"Gender Differences Relating to Hyperstar Promotion, Convenience, low price and other Characteristics"
Page | 1BBA Final ProjectPRO-301Project Report"Gender Differences Relating to Hyperstar Promotion,Convenience, low price and other Characteristics"Submitted ToThe Institute of Management & SciencesSubmission Date13thNovember, 2012Muhammad Tayyab 083316Mohsin Jamil 083320Ahsan Javed 083362
Page | 2AcknowledgementWe are thankful to Almighty ALLAH the most merciful the most beneficent who gave us thestrength to complete our thesis report and overcome the hurdles that we faced in it.We would like to thank our Mentor Mr.Shazif Iqbal who encouraged, assisted and helped us tocomplete our report on time. We would like to thanks our Parents who supported us financiallyand morally both and fellows who were always there to support us with their magnificentknowledge whenever we needed it.Lastly, I would like to pay special thanks to all of those who helped us directly or indirectlywhich include Hyperstar Management also for finalizing this report and believe in us.
Page | 3Table of Contents(1.0)Abstract 4(2.0)Introduction 6(2.1)Scope & Purpose 8(2.2)Hypothesis & Variables 8(2.3)What Hyperstar Do & How 9(3.0)Literature Review 13(4.0)The Methodology 46(4.0.1)Nature & Research 47(4.0.2)Target Population 47(4.0.3)Data Sources 47(4.0.4)Research Approach 47(4.0.5)Sample Size & Sampling Procedure 47(4.0.6)Data Collection Method 48(4.0.7)Research Instrument 48(4.0.8)SPSS Data Analysis 48(5.0)Limitations 61(6.0)Conclusions 63(7.0)References 65Appendix - I (Questionnaire) 67Appendix – II (Pie Charts) 70
Page | 4AbstractWe are focusing on super store characteristics which are importantly perceived by the genders.This research study concept is taken from the base article “Supermarket consumers and genderdifference relating to their perceived importance levels of store characteristics” by Mortimer,Gary & Clarke and Peter to work on the basis of gender perception difference in super store. Thespecific store is Hyperstar on which research is conducted and the result shows female love toshop and they want efficient operator, Bi-weekly promotion and discount while the men spendsless time on shopping and they need convenience factor more like easy access to car park andlocation. Sample size of 280 respondents is taken and conducted in the environment of Hyperstarthrough administer questionnaires. This research has used 16 journals for the ground work tosupport its results.
Page | 6(2.0) Introduction:Retail industry in Pakistan has gained much awareness after the entrance of these megastoresbefore this it was ran by traditionally owned retailers which were not much educated. Superstore, departmental stores and utility stores or discount stores concept was unheard till theindependence of Pakistan. Canteen store department CSD and utility stores were considered tobe the Mini supermarkets. Today retail stores accounts a good no for the economy of Pakistanand retailers are working on their best. Today retail store industry is highly competitive becausethe real supermarkets and departmental stores came into existence and giving a good competitionto each other. Retailers are quiet worried about the changing trends quickly because they need tomatch and compete the strategies developed by other retailers.This research is conducted on a super store to distinguish the gender perceived importance oflevel while he/she shops. In Pakistan currently only four super stores are working in Pakistan inwhich few does not completes the definition of a super store so they are considered to be minisuper markets they are as follow: Hyperstar Best way CSD Utility store Metro cash n carry MakroThe research is conducted in the territory of cantonment board Lahore where Hyperstar issituated. Hyperstar belongs to the Carrefour group based in Germany but in Pakistan it iscurrently ran by the Majid-Al-Futtaim-Retail belonging to a gulf country .It established in 2009and more than 100000 products are available under one roof. Basic motive was to provideconsumers convenience, leisure, cleanliness and competitive prices which they can‟t find lessthan one roof this is one of the major reason that today Hyperstar is the most active supermarketin Lahore.Genders differ in their choices and their like and dislikes but do genders differ in their
Page | 7perception while they are doing shopping if so what are the characteristics that differentiatethem. This has become an important question for a researcher today. Gender differs in storecharacteristics and those characteristics which we found through our research are as follows:Female Females like to shop but they want friendly operators who could help themwhile shopping as in Hyperstar. Female enjoys shopping and they want promotional items more Pakistani females are price sensitive so they need discounted prices Packaged and hygienic food is also the priority for the family health carMale Males are not fond of shopping they need „‟convenience‟‟ They buy products which are easy accessible They buy things where parking is easily available like HyperstarToday gender is one of the key factors for a retailer because a new emergent male group isstressing the nerves of retailers to do something for them or make strategies for them. Ouracademic research is purely relied upon the gender to see what genders prefer while they are atsuperstore like Hyperstar. Result of this study is proposed in the coming pages and we tried ourlevel best to explore this study to help future researchers.Sample size of 280 administer questions helped us to fill the questionnaires while we roamaround the Hyperstar asking questions from every upcoming person or going out from Hyperstar.Result is evaluated through the SPSS which played major role in terms of figures.
