Veggie IPM

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What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) …

What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Case Studies in IPM
Pest/disease Management

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  • http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/mbcn/bbass.gif
  • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/hutchins2/Image15.gif&imgrefurl=http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/hutchins2.htm&usg=__SGSty_pbek8Y
  • http://www.back-to-basics.net/nds/crops/vegetables.htm
  • http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1190.htmlhttp://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/quickref/fertilizer/nutri_def.html

Transcript

  • 1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Vegetablesby Weston Miller
    Weston Miller
  • 2. Preview of Presentation
    IPM Process
    Weed Management
    IPM Case Studies
  • 3. Integrated Pest Management
    A strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and non-target organisms.
    Decision-making process that uses regular monitoring to decide if and when treatments are needed to control a pest, then uses a variety of tactics to keep pest numbers low.
  • 4. OSU’s IPM Mission
    Encourage sustainable gardening
    Identify and monitor before acting.
    Consider management options
    Cultural (healthy plants; sanitation)
    Physical(hand picking)
    Biological (Bt)
    Chemical controls
    (organic or synthetic).
    Consider least toxic first!
  • 5. Some Considerations
    Value of plant ($ and personal)
    Time constraints
    Cost of treatment
    Toxicity of available controls
    Personal gardening philosophy
  • 6. Management Principles of IPM
    Prevention
    Monitor the plants
    Identify the pest organism
    learn life cycle
    Establish an acceptable injury level
    Manage the situation
    Cultural
    Physical
    Biological
    Chemical
    Record and Evaluate
  • 7. Cultural Control Methods
    Grow healthy plants!
  • 8. Prevention
    Take care of soil
    Drainage
    Right plant, right place
    Choose adapted crops and varieties
    Resistant varieties
  • 9. Prevention
    Avoid over watering or under watering veggies.
    Plan a watering schedule
    Irrigate in the morning
    Irrigate soil, not plants
    Provide air flow.
  • 10. Attract Natural Enemies
    http://ippcweb.science.oregonstate.edu/Pocket_Guide_of_Natural_Enemies.pdf
  • 11. Plant Many Companions
  • 12. Plant to Attract Beneficials
    Mint family
    Marigolds
    Alyssum
    Broccoli family
    Carrot family
    Sunflower family
    Buckwheat
    Phacelia
  • 13. Physical Control Methods
    Are you willing to squash aphids?
  • 14. Handpicking
    Squash ‘em or put in soapy water
  • 15. Row cover
    (Cornell University)
  • 16. Water Jet
    Aphids
    Aphids
    Spider mites
    Spider mites
  • 17. Biological and Chemical Control Methods
    For treatments that you buy:
    Look for targeted treatments instead of wide spectrum treatments
    Make sure crop and pest is listed on label
  • 18. Biological Control Methods
    Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt
  • 19. B.t. kurstaki and caterpillars
  • 20. B.t. israelensis and fungus gnats
  • 21. B.t. san diego and elm leaf beetle
  • 22. B.t. israelensis and mosquitos
    Dunk
  • 23. Beauvaria bassiana
  • 24. Spinosad
  • 25. Chemical Methods of Insect Control: Botanicals
    Derived from botanical sources
    Biodegrade rapidly
    Widely varying levels of toxicity
  • 28. Botanical insecticide: Neem
    From seeds of the neem tree
    Broad spectrum against many pests
    Must be ingested to be toxic
    Low mammalian toxicity
    May require repeat applications
  • 29. With all purchased control products, please, please:
    • Buy only what you need
    • 30. Read the product label
    • 31. Understand the instructions
    • 32. Follow safety precautions
    • 33. Use common sense
    • 34. Properly dispose of container
  • Weed Management
    Consistent weed control over five years or so can dramatically reduce the weed seed bank and the time needed to control weeds.
  • 35. No Weed Solution
  • 36. Weed Control
    Many weeds are edible
    Dandelion, pigweed, purslane, chickweed, cress, mustard, lambs-quarters
    Sun choke
  • 37. Weed Control
    Habitat for beneficials and pollinators
    Parsley, aster, broccoli families
    Let several plants flower and not seed
  • 38. Fodder for Compost
  • 39. Don’t let invasives go to seed!
    Many weeds produce 1000 - 25,000 seeds/plant
    Some produce 100,000 or more (pigweed)
    Half-life of many common weeds is 2-8 years
    http://njaes.rutgers.edu/images/photos/weeds/large/commonpigweed-full.jpg
  • 40. Don’t bring in new weeds
    Avoid bringing new weeds to the garden in horse manure, compost, or straw
    Horse Manure must be hot composted. Request records.
  • 41. Mechanical Weeding
    Use comfortable tools
    Be diligent
    Kill weeds when young (2-3 true leaves)
    More effective when warm, dry, and windy
    Control weeds early in crop growth –
    when they can compete most with crops
  • 42. Mulching and Close spacing
  • 43. Transplants Get a Head Start
  • 44. Stale Seedbed Method
    Plough or spade
    Prepare seedbed
    Irrigation or rain then wait 1-2 weeks
    Light cultivation (or otherwise kill weeds)
    Repeat if possible
    Plant or sow seed
    Good for July seed planting
  • 45. Mulch Considerations
    Plastic mulch
