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  • 1. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Chapter 8 Socializing, Orienting, and Developing Employees Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Ninth Edition DeCenzo and Robbins
  • 2. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Introduction  Socialization, training and development are all used to help new employees adapt to their new organizations and become fully productive.  Ideally, employees will understand and accept the behaviors desired by the organization, and will be able to attain their own goals by exhibiting these behaviors.
  • 3. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins` The Insider-Outsider Passage  Socialization  A process of adaptation to a new work role.  Adjustments must be made whenever individuals change jobs  The most profound adjustment occurs when an individual first enters an organization.
  • 4. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Insider-Outsider Passage The assumptions of employee socialization:  Socialization strongly influences employee performance and organizational stability  Provides information on how to do the job and ensuring organizational fit.  New members suffer from anxiety, which motivates them to learn the values and norms of the organization.
  • 5. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Insider-Outsider Passage The assumptions of employee socialization:  Socialization is influenced by subtle and less subtle statements and behaviors exhibited by colleagues, management, employees, clients and others.  Individuals adjust to new situations in remarkably similar ways.  All new employees go through a settling-in period.
  • 6. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Insider-Outsider Passage The Socialization Process  Prearrival stage: Individuals arrive with a set of values, attitudes and expectations which they have developed from previous experience and the selection process.
  • 7. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Insider-Outsider Passage  The Socialization Process  Encounter stage: Individuals discover how well their expectations match realities within the organization.  Where differences exist, socialization occurs to imbue the employee with the organization’s standards.
  • 8. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Insider-Outsider Passage The Socialization Process  Metamorphosis stage: Individuals have adapted to the organization, feel accepted and know what is expected of them.
  • 9. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Insider-Outsider Passage A Socialization Process
  • 10. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation  Orientation may be done by the supervisor, the HRM staff or some combination.  Formal or informal, depending on the size of the organization.  Covers such things as:  The organization’s objectives  History  Philosophy  Procedures  Rules  HRM policies and benefits  Fellow employees
  • 11. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation  Learning the Organization’s Culture  Culture includes long-standing, often unwritten rules about what is appropriate behavior.  Socialized employees know how things are done, what matters, and which behaviors and perspectives are acceptable.
  • 12. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation The CEO’s Role in Orientation  Senior management are often visible during the new employee orientation process.  CEOs can:  Welcome employees.  Provide a vision for the company.  Introduce company culture -- what matters.  Convey that the company cares about employees.  Allay some new employee anxieties and help them to feel good about their job choice.
  • 13. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins The Purpose of New-Employee Orientation HRM’s Role in Orientation  Coordinating Role: HRM instructs new employees when and where to report; provides information about benefits choices.  Participant Role: HRM offers its assistance for future employee needs (career guidance, training, etc.).
  • 14. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Training Definitions  Employee training a learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job.  Employee development future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employee.
  • 15. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Training Determining training needs  Specific training goals should be based on:  organization’s needs  type of work to be done  skills necessary to complete the work  Indicators of need for more training:  drops in productivity  increased rejects  inadequate job performance  rise in the number of accidents
  • 16. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Training  Determining training needs  The value added by training must be considered versus the cost.  Training goals should be established that are tangible, verifiable, timely, and measurable.
  • 17. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Training Determining Training Needs
  • 18. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Training  On-the-job training methods  Job Rotation  Understudy Assignments  Off-the-job training methods  Classroom lectures  Films and videos  Simulation exercises  Vestibule training
  • 19. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Development  This future-oriented set of activities is predominantly an educational process.  All employees, regardless of level, can benefit from the methods previously used to develop managerial personnel.
  • 20. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Development Employee development methods  Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities.  Assistant-to positions allow employees with potential to work under and be coached by successful managers.
  • 21. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Development Employee development methods  Committee assignments provide opportunities for:  decision-making  learning by watching others  becoming more familiar with organizational members and problems  Lecture courses and seminars benefit from today’s technology and are often offered in a distance learning format.
  • 22. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Employee Development Employee development methods  Simulations include case studies, decision games and role plays and are intended to improve decision-making.  Outdoor training typically involves challenges which teach trainees the importance of teamwork.
  • 23. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development  What is change?  OD efforts support changes that are usually made in four areas:  The organization’s systems  Technology  Processes  People
  • 24. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development  Two metaphors clarify the change process.  The calm waters metaphor describes unfreezing the status quo, change to a new state, and refreezing to ensure that the change is permanent.  The white-water rapids metaphor recognizes today’s business environment which is less stable and not as predictable.
  • 25. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development OD Methods  Organizational development facilitates long- term organization-wide changes.  OD techniques include:  survey feedback  process consultation  team building  intergroup development
  • 26. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development  Survey feedback assesses organizational members’ perceptions and attitudes.  The summarized data are used to identify problems and clarify issues so that commitments to action can be made.
  • 27. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development  Process consultation uses outside consultants to help organizational members perceive, understand, and act upon process events.
  • 28. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development  Team building may include:  goal setting  development of interpersonal relationships  clarification of roles  team process analysis  Team building attempts to increase trust, openness, and team functioning.
  • 29. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Organization Development The Learning Organization  Values continued learning and believes a competitive advantage can be gained from it.  Characterized by:  capacity to continuously adapt  employees continually acquire and share new knowledge  collaboration across functional specialties  teams are an important feature
  • 30. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness Evaluating Training Programs:  Typically, employee and manager opinions are used,  These opinions or reactions are not necessarily valid measures  Influenced by things like difficulty, entertainment value or personality of the instructor.  Performance-based measures (benefits gained) are better indicators of training’s cost-effectiveness.
  • 31. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness Performance-Based Evaluation Measures  Post-training performance method. Employees’ on-the-job performance is assessed after training.  Pre-post-training performance method . Employee’s job performance is assessed both before and after training, to determine whether a change has taken place.
  • 32. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins Evaluating Training and Development Effectiveness Performance-Based Evaluation Measures  Pre-post-training performance with control group method.  Compares the pre-post-training results of the trained group with the concurrent job performance of a control group, which does not undergo instruction.  Used to control for factors other than training which may affect job performance.
  • 33. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins International Training and Development Issues Cross-Cultural Training  Necessary for expatriate managers and their families:  before assignments (to learn language and culture)  during, and after foreign assignments (to adjust to changes back home).
  • 34. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins International Training and Development Issues  Cross-cultural training is more than language training  Involves learning about the culture’s:  History  Politics  Economy  Religion  Social climate  Business practices  May involve role playing, simulations and immersion in the culture.
  • 35. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 9e, DeCenzo and Robbins International Training and Development Issues Development  Often, organizations do not do a good job of planning for the return of overseas managers.  Leads to the managers’ being frustrated  Returning expatriates can:  be assigned a domestic position  prepare for a new overseas assignment  retire or be terminated

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