Page | 8(2.1) Scope of the research‘’Hyperstar consumers male & female targeted from the age of 18to 48 and theirdifferences relating to perceived importance levels of store characteristics’’(2.1.1) Purpose of the studyThe basic purpose of the study is to find the gender difference relating to Hyperstarcharacteristics (Cleanliness, Promotion, Discount, low price) and which of these characteristics ismore important in the perception of genders. We conducted this research in Hyperstar throughadminister questionnaire and filled 280 questionnaires and came to know that gender differs intheir perception while they shop at Hyperstar .Few variables on which we focused and took outfrom the ground article were Promotion and discounts, Product availability, Advertised specials,Competitive prices, Cleanliness and hygienic food and convenience and location factor.Furthermore through this research we came to knew about Pakistani consumers how they behavein a particular way while shopping and what could be the strategies that a retailer needed to focuson.(2.2) Research hypothesis"Hyperstar Characteristics (promotion, Convenience, Cleanliness, Product availability) relatingto gender differences and their perceived importance of level”(2.2.1) Dependent variable Gender(2.2.2) Independent Variable Bi-Weekly promotion Trained staff Easy access to car park Well stocked shelves Convenient location
Page | 9 Healthy fresh food Competitive price(2.3) What Hyperstar Do and how?Hyperstar the only mega superstore in Lahore with wonderful shopping characteristics runningthroughout the year for consumer and giving lasting experience while we conducted research onHyperstar some of the interesting things were known to us and we constructed them as ourvariables too. Promotion, Staffing of serviced departments, Advertised special promotions,Efficient & accurate operations, Easy access to car park, Convenient location, Productavailability, Cleanliness ,High quality fresh food with stable low prices are some of the importantvariables we considered for our research and applied on the Hyperstar that how they work andhow they satisfy genders on these characteristics. In depth detail is as follows:(2.3.1) Promotion &Specials Bi-weekly promotion (10%): In store after every 15 days the promotion gondolachanges on various products these days the promotion is put with minimum 10 %discount on more than 2000 grocery products. Special gift cards: it runs for whole year you can buy that gift card for worth 1000rupees and you can give to your loved ones very few people are familiar with thisopportunity you can easily find it on cash counters. Occasional specials: Products which are specially promoted on occasion for e.g. on Eidand Christmas cakes and clothes are discounted with special offer another e.g. could bevalentine day on which Chocolates are on promotion with advertised leaflets.(2.3.2) Staffing of serviced departments No waiting: This characteristic is primarily concerned with the staff standing near aisleswe can say the sales person they are hired on every concerned aisles and gondola so thatcustomer needs not to wait for any query.
Page | 10 Served quickly: what customers say it is done by the sales person. For e.g. if a customerwants to know the size of the desired shirt salesperson will guide him. Trained staff: Each and every single person of department knows what he has to do.(2.3.3) Advertised special promotions Specials I want: Specials which customer thinks before coming to the store and he/shegets that desired thing because vast variety of branded and non-branded products isavailable. For e.g. A customer thinks to buy a HP laptop from their and he/she gets it. Product of the day: Validity for five days but items vary for e.g. product of the day onMonday are meat, Vegetables or mazes etc.(2.3.4) Efficient & accurate operations (Relating cash counters) Friendly operators: Most of the Hyperstar cash counter operators are friendly as pertraining consumers perception also differs. Efficient operator: Yes they doing their work efficiently Accurate operators: Cashier takes special care of while taking and receiving cash(2.3.5) Easy Access: Easy access to car parks: enough cars & bike parking more than 800 cars can be parked. Easy parking: even for handicap people special parking is made on both the roofs. Parcel pick up area: after the payment is given it will be parceled to your home within 2days but this concept is quiet week in there.
