    • to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.
    Source: http://www.plagiarism.org/
  • 3. Types of Plagiarism
    • Sources Not Cited
    • "The Ghost Writer" "The Photocopy"
    • "The Potluck Paper"
    • "The Poor Disguise"
    • "The Labor of Laziness"
    • "The Self-Stealer"
    • Sources Cited (But Still Plagiarized)
    • "The Forgotten Footnote"
    • "The Misinformer"
    • "The Too-Perfect Paraphrase"
    • "The Resourceful Citer"
    • "The Perfect Crime"
    Source: http://www.plagiarism.org/
  • 4. Burke’s survey with 742 Faculty, USA 86% had suspected plagiarism; 65% had found it in the classroom A UK survey of 943 sophomores Reasons for plagiarism: too much homework, high pressure Some studies (e.g. Hayes & Introna , 2005) Cultural norms play a role; Seriousness in plagiarizing Internet sources Plagiarism
  • 5. Plagiarism
    • Rinnert and Kobayashi (2005)
    • -- 605 Japanese and 76 American college students
    • --- Japanese college students lack understanding in the need to fully and correctly cite sources compared with their American counterparts
    • --- Do not perceive the borrowing ideas or words without appropriate citations as unethical or reprehensible
    • --- Lack of institutional policies and systematic training for correctly citing sources in academic writing in Japanese colleges
    • Norris (2007)
    • --- Only a small number of Japanese universities have established coherent policies on anti-plagiarism or academic integrity
    • --- Japanese teachers tend to tolerate plagiarism (## all Japanese universities have introduced privacy protection measures since the Personal Information Protection Law was enforced in 2005)
  • 6. B asic Term of Protection
    • Japan: 50 years
    • Mexico: 100 years
    • Colombia: 80 years
    • Germany, France, Italy, UK, Argentine, Brazil, and USA: 70 years
    • India: 60 years
    • Iran: 30 years
    • Philippines ???
  • 7. Copyright issues in Education
    • See http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/cs_1/case1.html
  • 8. Copyrights/Ownership
    • Belong to a person who creates a idea (author)
    • To own copyrights of the author - Separate contract needed
    • Copying possible for home use, personal/small scale use
    • Educational institutions – fair use – one time, educational purposes, classroom use, a portion of book or digital materials (only for teachers)
  • 9. Copyrights/Ownership
    • P2P file sharing (Music file sharing) – illegal
    • YouTube – some contain copyrighted work
    • Freeware / shareware (free of charge or charged) – generally ok, but sometimes involve copyright issues
    http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/
  • 10. Cases
    • Students’ work – copyrights
    • Pre-existing teaching materials / others – can be used without authorization in school teaching contexts
    • Distributed learning environment (distance education; e-learning), materials can be shared if in non-profit educational contexts
    • Special lectures? – get permission from speaker
    • ## Ideas, copyright protected? No unless expressed
    http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/
  • 11. The President-elect asks YOUR Committee…. To outline and review existing Philippine Copyright Laws; To make suggestions for revision/elaboration Group Activity: Committee on Promoting Academic Integrity
  • 12. Plagiarism Prevention
    • Systematic Training
    • Institutional Policies
      • Explain What "Plagiarism" Means ;
    • What's Wrong About Plagiarism
      • Make the Consequences Clear
      • Clear Expectations
      • How to cite properly