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Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Vegetablesby Weston Miller Weston Miller
Preview of Presentation IPM Process Weed Management IPM Case Studies
Integrated Pest Management A strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and non-target organisms. Decision-making process that uses regular monitoring to decide if and when treatments are needed to control a pest, then uses a variety of tactics to keep pest numbers low.
OSU’s IPM Mission Encourage sustainable gardening Identify and monitor before acting. Consider management options Cultural (healthy plants; sanitation) Physical(hand picking) Biological (Bt) Chemical controls (organic or synthetic). Consider least toxic first!
Some Considerations Value of plant ($ and personal) Time constraints Cost of treatment Toxicity of available controls Personal gardening philosophy
Management Principles of IPM Prevention Monitor the plants Identify the pest organism learn life cycle Establish an acceptable injury level Manage the situation Cultural Physical Biological Chemical Record and Evaluate
Don’t let invasives go to seed! Many weeds produce 1000 - 25,000 seeds/plant Some produce 100,000 or more (pigweed) Half-life of many common weeds is 2-8 years http://njaes.rutgers.edu/images/photos/weeds/large/commonpigweed-full.jpg
Don’t bring in new weeds Avoid bringing new weeds to the garden in horse manure, compost, or straw Horse Manure must be hot composted. Request records.
Mechanical Weeding Use comfortable tools Be diligent Kill weeds when young (2-3 true leaves) More effective when warm, dry, and windy Control weeds early in crop growth – when they can compete most with crops
Stale Seedbed Method Plough or spade Prepare seedbed Irrigation or rain then wait 1-2 weeks Light cultivation (or otherwise kill weeds) Repeat if possible Plant or sow seed Good for July seed planting
Most Plant Problems Caused by non-living factors Poor growing conditions Temperature extremes Poor water management Soil compaction Mechanical injury Abiotic factors also make plants susceptible to pests / diseases.
Non-Living (Abiotic) Causes Weather: heat, cold, wind, water Mechanical damage Nutrient deficiencies or toxicities Toxins: pesticides, soil or air pollutants From http://www.pioneer.co.nz/
Crop Damage: Severe in hot, dry weather Young plants susceptible after 6-8 leaves plants compensate for damage Larvae may damage root brassicas Broccoli, cabbage, etc.
Flea beetles - Biology and life history Most flea beetle species have similar life cycles. Adults overwinter in trash around field margins. They become active in late March through May. Flea beetles lay their very small eggs in May in the soil around the plant, on the leaves, or in cavities hollowed out in stems. The larvae feed on the foliage, mine the leaves, or attack the roots, depending on the species, usually from June to mid-July, when pupation in the soil occurs. Next generation of Adults emerge from July through early September and feed a short time before overwintering in trash around field margins. Depending on the species, there are one or two generations each year. Courtesy of Dave Muehleisen WSU
Flea Beetle Control Cultural Physical Waxy leaved varieties more tolerant Delayed seeding Use transplants and rowcovers Trap crops Biological nematodes (larvae only) soil must be warmer than 53°F Chemical- all broad spectrum pyrethrins (O) malathion carbaryl esfenvalerate
Beet Leaf Miner Cultural Control weeds- Lamb’s quarters Destroy infected material Crop rotation- Pupa over winter in soil Row covers during April and May Biological- attract natural enemies Chemical- (O) rotenone (mix with pyrethrins) (O) spinosid Neither if grown for greens
Principles of IPM Prevention Monitor the plants Identify the pest organism learn life cycle Establish an acceptable injury level Manage the situation Cultural Physical Biological Chemical (organic and synthesized) Evaluation
Review of Presentation IPM Process IPM Case Studies Physical Means Conservation Biological Approach Some Products