Page | 11(2.3.6) Product availability Well stocked shelves: Yes on every shelf we can see the leaflet or the guidance whichreflects the organized shelf‟s of the store. On every aisle a salesperson is standing whichkeeps on organizing the products if they get scattered. Products I want: It‟s not possible the product which customer demanded is not thereeither the other brand is available or substitute of it .Products like fruits & vegetablesitems are seasonal if available in market.(2.3.7) Convenience & locality Easy to find: Fortress stadium is considered to be heart of Lahore so to find Hyperstar isnot a big deal. Easy to go: Not an issue Convenient location: Ideal and expensive place of Lahore(2.3.8) Cleanliness Hygienic practices: Yes every day for e.g. if the vegetable or fruit is rotten it is wastedand every day Cantonment Board vehicle comes to collect the waste. Cleanliness: After every hour floor is cleaned and store is up to date with cleanliness. Quality food handling: as mentioned above every day quality is checked either the fruitis rotten or clothes are not torn etc. Recently Hyperstar food is certified from HACCP.
Page | 12(2.3.9) High quality fresh food Healthy fresh food: Certification from HACCP do not let them compromise on qualityof food so it is fresh. Duration of Meats shelf life is three days and for confectionary isfour days live baking is done on the spot. Quality fresh food: Shelf life of food is less as compare to market so it is thrown awayafter 3 to 4 days if not sold which happens less.(2.3.10) Consistent stable low prices Competitive prices: from market Hyperstar prices are quiet less which are identified inpromotion also. Low, everyday prices: Due to heavy promotions and competitive edges.
Page | 14(3.0) Literature ReviewThis research is supported through 16 articles and journals and written briefly by our own self.The article consists of consumer behavior, Loyalty, Disloyalty, Satisfaction, Male emergentgroup, Neuro science, Bargaining, discount and Re-patronage these all have supported theresearch variables directly or indirectly. We didn‟t use any reference of author in the articles wedid citation in the end .The articles are as follows.Article # 1Supermarket consumers and gender difference relating to theirperceived importance levels of store characteristicsAuthors: Mortimer, Gary & Clarke, PeterSummary:The article by Mortimer, Gary & Clarke, and Peter is the key article of this research in which genderdifference relating to consumers perceived importance of characteristic in supermarket areresearched. This article identifies differences between male and female grocery shoppers, therebuying pattern, their attitudes and beliefs in retail context, and level of importance with specificstore characteristics and that specific store which is assigned is Hyperstar the mega retailsuperstore store in Lahore.The study takes place in the city of Australia (Brisbane) and they took equal sample of both maleand female and they also develop almost ten hypothesis based on the store characteristics withthe different level of importance for male and female. In article they believe that the traditionalmale roles no longer exists as clearly defined social barriers to families roles. The merging oftraditional family roles and the acceptance of the society believes that men are now undertaketraditional female roles such as grocery shopping because of the societal shift men now able toadopt more female traditional roles and grocery shopping is one of them.They have ten different hypothesis as mentioned above based on the store characteristics theyhave mention for e.g. Merchandise range, availability, quality, freshness, cleanliness, atmosphereother service features are staffing competence, friendliness, speed of check out services, easy
Page | 15parking, convenient location, low prices so in a nutshell "Four Ps" associated with the storecharacteristics. Then different factors which affect buying pattern like age, income, education,occupation and they believe that age can impact on enjoyment levels because younger menappear disengaged and are generally unhappy when shopping, older men are either bored ordisinterested.So keeping in view all the hypothesis and the factors affecting buying, store characteristics theresult demonstrate that male and female grocery shoppers considered important storecharacteristics differently and all but one of the ten hypothesis is proven Male shoppersconsidered Speed, Convenience & Efficiency to be the most important factors whereas incontrast to male, female shoppers considered pricing cleanliness and quality.As this research does not belong to Pakistan and our Pakistani society is female dominatedsociety where eighty five percent of shopping is done by our females. Males belong to workingclass while most women‟s are housewife as seen in our questionnaire also so female do shoppingand males earn money for it. Similar is the case in hyper star when we started asking questions tocustomers in Hyperstar we came to know 80-85percent of customer was female some housewifeand few working class which is shown in the end result. The basic reasoning for conducting thisresearch was to investigate the gender difference affecting the store characteristic and what aretheir perceptions about it. Some of the store characteristics which could affect or force consumerto perceive were: Bi-Weekly promotion Trained staff Easy access to car park Well stocked shelves Convenient location Healthy fresh food Competitive prices
