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Veggie IPM
Veggie IPM
Veggie IPM
Veggie IPM
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Veggie IPM
Veggie IPM
Veggie IPM
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Veggie IPM
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Veggie IPM

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What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) …

What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Case Studies in IPM
Pest/disease Management

Published in: Self Improvement
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  • http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/mbcn/bbass.gif
  • http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/hutchins2/Image15.gif&imgrefurl=http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/hutchins2.htm&usg=__SGSty_pbek8Y
  • http://www.back-to-basics.net/nds/crops/vegetables.htm
  • http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1190.htmlhttp://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/quickref/fertilizer/nutri_def.html
  • Transcript

    • 1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Vegetablesby Weston Miller<br />Weston Miller<br />
    • 2. Preview of Presentation<br />IPM Process<br />Weed Management<br />IPM Case Studies<br />
    • 3. Integrated Pest Management<br />A strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and non-target organisms.<br />Decision-making process that uses regular monitoring to decide if and when treatments are needed to control a pest, then uses a variety of tactics to keep pest numbers low.<br />
    • 4. OSU’s IPM Mission<br />Encourage sustainable gardening<br />Identify and monitor before acting. <br />Consider management options<br />Cultural (healthy plants; sanitation)<br />Physical(hand picking)<br />Biological (Bt)<br />Chemical controls <br />(organic or synthetic).<br />Consider least toxic first!<br />
    • 5. Some Considerations<br />Value of plant ($ and personal)<br />Time constraints<br />Cost of treatment<br />Toxicity of available controls<br />Personal gardening philosophy<br />
    • 6. Management Principles of IPM<br />Prevention<br />Monitor the plants<br />Identify the pest organism <br />learn life cycle<br />Establish an acceptable injury level<br />Manage the situation<br />Cultural<br />Physical<br />Biological<br />Chemical<br />Record and Evaluate<br />
    • 7. Cultural Control Methods<br />Grow healthy plants!<br />
    • 8. Prevention<br />Take care of soil<br />Drainage<br />Right plant, right place<br />Choose adapted crops and varieties <br />Resistant varieties<br />
    • 9. Prevention<br />Avoid over watering or under watering veggies. <br />Plan a watering schedule<br />Irrigate in the morning<br />Irrigate soil, not plants<br />Provide air flow.<br />
    • 10. Attract Natural Enemies<br />http://ippcweb.science.oregonstate.edu/Pocket_Guide_of_Natural_Enemies.pdf<br />
    • 11. Plant Many Companions<br />
    • 12. Plant to Attract Beneficials<br />Mint family<br />Marigolds<br />Alyssum<br />Broccoli family<br />Carrot family<br />Sunflower family<br />Buckwheat<br />Phacelia<br />
    • 13. Physical Control Methods<br />Are you willing to squash aphids? <br />
    • 14. Handpicking <br />Squash ‘em or put in soapy water<br />
    • 15. Row cover<br />(Cornell University)<br />
    • 16. Water Jet<br />Aphids<br />Aphids<br />Spider mites<br />Spider mites<br />
    • 17. Biological and Chemical Control Methods<br />For treatments that you buy:<br />Look for targeted treatments instead of wide spectrum treatments<br />Make sure crop and pest is listed on label<br />
    • 18. Biological Control Methods<br />Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt<br />
    • 19. B.t. kurstaki and caterpillars<br />
    • 20. B.t. israelensis and fungus gnats<br />
    • 21. B.t. san diego and elm leaf beetle<br />
    • 22. B.t. israelensis and mosquitos<br />Dunk<br />
    • 23. Beauvaria bassiana<br />
    • 24. Spinosad<br />
    • 25. Chemical Methods of Insect Control: Botanicals<br /><ul><li>Neem (azadirachtin)
    • 26. Rotenone
