University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDTECH101 Learning Theories that Influence Utilization of Instructional Media ResourcesFerdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education
Humanism vs. Technology High D CHumanism A B Low High Technology
Educational Technology: Foundations Communications Systems approach Psychology
Media as a channel of communication FeedbackTeacher Learner Schramm’s model – Field of Experience/ Feedback
Behaviorism1. Early behaviorism -- Pavlov (1849 - 1936) Focus on reflexive behavior Food Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Salivation (natural, not learned) Bell Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Salivation (to bell)
Behaviorism2. B.F. SkinnerFocus on voluntary behavior and reinforcement“Learning is a function of change in overt behavior.”
B. F. Skinner 1904 – 1990 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b-NaoWUowQ English Major PsychologyBook, Wallden II Skinner box
Behaviorism“--- A person comes under the control of a stimulating environment, responds to subtle properties of that environment, and responds to it in many complex ways because of the consequences contingent upon earlier responses.---- ”(Operant Conditioning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA1) Initial behavior –2) Consequences (reinforcement/punishment) –3) Next behavior
Behaviorism How to shape behavior and maintain it in strength? How to design instruction? Use Contingencies of ReinforcementA certain behavior consequences of that behavior
BehaviorismUse of Media:Teaching machineProgrammed instructionStructuredFocus on objectives
CognitivismFocus on Active Mental Process 1) Information Processing Model 2) Mental Development Model
Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory registerShort-term memory-- Working memoryLong-term memory
Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory register AttentionShort-term memory-- Working memory Remembering Not ForgettingLong-term memory
Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Attention gaining strategies: Attention Sensory register e.g. visuals, paradox Short-term memoryRemembering -- Working memory Active processing strategies: e.g. chucking/organizing content Retrieval strategies:Not forgetting e.g. relate new info. to old info. Long-term memory
Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcjPkPIwsog Swiss philosopher and psychologistJean Piaget(1896-1980)http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/piaget.html
Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Observe/listen to children Piaget: What makes the wind? Julia: The trees. P: How do you know? J: I saw them waving their arms. P: How does that make the wind? J (waving her hand in front of his face): Like this. Only they are bigger. And there are lots of trees. P: What makes the wind on the ocean? J: It blows there from the land. No. Its the waves...## Four stages of childhood development(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures) Assimilation: Accommodation: modifying existing New info. into structure/creatingexisting structure new one
Cognitivism 2) Mental Development ModelAssimilation?? Accommodation??
Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures) Assimilation: Accommodation: modifying existing New info. into structure/creatingexisting structure new one Useful instructional strategies Advanced Organizers Transfer Mnemonics Organization and more…..
ConstructivismDifferent from Objectivism such as Behaviorism/Cognitivism Objective entities/realities The correct structure
Constructivism Constructivistic philosophy A real world we experience Multiple perspectives
Constructivism“Situating” our cognitive experiences in authentic activities Real world problems emphasized
Constructivism• Learning: based on experience/ construction of meaning/ social interaction• Instructional strategies?? - social collaboration - multiple perspectives - negotiation of meanings - situated in real cases
Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky http://www.kolar.org/vygotsky/
Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky1. Between people, then inside self2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) - social interactions
Remember!! (A. Bednar, et al. ) “Instructional design and development must be based upon some theory of learning and/orcognition; effective design is possible only if thedeveloper has developed reflexive awareness of the theoretical basis underlying the design.”
Remember !! “ Theories of Learning and prescriptions forpractice must go hand in hand.” – (T. Duffy and D. Jonassen) Instructional Design (Prescriptions for practice) Constructivism Behaviorism Cognitivism
Activity1. Case 1: Japan New teachers How to serve physically challenged students2. Case 2: USA A mix of slower and faster learners; thirty 7th graders Teach existing of different cultures in Asia3. Case 3: Paris Filipino as a second language; intermediate level A mix of 10 senior citizens; 10 university students Teach them Filipino。4. Case 4: Indonesia High school students (above average) Teach to be active, creative…
NEXT MEETING:Issues and trends in the use of media technology for classroom instructions
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