Page | 16Article # 2Attitudes toward coupon use and bargain hunting: an examination ofdifferences by gender.Authors: Hill, C. Jeanne Harmon, Susan KSummary:Coupon and bargaining is one of the favorite tools of females while they are shopping. They loveto bargain and to use maximum amount of coupons and the preferred shopping places ofwomen‟s are either where they can get discount or the coupon in which they could get things or adiscount. When we talk about Pakistani women they are not far behind any other they wantdiscount and coupon in which anything free they can get. Why is it so because Pakistaniwomen‟s are price sensitive?Author continues that today male are more responsible for shopping they contribute moretowards the household‟s things. As the research is conducted in U.S so the author says 54% ofmale contribute towards their household chores whether they are singled, married or divorced.The attitude towards the shopping of males is increased from past and many studies have beenrevised and newly written on this new group of shoppers.In upcoming studies in gender male are more specified because retailers are working today onthis group. The main objective of this study is to find out the gender difference and their attitudetowards the coupon use and bargain are based on age or some other group like male. Whileshopping females enjoy which is inherently and males do not enjoy they just shop and the reasonthat is hypothesized in this article that males bargain due to power and success.Enjoyment while shopping in previous studies is discussed with a deep literature but in relationwith a coupon use what would be the enjoyment for both gender? Females: When a female gets a free coupon her level of enjoyment increases but thisenjoyment could be due to its family care she spent less and got more products. Male: For male level of enjoyment could be egoistic in terms of coupon use for himenjoyment might be that he challenged the system or earned a price advantage.
Page | 17This is the similar case of our research also which also predicts the same thing in use of coupon.Sample size of 535 university student taken in two way sample process and conducted on auniversity of USA. Twenty five statements were developed in which women more was inclinedthat they are engage more in coupon use and bargaining hunting.In the end different thoughts have been provoked in which the first one is that using coupons andbargaining process is an economic reward process and females are more price sensitive .Fewmales and females believes in U.S that coupons and bargaining is a embarrassing activity whichmight hurt your social status. Different age groups suggest different things in it which againproves gender and different groups in gender have different opinion .For e.g. 40+ people don‟tconsider it an embarrassing situation and older people enjoy doing shopping.Variations always occur some are happy some are not happy and convenient with this bargainingor coupon process. Companies are trying to reduce this coupon thing they wanted to replace itwith incentive or discount according to them it‟s not a healthy activity and more time consuming.In Hyperstar similar to a coupon a gift card of 1000 rupees is given which is mentioned in ourvariable but due to the less literacy rate of Pakistan people are not well familiar with it or theydon‟t know the benefit they can get. It‟s one of the best gift that you can give to any of yourfriend or family member prior to it after doing a shopping of 10000 rupees you can win a trolleywith products of 10000 rupees but only though lucky draw. The procedure is as follows:“Do shopping more than 10000 rupees and you will get a coupon fill it and put it in a luck boxAt the date of lucky draw you might be able win a trolley with products of amount 10000rupees’’People in Hyperstar are quiet happy with the discounts, promotion, coupon and gift card becausethis the only super store in Lahore which offer such kind of shopping characteristics runningthroughout the year. In our research we also figure out that females are more willing for thediscount in terms of bargain and coupons while men‟s are not that much interested in theactivities going around.
Page | 18Article # 3Why companies should make their customer happy the neural correlatescustomer loyaltyAuthors: Hilke Plassmann, Peter Kenning and Dieter AhlertSummary:Customer loyalty in one of the important factor that every superstore needs to focus on itpractically and as far as literature review is concerned also. In this article we study that howcustomer builds affective relationships with brand or companies. As we are working onsuperstore so we will go for supermarkets that how people build strong relationship with asuperstore .Different biological and neurological tests are applied on it relating to brain we cansay a hard and fast brain storming session study.Loyalty definition described by Oliver that if your customer is satisfied with your store he/shewill definitely come in future to repurchase. A study was design to check and investigate thedifference between loyal and disloyal customer of a departmental store which would beconverted to super store as per our study. Total 300 sample size of customer was taken from theclub card of the departmental store in which 9 were females and 13 were males after severalscreening process. Based on previous findings we came to know that the brands which were putin the store loyal customer decision was changed due to emotionally attachment with it for e.g.Puma etcA technical term named fMRI is used which is related to neuro science which stands forfunctional magnetic resonance imaging. fMRI is one of the lesser persistent method for studyingoxygenation levels of the brain the blood flow and used for brain mapping in it that at whatparticular time it will buy or do a emotional or rational buying. In implication of this study it isproven that the store should not only concentrate on their existing customer who comes only dueto promotion or any other technical things company or store should talk to their customerpersonally also and communicate with them on monthly basis. The end result describes loyalcustomers are loyal to store because due to some psychological drivers which might betechnology or any other thing.