    • 27. Pyrethrins</li></ul>Derived from botanical sources<br />Biodegrade rapidly<br />Widely varying levels of toxicity<br />
    • 28. Botanical insecticide: Neem<br />From seeds of the neem tree<br />Broad spectrum against many pests<br />Must be ingested to be toxic<br />Low mammalian toxicity<br />May require repeat applications<br />
    • 29. With all purchased control products, please, please:<br /><ul><li>Buy only what you need
    • 30. Read the product label
    • 31. Understand the instructions
    • 32. Follow safety precautions
    • 33. Use common sense
    • 34. Properly dispose of container</li></li></ul><li>Weed Management<br />Consistent weed control over five years or so can dramatically reduce the weed seed bank and the time needed to control weeds.<br />
    • 35. No Weed Solution<br />
    • 36. Weed Control<br />Many weeds are edible<br />Dandelion, pigweed, purslane, chickweed, cress, mustard, lambs-quarters<br />Sun choke<br />
    • 37. Weed Control<br />Habitat for beneficials and pollinators<br />Parsley, aster, broccoli families<br />Let several plants flower and not seed<br />
    • 38. Fodder for Compost<br />
    • 39. Don’t let invasives go to seed!<br />Many weeds produce 1000 - 25,000 seeds/plant <br />Some produce 100,000 or more (pigweed)<br />Half-life of many common weeds is 2-8 years<br />http://njaes.rutgers.edu/images/photos/weeds/large/commonpigweed-full.jpg<br />
    • 40. Don’t bring in new weeds<br />Avoid bringing new weeds to the garden in horse manure, compost, or straw<br />Horse Manure must be hot composted. Request records.<br />
    • 41. Mechanical Weeding<br />Use comfortable tools<br />Be diligent<br />Kill weeds when young (2-3 true leaves)<br />More effective when warm, dry, and windy<br />Control weeds early in crop growth – <br />when they can compete most with crops<br />
    • 42. Mulching and Close spacing<br />
    • 43. Transplants Get a Head Start<br />
    • 44. Stale Seedbed Method<br />Plough or spade<br />Prepare seedbed<br />Irrigation or rain then wait 1-2 weeks<br />Light cultivation (or otherwise kill weeds)<br />Repeat if possible<br />Plant or sow seed<br />Good for July seed planting<br />
    • 45. Mulch Considerations<br />Plastic mulch<br />Purchase<br />disposal <br />irrigation<br />Straw mulch<br />weed seeds<br />irrigation<br />nitrogen<br />
    • 46. Coping with Perennial Weeds<br />Morning glory, quack grass, creeping buttercup, bent grass with rhizomes<br />
    • 47. Cover Crops<br />
    • 48. Are Your Veggies Sick?<br />Photo: Lindsay DuToit<br />
    • 49. Most Plant Problems<br />Caused by non-living factors<br />Poor growing conditions<br />Temperature extremes<br />Poor water management<br />Soil compaction<br />Mechanical injury<br />Abiotic factors also make plants susceptible to pests / diseases.<br />
    • 50. Non-Living (Abiotic) Causes<br />Weather: heat, cold, wind, water<br />Mechanical damage<br />Nutrient deficiencies or toxicities<br />Toxins: pesticides, soil or air pollutants<br />From http://www.pioneer.co.nz/<br />
    • 51. Hail on my Kale<br />
    • 52. Extreme Deformities (B)<br />Back to Basics: http://www.back-to-basics.net/nds/index.htm#<br />
    • 53. http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/M1190.html<br />
    • 54. Living (Biotic) Causes<br />Vertebrate pests<br />Insects &amp; mites<br />Nematodes<br />Fungi<br />Bacteria<br />Viruses<br />
    • 55. Your Thinking Process<br />Understand problem (research!)<br /> Form tentative diagnosis (confirm)<br />Identify management options<br />Implement management practice<br />Monitor effects <br />Record observations<br />
    • 56. PATTERNS OF <br />DAMAGE<br />In the field and on the leaf<br />Damage that spreads is from a living cause, however, nutrient deficiency symptoms can worsen over time<br />Uniform <br />=&gt; Nonliving<br />Nonuniform <br />=&gt; Living<br />
    • 57. Diagnosing Plant Problems<br />Symptom<br />Change in the plant, ie. yellowing, holes in leaves, wilting, dead tissue, etc.<br />Sign<br />The organism that’s causing the damage, ie. insect, mold, frass, etc.<br />
    • 58. Tomato- Abiotic<br />Blossom-end rot<br /><ul><li>Ca deficiency in fruit
