Why Is There No Socialism In the U.S.?<br />Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, could not decide whether the U.S. was ahead or behind other capitalist societies on the path to socialism.<br />Frederick Jackson Turner’s writing suggested that the combination of free land on the frontier and progressive social legislation rendered socialism irrelevant to American workers.<br />Why workers’ protests and programs did not take the form of a powerful political party devoted to labor interests.<br />First, our tradition of worker militancy, the narrow and conservative trade unionism of the American Federation of Labor became the dominant thrust of American Labor activism.<br />To be an American worker was to be a trade unionist and a Democrat or a Republican, but not a socialist.<br />Second, distinctive American brand of industrial capitalism.<br />Two sectors of the work force was produced: the “white-color” office workers, and a “labor aristocracy” of skilled native-born tradespeople who bargained peacefully with employers and who opposed the immigration of cheap unskilled labor.<br />
Why Us There No Socialism In the U.S.?<br />Third, political institutions.<br />Unlike western Europe, democratic politics preceded industrialization, so that by the time the workers formulated their demands.<br />Two major political parties were well-entrenched coalitions that vied for the labor vote.<br />Two-party system resisted class-based third parties such as Populists of the 1890s and the socialists of 1910s, and it successfully lured their followers by adopting some of their proposals.<br />American economic and political arrangements are distinctive rings truer than simplistic, monocausal explanations for the failure of American socialism.<br />Eric Foner wrote, “Only time will tell whether the United States has been behind Europe in the development of socialism, or ahead of it, in socialism’s decline.<br />
The Meaning of American Jazz in France<br />Gerald Early declared, “There are only three things America will be known for two thousand years from now: the Constitution, jazz music, and baseball.”<br />Jazz was developed in the late nineteenth century out of African American musical expression that included work songs, marches dance music, and spirituals.<br />Jazz blended African harmonic and rhythmic elements with American themes.<br />Born in New Orleans, jazz music spread north, east, and west to American cities where blacks migrated hunting for jobs during and after WWI.<br />
The Meaning of American Jazz in France<br />American soldiers and black entertainers introduced in Europe and spread quickly in 1920.<br />Especially in Paris, crowds flocked to cabarets and clubs in the bohemian districts of Montmartre and Montparnasse to drink, dance, and revel in the wild and exotic sound of jazz.<br />The jazz craze of Paris in the 1920s and the cultural exchange it represented formed one episode of a larger transatlantic cultural shift.<br />The American “Roaring Twenties” were paralleled by the “Crazy Years” in France, and the two were described in strikingly similar language.<br />Because jazz was American, it symbolized the “Americanization” of France that took off in the 1920s thanks to the influx of American tourists.<br />
Roosevelt and Hitler<br />People adrift in poverty, resentment, and despair turn to confident and charismatic political leaders during the Great Depression.<br />Franklin Roosevelt and Adolpf Hitler are two such men.<br />Both came to power about the same time, following inept and unpopular predecessors.<br />Their ignorance about economics as well as their political pragmatism reflected in their improvised policymaking.<br />Both began advocating a form of “corporatism,” or government-supervised cooperation between business and labor.<br />Neither Roosevelt nor Hitler solved the Great Depression, though hitler was more successful at restoring full employment.l<br />
Roosevelt and Hitler<br />Their sense of action, confidence, and purpose brought to their roles – highlighted by skillful propaganda – kept the people on their sides and helped carry them through the crisis.<br />The differences in the degree and intensity with the psychological pressures were applied to the Nazis and New Dealers.<br />The two movements reacted to the depression in similar ways.<br />The Nazis handled their monetary and trade problems more successfully.<br />Neither regime solved their problem of maintaining prosperity without war.<br />When war was forced upon them, they both took the same apporach and achieved the same result.<br />
The American and Soviet Cold War Empires<br />The United States and the Soviet Union were as close as any great powers have been to controlling “the destinies of half the world.”<br />States exist within and anarchic environment, survival is their common objective; power is the means to ensure it.<br />Historians point out, that however “great” the United States and the Soviet Union were during the cold War, the “power” they obtained and wielded was rarely comparable.<br />It is a big difference if great powers have to extend their authority against, rather than with, the wishes of those subjected to it.<br />Where Western resistance was unlikely, as in Eastern Europe, Stalin would in time attempt to replicate the regime he had already established inside the Soviet Union.<br />
The American and Soviet Cold War Empires<br />Stalin’s policy was one of imperial expansion and consolidation differing from that earlier empires only in the determination with which he pursued.<br />When comparing the American empire to its Soviet counterpart, is a striking reversal in the sequence of events.<br />The United States had been poised for global domination at the end of World War I.<br />Military forces played a decisive role in bringing that conflict to an end.<br />One empire arose by invitation and the other by imposition.<br />
Globalization and American Power<br />Globalization has different meaning to different people.<br />Widespread agreement is that the concept refers to an intense acceleration of the movement of capital, goods, people, and information around the world during the past generations.<br />Joseph Nye writes, “globalization is an old story.”<br />“Its seeds were planted when separate human societies or tribes first made contact with another through war, trade, and disease.<br />During the 1500s this contact truly started the global proportions when the European’s trade along with the colonization of the Americas.<br />The United States, not Britain, took the lead in the recent round of globalization.<br />
Globalization and American Power<br />The United States pioneered advances in computer technology and the “information revolution” that replaced industrial manufacturing as the driver of economic growth.<br />Is globalization another name for American empire?<br />Alexander Motyl defines empire as “a hierarchically organized political system with a hublike structure – a rimless wheel – within which a core elite and state dominate peripheral elites and societies by serving as intermediaries for their significant interactions.”<br />Globalization points towards a diffusion of power among nations as well as growing role for new international players.<br />
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