Page | 19Pakistani customers are also loyal but most of the customers are emotionally attached with thebrand or the company as mentioned above that a person might come to store due to his or herfavorite brand which forces him to come again and again. In Hyperstar there are multiple localand Multinational brands which attract people to come for e.g. Puma, Muncherz noodles,Lorealetc so same is the case with Hyperstar also that people come to buy that they are gettingtheir favorite brands from there. Next comes the psychological driver which makes Hyperstarcustomer to be loyal due to its promotion, Cleanliness, easy access to car park and theadvertisement .Basic factor that the Hyperstar provides to its customer is convenience but thelevel of communication is very low and slow. Customer only comes and talk to the desiredperson only when he is not finding the thing but in this case also most of the customer hesitate totalk they either buy a substitute or they leave the product it happens mostly in the case ofwomen‟s so communication should be done with customer on regular basis. In Hyperstarwomen‟s seems to be quiet loyal than men‟s due to spending more time in store.Article # 4Shoppers’ satisfaction levels are not the only key to store loyaltyAuthors: Mario J.Miranda,Laszlo konya, InkaHavrilaSummary:The study conducted centralizing the grocery shoppers in order to discover the major factors thatinfluence satisfaction with their primary store and the factors that encourage them to keep onsupporting this store in spite of being presented with support to shop at another store. For studypurpose two models were estimated for research out of which one was predicting storesatisfaction while the other one was predicting the store loyalty when shoppers are presentedwith a special purchase opportunity in an alternative store.The research methodology is based on a structured questionnaire over a two-week period to adultgrocery shoppers across Melbourne, Australia, who exited retail stores of varying sizes excludingWoolworth, Safeway and Coles stores. The sample consists of 376 male and 558 female
Page | 20respondents and 558 of different occupations and average age of 45 years. Respondents werecarefully selected who regularly shop their groceries from the exited store. Many factors arerealized in this study that what makes consumer to be loyal with the store. There could be areason that consumers are loyal to the store because of continuous repurchase.This research is specifically written on that what are the important elements in retail firms likemarketing mix should be used to retain the customer. Study demonstrates that overall satisfactionwith a store did not influence customers to stay loyal to the store. The reason why a customerstays loyal to its current store is that they are influenced by many things regular buyer program,known staff and familiarity with shelf.This study limitation was household size, employment status, and education background andincome level of the sample respondents. The studies indicates that increased in income, assuredemployment, through greater education ability to process more information and slighter burdenin the family give the consumer get confidence to try some different stores that they may nothave visited before. Being a good income holder does not only work education plays a vital rolefor shopping.It‟s recommended after research study that it is self-evident that shoppers will be exposing tooffer from competing retailers. Depending on the nature of the offer and quality of stock presentat the other store, a range of customers will outlook the offer and some among them might evencome to a decision to change their permanent loyalty to competition that may lead to destructiveeffect on the retail firm‟s profitability. The inconsistency of this loss to the retail firm is thatthese escape customers may not have been dissatisfied with the service provide that were madeprior primary store but it‟s refer just that the store did not protect them adequately fromswitching to another! Whereas determined in this research study, there are the customers whofrequently resist the smart offers made by market competitors and stay loyal to their presentstore.Loyalty again after studying many articles is on the top priority .Store loyalty and storesatisfaction is also one of the significant parts that mega stores like Metro and hyperstar alwayskeep in their mind. Generally in Pakistan it is consider that when a customer is satisfied he/shewill be loyal to the store but this not always the case .In our study we found that few customers
Page | 21were not loyal to the store but to the brands that they were offering for e.g. Puma, Kenwood,Pioneer etc. Satisfaction is the major tool but things prove it should not be applied to the wholestore because the story sometimes gets different.Article # 5Consumer Shopping and Spending Across Retail FormatsAuthors: Edward J. Fox, Alan L. Montgomery, and Leonard M. LodishSummary:Grocery shopping being the key factor of this research because the household shoppers aremostly the grocery shoppers this study is a deep long study on the grocery shopping. In simplewords if we interpret the meaning that why the researcher is conducting the research is becausethe small retail stores which are specifically for grocery shopping are facing the serious threatfrom the big mega stores taking the e.g. of Wal-Mart which is a mass merchandiser and eaten upthe business of the small grocery merchandiser. For Pakistan we take the e.g. of Hyperstar whichis in retail context and more than plus 2000 grocery items are available in it eaten up the businessof grocery shoppers like best buy, HKB and etc. Researcher conducted a deep long experientialstudy of household shopping and packaged foods (Gaining awareness in Pakistan also e.g. K &Ns) speeded across retail formats and the formats are: Grocery Stores :In Pakistani context the stores could be best buy, Bismillah store etc Mass Merchandiser: e.g. Wal-Mart and in Pakistan Hyperstar, CSD Drug stores: Drug stores are the medical stores which in Pakistan are mostly know aspharmacy shops e.g. Servaid, Noble, Zainab etc.The basic reason to conduct this research is to find the difference between this retail formats andwhat are the effects on shopping behavior of the consumer and how does he/she spends moneywhen the retailer has explored: Assortment: How well the retailer or mass merchandiser has assorted the products and isconsumer happy with the small grocery shopper or with Mass Merchandise. In our