    Purchase
    disposal
    irrigation
    Straw mulch
    weed seeds
    irrigation
    nitrogen
  • 46. Coping with Perennial Weeds
    Morning glory, quack grass, creeping buttercup, bent grass with rhizomes
  • 47. Cover Crops
  • 48. Are Your Veggies Sick?
    Photo: Lindsay DuToit
  • 49. Most Plant Problems
    Caused by non-living factors
    Poor growing conditions
    Temperature extremes
    Poor water management
    Soil compaction
    Mechanical injury
    Abiotic factors also make plants susceptible to pests / diseases.
  • 50. Non-Living (Abiotic) Causes
    Weather: heat, cold, wind, water
    Mechanical damage
    Nutrient deficiencies or toxicities
    Toxins: pesticides, soil or air pollutants
    From http://www.pioneer.co.nz/
  • 51. Hail on my Kale
  • 52. Extreme Deformities (B)
    Back to Basics: http://www.back-to-basics.net/nds/index.htm#
  • 53. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1190.html
  • 54. Living (Biotic) Causes
    Vertebrate pests
    Insects & mites
    Nematodes
    Fungi
    Bacteria
    Viruses
  • 55. Your Thinking Process
    Understand problem (research!)
    Form tentative diagnosis (confirm)
    Identify management options
    Implement management practice
    Monitor effects
    Record observations
  • 56. PATTERNS OF
    DAMAGE
    In the field and on the leaf
    Damage that spreads is from a living cause, however, nutrient deficiency symptoms can worsen over time
    Uniform
    => Nonliving
    Nonuniform
    => Living
  • 57. Diagnosing Plant Problems
    Symptom
    Change in the plant, ie. yellowing, holes in leaves, wilting, dead tissue, etc.
    Sign
    The organism that’s causing the damage, ie. insect, mold, frass, etc.
  • 58. Tomato- Abiotic
    Blossom-end rot
    • Ca deficiency in fruit
    • 59. Ensure adequate moisture especially on small fruit
    • 60. Check soil Ca level amend with lime in fall
    Sunscald
  • 61. Damping Off Disease
    • Soil temperatures too cold
    • 62. Use sterile potting supplies
    • 63. Buy disease resistant seeds
    • 64. Wait!
  • Slugs ‘N Snails
    Gray field slug
    Spotted garden slug
    Reticulated Slug
    Brown Garden Snail
  • 65. Slugs n’ Snails
    What do they need to live?
    Encourage predators
    Birds, snakes,
    ground beetles
    Eliminate habitat
    Beer and board traps
    Chemical (baits)
    Iron phosphate
    metaldahyde
  • 66. Scissors
  • 67. Vertebrates
    Song Birds
    Violet-green swallow
  • 68. Common Garter Snake
                                         © David Rosen
    Toad
    Pacific Chorus Frog © David Rosen
  • 69. Domestic Ducks
  • 70. Trapping Slugs and Snails
  • 71. Slugs- Chemical Control
    (O) Iron phosphate (slower acting)
    Metaldehyde (danger)
    Toxic to pets
  • 72. Copper Strips?
  • 73. Diatomaceous Earth
    For Slugs ‘n snails
    Repeat applications
    Effective?
  • 74. Aphids
    Signs and Symptoms?
  • 75. Case Study- Aphids
    Cabbage aphids
    Monitor plants
    Identify pest and life cycle
    Multiple generations/ year,
    Parthenogenic
    Honeydew and sooty mold
  • 76. Acceptable Injury Level
    For gardeners,
    tolerence will differ between individuals.
  • 77. Aphids
    Beans, cabbage, artichoke
    Cultural
    Avoid excess N
    Physical
    Washing w/ water
    Biological
    Attract beneficials (plan!)
    Release beneficials?
    Chemical
    Neem, insecticidal soap (O)
    Endosulfan, malathion
  • 78. Flea Beetle
  • 79. Crop Damage:
    Severe in hot, dry weather
    Young plants susceptible
    after 6-8 leaves plants compensate for damage
    Larvae may damage root brassicas
    Broccoli, cabbage, etc.
  • 80. Flea beetles - Biology and life history
    Most flea beetle species have similar life cycles.
    Adults overwinter in trash around field margins.
    They become active in late March through May.
    Flea beetles lay their very small eggs in May in the soil around the plant, on the leaves, or in cavities hollowed out in stems.
    The larvae feed on the foliage, mine the leaves, or attack the roots, depending on the species,
    usually from June to mid-July, when pupation in the soil occurs. Next generation of Adults emerge from July through early September and feed a short time before overwintering in trash around field margins.
    Depending on the species, there are one or two generations each year.
    Courtesy of Dave Muehleisen WSU
  • 81. Flea Beetle Control
    Cultural Physical
    Waxy leaved varieties more tolerant
    Delayed seeding
    Use transplants and rowcovers
    Trap crops
    Biological
    nematodes (larvae only)
    soil must be warmer than 53°F
    Chemical- all broad spectrum
    pyrethrins (O)
    malathion
    carbaryl
    esfenvalerate
  • 82. Leaf Miners
  • 83. Beet Leaf Miner
    Cultural
    Control weeds- Lamb’s quarters
    Destroy infected material
    Crop rotation- Pupa over winter in soil
    Row covers during April and May
    Biological- attract natural enemies
    Chemical-
    (O) rotenone (mix with pyrethrins)
    (O) spinosid
    Neither if grown for greens
  • 84. Row cover
    (Cornell University)
  • 85. Principles of IPM
    Prevention
    Monitor the plants
    Identify the pest organism
    learn life cycle
    Establish an acceptable injury level
    Manage the situation
    Cultural
    Physical
    Biological
    Chemical (organic and synthesized)
    Evaluation
  • 86. Review of Presentation
    IPM Process
    IPM Case Studies
    Physical Means
    Conservation Biological Approach
    Some Products