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Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
Learning Theories
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Learning Theories

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  • 1. University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDTECH101 Learning Theories that Influence Utilization of Instructional Media ResourcesFerdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education
  • 2. Humanism vs. Technology High D CHumanism A B Low High Technology
  • 3. Educational Technology: Foundations Communications Systems approach Psychology
  • 4. Media as a channel of communication FeedbackTeacher Learner Schramm’s model – Field of Experience/ Feedback
  • 5. Dale’s Cone of ExperienceSource: from Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 1st Edition, © 1969. Reprinted with permission of Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
  • 6. Systems Approach
  • 7. 1 4 3 2 8 5 6 7 910
  • 8. Psychology• Behaviorism• Cognitivism• Constructivism
  • 9. Behaviorism1. Early behaviorism -- Pavlov (1849 - 1936) Focus on reflexive behavior Food Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Salivation (natural, not learned) Bell Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Salivation (to bell)
  • 10. Behaviorism2. B.F. SkinnerFocus on voluntary behavior and reinforcement“Learning is a function of change in overt behavior.”
  • 11. B. F. Skinner 1904 – 1990 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b-NaoWUowQ English Major PsychologyBook, Wallden II Skinner box
  • 12. Behaviorism“--- A person comes under the control of a stimulating environment, responds to subtle properties of that environment, and responds to it in many complex ways because of the consequences contingent upon earlier responses.---- ”(Operant Conditioning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA1) Initial behavior –2) Consequences (reinforcement/punishment) –3) Next behavior
  • 13. Behaviorism How to shape behavior and maintain it in strength? How to design instruction? Use Contingencies of ReinforcementA certain behavior consequences of that behavior
  • 14. Behaviorism1. Positive reinforcement2. Instant reinforcement3. Frequent reinforcement4. Multiple scheduled reinforcement
  • 15. BehaviorismUse of Media:Teaching machineProgrammed instructionStructuredFocus on objectives
  • 16. CognitivismFocus on Active Mental Process 1) Information Processing Model 2) Mental Development Model
  • 17. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory registerShort-term memory-- Working memoryLong-term memory
  • 18. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory register AttentionShort-term memory-- Working memory Remembering Not ForgettingLong-term memory
  • 19. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Attention gaining strategies: Attention Sensory register e.g. visuals, paradox Short-term memoryRemembering -- Working memory Active processing strategies: e.g. chucking/organizing content Retrieval strategies:Not forgetting e.g. relate new info. to old info. Long-term memory
  • 20. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcjPkPIwsog Swiss philosopher and psychologistJean Piaget(1896-1980)http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/piaget.html
  • 21. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Observe/listen to children Piaget: What makes the wind? Julia: The trees. P: How do you know? J: I saw them waving their arms. P: How does that make the wind? J (waving her hand in front of his face): Like this. Only they are bigger. And there are lots of trees. P: What makes the wind on the ocean? J: It blows there from the land. No. Its the waves...## Four stages of childhood development(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
  • 22. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures) Assimilation: Accommodation: modifying existing New info. into structure/creatingexisting structure new one
  • 23. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development ModelAssimilation?? Accommodation??
  • 24. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures) Assimilation: Accommodation: modifying existing New info. into structure/creatingexisting structure new one Useful instructional strategies Advanced Organizers Transfer Mnemonics Organization and more…..
  • 25. ConstructivismDifferent from Objectivism such as Behaviorism/Cognitivism Objective entities/realities The correct structure
  • 26. Constructivism Constructivistic philosophy A real world we experience Multiple perspectives
  • 27. Constructivism“Situating” our cognitive experiences in authentic activities Real world problems emphasized
  • 28. Constructivism• Learning: ????• Teaching: ????
  • 29. Constructivism• Learning: based on experience/ construction of meaning/ social interaction• Instructional strategies?? - social collaboration - multiple perspectives - negotiation of meanings - situated in real cases
  • 30. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky http://www.kolar.org/vygotsky/
  • 31. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky1. Between people, then inside self2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) - social interactions
  • 32. Remember!! (A. Bednar, et al. ) “Instructional design and development must be based upon some theory of learning and/orcognition; effective design is possible only if thedeveloper has developed reflexive awareness of the theoretical basis underlying the design.”
  • 33. Remember !! “ Theories of Learning and prescriptions forpractice must go hand in hand.” – (T. Duffy and D. Jonassen) Instructional Design (Prescriptions for practice) Constructivism Behaviorism Cognitivism
  • 34. Activity1. Case 1: Japan New teachers How to serve physically challenged students2. Case 2: USA A mix of slower and faster learners; thirty 7th graders Teach existing of different cultures in Asia3. Case 3: Paris Filipino as a second language; intermediate level A mix of 10 senior citizens; 10 university students Teach them Filipino。4. Case 4: Indonesia High school students (above average) Teach to be active, creative…
  • 35. NEXT MEETING:Issues and trends in the use of media technology for classroom instructions

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