Page | 22research we consider a variable named well stock shelf that are customers happy with thewell-organized or assorted shelf‟s in Hyperstar and the maximum response was quietsatisfied and some other told that in local grocery shopper store products are not thatmuch assorted as they should be. Satisfaction level of women for Hyperstar is more ascompared to men. Pricing: Mass merchandiser have good offered price or the grocery retailers or thepackaged foods that are available with drug store has the more effective pricing. Weconsider variables named “Everyday low prices” which is the reflection of this shoppingformat. Promotional Policies: Which store has the highest promotional polices in this the highestvoting is with Mass merchandiser as they have more than 2000 products to offer theypromote items on larger scale and customer becomes happy with the time beingdiscount. In our study Hyperstar customer heavily focus on promotional items becauseit‟s the only store in the city which offers promotion throughout the year on groceryitems. Household demographics: Are female married or unmarried? Aged or not? Income andoccupation etc. We also considered it an important part of our research and we askedconsumers Sex, Age, occupation, Marital status.This research is made possible by a new panel dataset collected by Information Resources Incand estimated consumer decisions through a hierarchical multivariate tobit model thatWhere consumer like to shop&How much to spend or buyThis study is concluded upon that retailer marketing mix has more variation in shoppingbehavior than the consumers travel time and in expenditure more variation is assorted products
Page | 23rather than price and promotion .In drug store consumer is more concerned about the travel timesbecause it is related to convenience just get the product as fast as you could.In Pakistan there is no such pharmacy which provides packaged food or the grocery there onlythe Mass merchandiser got the drug store in it. Shoppers who shop more at Mass merchandiseralso go to other formats also so they do not alternate trips to the grocery store. Similarly peopleat Hyperstar were window shoppers who just came for price comparison there to say that peopleonly buy or they can get best grocery there would be wrong consumer changes places and theytry the small grocers too.Article # 6Shopping Experience Enjoyment: Impact on Customers’ Re-patronageIntentions, and Gender InfluenceAuthors: Cathy, Andrew, Grazyna, Gary and JohnSummary:Shopping experience today is gaining popularity in the view of researchers this study is alsorelated to consumer shopping experience and level of enjoyment influencing on the intention torepurchase or Repatronage. There is always a question arises in the mind of the consumerQ. Where to shop?Q. Why to shop?Consumer wanted to enjoy and have the lasting experience where ever he/she shops. It could bethe regional area where he/she lives or any other place which is on geographical boundaries. Fore.g. people of Multan, Bahawalpur, Sargodha and many other places comes for shopping atHyperstar possibilities are their they don‟t like shopping in there regional areas or they are notconvenient with those stores.The three things which are highlighted in this article and at the core are:
Page | 24 Enjoyment of shopping experience: Stores needs to create an image for the consumersso they look better than its competitors and consumer gets a lasting experience while theyshop. Image is a basic thing which perceives the mind of the consumer while genders areshopping. Hyperstar image is positive in mind so the consumer comes again and againapart from all this once the image is created your consumer starts enjoying shopping.Researcher believes that once the image or perception of the regional store is located inthe mind of the customer he/she gets emotionally attached with the store and spends moretime for shopping and will have a lasting experience. Store managers can work on thestrategies to improve the image of the store. In Pakistan Hyperstar or metro is the onlysuperstore which works on the image of the store. Customer’s intention to repurchase/Re-Patronage: Researcher correlates enjoymentand excitement of consumer completely with the repurchase .If the consumer is happyand excited while shopping in the store he/she will definitely come to repurchase in thesame store. Today why people come to Hyperstar again and again for shopping? Thereason because they enjoy shopping in the environment of Hyperstar which is one of theleading superstore of Pakistan in retail context. If customer enjoys shopping the level ofexcitement gets double. Pakistan youth only enjoys the environment of the store likeHyperstar rather than concentrating more on shopping. Enjoyment of shopping in Gender differences: Researcher investigates after creatingthe image and repurchases element with shopping experience that which gender is moresatisfied with the enjoyment of shopping and repurchase. After studying this deep longresearch again the matter stood on the gender which is getting complex for theresearchers also to investigate who are more satisfied and dissatisfied with the superstore.The basic reason to conduct this research was to construct the shopping experience and itsrelationship towards the consumer intention of repurchase in United Kingdom shopping districts.Questionnaire and face to face interviews were conducted with the consumer. Study targetedtotal 536 usable consumers across five countries of United Kingdom.
