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Veggie IPM


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What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM) …

What is Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Case Studies in IPM
Pest/disease Management

Published in: Self Improvement

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    • 1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Vegetablesby Weston Miller
      Weston Miller
    • 2. Preview of Presentation
      IPM Process
      Weed Management
      IPM Case Studies
    • 3. Integrated Pest Management
      A strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and non-target organisms.
      Decision-making process that uses regular monitoring to decide if and when treatments are needed to control a pest, then uses a variety of tactics to keep pest numbers low.
    • 4. OSU’s IPM Mission
      Encourage sustainable gardening
      Identify and monitor before acting.
      Consider management options
      Cultural (healthy plants; sanitation)
      Physical(hand picking)
      Biological (Bt)
      Chemical controls
      (organic or synthetic).
      Consider least toxic first!
    • 5. Some Considerations
      Value of plant ($ and personal)
      Time constraints
      Cost of treatment
      Toxicity of available controls
      Personal gardening philosophy
    • 6. Management Principles of IPM
      Monitor the plants
      Identify the pest organism
      learn life cycle
      Establish an acceptable injury level
      Manage the situation
      Record and Evaluate
    • 7. Cultural Control Methods
      Grow healthy plants!
    • 8. Prevention
      Take care of soil
      Right plant, right place
      Choose adapted crops and varieties
      Resistant varieties
    • 9. Prevention
      Avoid over watering or under watering veggies.
      Plan a watering schedule
      Irrigate in the morning
      Irrigate soil, not plants
      Provide air flow.
    • 10. Attract Natural Enemies
    • 11. Plant Many Companions
    • 12. Plant to Attract Beneficials
      Mint family
      Broccoli family
      Carrot family
      Sunflower family
    • 13. Physical Control Methods
      Are you willing to squash aphids?
    • 14. Handpicking
      Squash ‘em or put in soapy water
    • 15. Row cover
      (Cornell University)
    • 16. Water Jet
      Spider mites
      Spider mites
    • 17. Biological and Chemical Control Methods
      For treatments that you buy:
      Look for targeted treatments instead of wide spectrum treatments
      Make sure crop and pest is listed on label
    • 18. Biological Control Methods
      Bacillus thuringiensis or Bt
    • 19. B.t. kurstaki and caterpillars
    • 20. B.t. israelensis and fungus gnats
    • 21. B.t. san diego and elm leaf beetle
    • 22. B.t. israelensis and mosquitos
    • 23. Beauvaria bassiana
    • 24. Spinosad
    • 25. Chemical Methods of Insect Control: Botanicals
      Derived from botanical sources
      Biodegrade rapidly
      Widely varying levels of toxicity
    • 28. Botanical insecticide: Neem
      From seeds of the neem tree
      Broad spectrum against many pests
      Must be ingested to be toxic
      Low mammalian toxicity
      May require repeat applications
    • 29. With all purchased control products, please, please:
      • Buy only what you need
      • 30. Read the product label
      • 31. Understand the instructions
      • 32. Follow safety precautions
      • 33. Use common sense
      • 34. Properly dispose of container
    • Weed Management
      Consistent weed control over five years or so can dramatically reduce the weed seed bank and the time needed to control weeds.
    • 35. No Weed Solution
    • 36. Weed Control
      Many weeds are edible
      Dandelion, pigweed, purslane, chickweed, cress, mustard, lambs-quarters
      Sun choke
    • 37. Weed Control
      Habitat for beneficials and pollinators
      Parsley, aster, broccoli families
      Let several plants flower and not seed
    • 38. Fodder for Compost
    • 39. Don’t let invasives go to seed!
      Many weeds produce 1000 - 25,000 seeds/plant
      Some produce 100,000 or more (pigweed)
      Half-life of many common weeds is 2-8 years
    • 40. Don’t bring in new weeds
      Avoid bringing new weeds to the garden in horse manure, compost, or straw
      Horse Manure must be hot composted. Request records.
    • 41. Mechanical Weeding
      Use comfortable tools
      Be diligent
      Kill weeds when young (2-3 true leaves)
      More effective when warm, dry, and windy
      Control weeds early in crop growth –
      when they can compete most with crops
    • 42. Mulching and Close spacing
    • 43. Transplants Get a Head Start
    • 44. Stale Seedbed Method
      Plough or spade
      Prepare seedbed
      Irrigation or rain then wait 1-2 weeks
      Light cultivation (or otherwise kill weeds)
      Repeat if possible
      Plant or sow seed
      Good for July seed planting
    • 45. Mulch Considerations
      Plastic mulch
      Straw mulch
      weed seeds
    • 46. Coping with Perennial Weeds