    • 59. Ensure adequate moisture especially on small fruit
    • 60. Check soil Ca level amend with lime in fall</li></ul>Sunscald<br />
    • 61. Damping Off Disease<br /><ul><li>Soil temperatures too cold
    • 62. Use sterile potting supplies
    • 63. Buy disease resistant seeds
    • 64. Wait!</li></li></ul><li>Slugs ‘N Snails<br />Gray field slug<br />Spotted garden slug<br />Reticulated Slug<br />Brown Garden Snail<br />
    • 65. Slugs n’ Snails<br />What do they need to live?<br />Encourage predators<br />Birds, snakes, <br />ground beetles<br />Eliminate habitat<br />Beer and board traps<br />Chemical (baits)<br />Iron phosphate<br />metaldahyde<br />
    • 66. Scissors<br />
    • 67. Vertebrates<br />Song Birds<br />Violet-green swallow<br />
    • 68. Common Garter Snake<br />                                     © David Rosen<br />Toad<br />Pacific Chorus Frog © David Rosen<br />
    • 69. Domestic Ducks<br />
    • 70. Trapping Slugs and Snails<br />
    • 71. Slugs- Chemical Control<br />(O) Iron phosphate (slower acting)<br />Metaldehyde (danger)<br />Toxic to pets<br />
    • 72. Copper Strips?<br />
    • 73. Diatomaceous Earth<br />For Slugs ‘n snails<br />Repeat applications<br />Effective?<br />
    • 74. Aphids<br />Signs and Symptoms?<br />
    • 75. Case Study- Aphids<br />Cabbage aphids<br />Monitor plants<br />Identify pest and life cycle<br />Multiple generations/ year,<br />Parthenogenic<br />Honeydew and sooty mold<br />
    • 76. Acceptable Injury Level<br />For gardeners, <br />tolerence will differ between individuals.<br />
    • 77. Aphids<br />Beans, cabbage, artichoke<br />Cultural<br />Avoid excess N<br />Physical<br />Washing w/ water<br />Biological<br />Attract beneficials (plan!)<br />Release beneficials?<br />Chemical<br />Neem, insecticidal soap (O)<br />Endosulfan, malathion<br />
    • 78. Flea Beetle<br />
    • 79. Crop Damage:<br />Severe in hot, dry weather<br />Young plants susceptible<br />after 6-8 leaves plants compensate for damage<br />Larvae may damage root brassicas<br />Broccoli, cabbage, etc.<br />
    • 80. Flea beetles - Biology and life history <br />Most flea beetle species have similar life cycles.<br />Adults overwinter in trash around field margins. <br />They become active in late March through May. <br />Flea beetles lay their very small eggs in May in the soil around the plant, on the leaves, or in cavities hollowed out in stems. <br />The larvae feed on the foliage, mine the leaves, or attack the roots, depending on the species, <br />usually from June to mid-July, when pupation in the soil occurs. Next generation of Adults emerge from July through early September and feed a short time before overwintering in trash around field margins. <br />Depending on the species, there are one or two generations each year. <br />Courtesy of Dave Muehleisen WSU<br />
    • 81. Flea Beetle Control<br />Cultural Physical<br />Waxy leaved varieties more tolerant<br />Delayed seeding<br />Use transplants and rowcovers<br />Trap crops<br />Biological<br />nematodes (larvae only)<br />soil must be warmer than 53°F<br />Chemical- all broad spectrum<br />pyrethrins (O)<br />malathion<br />carbaryl<br />esfenvalerate<br />
    • 82. Leaf Miners<br />
    • 83. Beet Leaf Miner<br />Cultural<br />Control weeds- Lamb’s quarters<br />Destroy infected material<br />Crop rotation- Pupa over winter in soil<br />Row covers during April and May<br />Biological- attract natural enemies<br />Chemical- <br />(O) rotenone (mix with pyrethrins)<br />(O) spinosid<br />Neither if grown for greens<br />
    • 84. Row cover<br />(Cornell University)<br />
    • 85. Principles of IPM<br />Prevention<br />Monitor the plants<br />Identify the pest organism <br />learn life cycle<br />Establish an acceptable injury level<br />Manage the situation<br />Cultural<br />Physical<br />Biological<br />Chemical (organic and synthesized)<br />Evaluation<br />
    • 86. Review of Presentation<br />IPM Process<br />IPM Case Studies<br />Physical Means<br />Conservation Biological Approach<br />Some Products <br />

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