Page | 25Four dimensions of shopping enjoyment are expressed above and 16 measures are developed.The result of this study indicated that there is a positive relationship between the enjoyments ofshopping experience influencing on repurchase intentions. Hypothesis expressed that enjoymentof shopping experience is reflected by four dimensions which were: Accessibility: How easy a customer can reach to the store .For e.g. According toconsumer who comes for shopping at Hyperstar said it is easy accessible located in theheart of Lahore. Atmosphere: Physical attributes of the store which click in the mind of the consumer. InLahore Atmospheric stores are Mall of Lahore, Pot pori, Al-fateh and Hyperstar. Environment: Enjoyment has a direct relationship with environment of the store. Someof the factors which cover the environment are security, cleanliness, good and openinghours which are convenient. Our research covers all these variables which are necessaryfor making environment of store. Service: Researcher stresses upon that people who are working on a store there attitudeshould be positive and the most important thing their behavior should be normal. Whilewe were conducting research we heard that hyperstar staff is not friendly most of the timeIn Pakistan mostly the service personnel are not friendly might be because they are notwell trained.This study implicated much more for mangers how they can create an enjoyable shoppingexperience for a consumer that influence on their repurchase decision. Gender playing importantrole and again the gender difference came in the end result that men have a stronger intention ofrepurchase with enjoyment as compared to females.
Page | 26Pakistani men‟s are always in rush and they spend less time for shopping so if they enjoy aenvironment of a specific super store say for instance Hyperstar then most probably they willcome to repurchase that‟s what our research also indicated us.Article # 7On Shelf Availability: An Examination of the Extent, the Causes, and theEfforts to Address Retail Out-of-StocksAuthors: Daniel Corsten and Thomas GruenSummary:Retail out of stock is previous concept but it is getting a good awareness which can lead to profit.Fast moving consumer goods are the victim of this disease so called Retail out of stock OOS. Inthis study several reasons are proposed why there is out of stock. Pakistani consumers are quietfar away from this concept retail out of stock because they do not update their shelf on dailybasis special the local merchandiser or retailerOver the past few years the big mega store like Metro, Makro and Hyperstar have startedworking on this out of stock concept especially in fast moving consumer‟s goods.In our study the one variable which we choose is product availability in which customer‟sresponse was quiet good that they get things what they want and on shelf with assortment andvariety.Study stresses that retailers are not paying attention to out of stock which lead to decrease inprofit of the store. Retailers can increase their revenue by 5% if they concentrate on this OOSconcept because market still got potential in it. Customer might get disloyal if he/she doesn‟t findproducts twice on shelf retailer and suppliers both need to work on this. Average out of stock ratethrough whole world is 8.3 percent according to a research by coca cola. Europe 8.6 and USA7.9 percent out of stock average where Pakistan retail expected potential rate is $42 billion.Promotional items out of stock is more as compared to normal products we faced the same casein Hyperstar to because the promotional items mostly get out of stock if we talk about electronics
Page | 27they were short if they come in promotion. Once your consumer knows about the promotion theywill just fall on things like Honey bee if we talk about Hyperstar especially.There is no such method used in this study involving any special methodology but the interestingquestions and their answers are answered in it which is like: Consumer reaction at shelf out of stock What OOS cost a retailer Root causes of shelf out of stock Extent out of stock Remedies for OOSAlmost six items are proposed for OOS in this article and several conclusions also. Firstly andOOS is a costly problem and it will sustain in future also. Secondly the duration of OOS isthreatening for the retailer to be disloyal all over the world OOS rate is increasing. It will bedifficult to say that OOS is an only problem of retailer but in fact it‟s also the problem of thirdparty like supplier. In Hyperstar consumer face very less problem regarding out of stock and theyget things which they want only few of them faced problem in which things were in promotion.Hyperstar doesn‟t own any warehouses things just come and sell very few grocery items arestocked.Article # 7Gender, store satisfaction and antecedents: a case study of a grocerystore.Authors: Helgesen and NessetSummary:Researcher over the past few decades are focusing on the customer satisfaction level that How to satisfy a customer