      Morning glory, quack grass, creeping buttercup, bent grass with rhizomes
    • 47. Cover Crops
    • 48. Are Your Veggies Sick?
      Photo: Lindsay DuToit
    • 49. Most Plant Problems
      Caused by non-living factors
      Poor growing conditions
      Temperature extremes
      Poor water management
      Soil compaction
      Mechanical injury
      Abiotic factors also make plants susceptible to pests / diseases.
    • 50. Non-Living (Abiotic) Causes
      Weather: heat, cold, wind, water
      Mechanical damage
      Nutrient deficiencies or toxicities
      Toxins: pesticides, soil or air pollutants
    • 51. Hail on my Kale
    • 52. Extreme Deformities (B)
      Back to Basics:
    • 53.
    • 54. Living (Biotic) Causes
      Vertebrate pests
      Insects & mites
    • 55. Your Thinking Process
      Understand problem (research!)
      Form tentative diagnosis (confirm)
      Identify management options
      Implement management practice
      Monitor effects
      Record observations
    • 56. PATTERNS OF
      In the field and on the leaf
      Damage that spreads is from a living cause, however, nutrient deficiency symptoms can worsen over time
      => Nonliving
      => Living
    • 57. Diagnosing Plant Problems
      Change in the plant, ie. yellowing, holes in leaves, wilting, dead tissue, etc.
      The organism that’s causing the damage, ie. insect, mold, frass, etc.
    • 58. Tomato- Abiotic
      Blossom-end rot
      • Ca deficiency in fruit
      • 59. Ensure adequate moisture especially on small fruit
      • 60. Check soil Ca level amend with lime in fall
    • 61. Damping Off Disease
      • Soil temperatures too cold
      • 62. Use sterile potting supplies
      • 63. Buy disease resistant seeds
      • 64. Wait!
    • Slugs ‘N Snails
      Gray field slug
      Spotted garden slug
      Reticulated Slug
      Brown Garden Snail
    • 65. Slugs n’ Snails
      What do they need to live?
      Encourage predators
      Birds, snakes,
      ground beetles
      Eliminate habitat
      Beer and board traps
      Chemical (baits)
      Iron phosphate
    • 66. Scissors
    • 67. Vertebrates
      Song Birds
      Violet-green swallow
    • 68. Common Garter Snake
                                           © David Rosen
      Pacific Chorus Frog © David Rosen
    • 69. Domestic Ducks
    • 70. Trapping Slugs and Snails
    • 71. Slugs- Chemical Control
      (O) Iron phosphate (slower acting)
      Metaldehyde (danger)
      Toxic to pets
    • 72. Copper Strips?
    • 73. Diatomaceous Earth
      For Slugs ‘n snails
      Repeat applications
    • 74. Aphids
      Signs and Symptoms?
    • 75. Case Study- Aphids
      Cabbage aphids
      Monitor plants
      Identify pest and life cycle
      Multiple generations/ year,
      Honeydew and sooty mold
    • 76. Acceptable Injury Level
      For gardeners,
      tolerence will differ between individuals.
    • 77. Aphids
      Beans, cabbage, artichoke
      Avoid excess N
      Washing w/ water
      Attract beneficials (plan!)
      Release beneficials?
      Neem, insecticidal soap (O)
      Endosulfan, malathion
    • 78. Flea Beetle
    • 79. Crop Damage:
      Severe in hot, dry weather
      Young plants susceptible
      after 6-8 leaves plants compensate for damage
      Larvae may damage root brassicas
      Broccoli, cabbage, etc.
    • 80. Flea beetles - Biology and life history
      Most flea beetle species have similar life cycles.
      Adults overwinter in trash around field margins.
      They become active in late March through May.
      Flea beetles lay their very small eggs in May in the soil around the plant, on the leaves, or in cavities hollowed out in stems.
      The larvae feed on the foliage, mine the leaves, or attack the roots, depending on the species,
      usually from June to mid-July, when pupation in the soil occurs. Next generation of Adults emerge from July through early September and feed a short time before overwintering in trash around field margins.
      Depending on the species, there are one or two generations each year.
      Courtesy of Dave Muehleisen WSU
    • 81. Flea Beetle Control
      Cultural Physical
      Waxy leaved varieties more tolerant
      Delayed seeding
      Use transplants and rowcovers
      Trap crops
      nematodes (larvae only)
      soil must be warmer than 53°F
      Chemical- all broad spectrum
      pyrethrins (O)
    • 82. Leaf Miners
    • 83. Beet Leaf Miner
      Control weeds- Lamb’s quarters
      Destroy infected material
      Crop rotation- Pupa over winter in soil
      Row covers during April and May
      Biological- attract natural enemies
      (O) rotenone (mix with pyrethrins)
      (O) spinosid
      Neither if grown for greens
    • 84. Row cover
      (Cornell University)
    • 85. Principles of IPM
      Monitor the plants
      Identify the pest organism
      learn life cycle
      Establish an acceptable injury level
      Manage the situation
      Chemical (organic and synthesized)
    • 86. Review of Presentation
      IPM Process
      IPM Case Studies
      Physical Means
      Conservation Biological Approach
      Some Products