Page | 28 When to satisfy a customer Where to satisfy a customerThese few sentences are always roaming around a retailer what is the best possible way to satisfya customer .Again we are working on a super store and the article is related to the store andvarious definition of customer satisfaction is given in different years.This desired article will revolve around the consumer market, gender that how it differs whileshopping either male is more respondent or female is more respondent and gender difference isone of the major topics of this report but in this article store satisfaction related to gender is onpriority. Lastly the study is conducted in Norway grocery store to check gender impact on storesatisfaction. Antecedent a term used in this article which means or we can say theattributes/drivers before satisfaction.The research is conducted in a Norwegian grocery store which is the part of the largest chains ofgrocery stores. Sample size of 106 customer is taken in which 52 are males and 54 are femalesfrom the age of 18-65 years old. The analysis was based on the 19 variables includingantecedents and t test also applied. Store satisfaction contains some elements or it reflects tothem such as positive word of mouth creates satisfaction, loyalty etc. Gender difference is alsoinfluence on income, age and occupation which we have also asked in our questionnaire and it isnamed as personal information of a customer to figure out the gender differences.Concluding it that value proposition is the important factor for any manager and in the benefit ofthe store. Cost is directly related to customer value so store cost should be cut and customershould be provided a value which will increase the customer satisfaction level. Female‟ssatisfaction level is more as compared to male but Antecedents, drivers or attributes areindependent of a gender.Customer satisfaction level in Hyperstar is much higher it‟s the only proper made superstore inthe metropolitan city of Lahore and people get almost all desired things that they are looking forMore than 2000 grocery products are placed inside the store and as far as gender difference is
Page | 29concerned females are more satisfied which was seen while asking administer questions.Attributes of Hyperstar like promotion, Gift card, hygienic food all the environment reflects thesatisfaction level of customer. As far as genders roles are concerned house wife or working classshops more and they want value for what they buy.Article # 9Sharing of Home Responsibilities between Professionally EmployedWomen and Their HusbandsAuthors: Monica Biernat, Camille B. WortmanSummary:This research sharing home responsibility is conducted in United States where working couplesare on top priority. Some of the highlights on which this article revolves around are: What are the difficulties women faced while working Family get suffered Children care especially with above 6 years Welfare of the family Mental health gets suffered of family and mother both Equal status carriersSharing home responsibility when male is at home looking after home and vice versa. Womenlabor force increased after 1998 in United States and they are facing much more difficulties thenbefore .Pakistani context will be different because we have less than 50% of females in workingclass.The basic theme behind the study is that it‟s getting difficult to meet the job and familypressures get understood. When both partners are in working class how can they manage theirchild care if one of the partners is working for say female works then child‟s attention can getdiverted so how to take care of this thing researcher says none of the study is done on child care.
Page | 30College studies has sophisticated effect on the females so they wanted that their husband shouldbe more educated rather than having a status only so education and income plays a vital role inthe carrier of a women .In this research author indicates now it is needed to find that the menwork on job gives less time to children and this case is opposite in female case. The research isquiet complicated and lengthy in which role conflict, stress and women managing children withabove 6 years are targeted.Sample size of 139 couples was taken in which both agreed to participate subsample include 68university professor and 71 businesswomen. This research took almost a year to be completedbecause wife was asked 4 structured interviews and two self-report surveys were done withhusband for a whole year. Almost 8 questions were asked from husband and wife about the childcare involvement with the help of profile analysis.Conclusion ends on this that study proves that women are more complicated in terms of spouseand children as compared to men in sharing equal responsibilities. The drawback of this studymight be that this study does not cover the couples who both are earning in general population.Traditional values also effects the sharing responsibility of home in which females are moreinvolved both male and female our trying to get familiar with the social changes that arebecoming their daily need. So children are definitely involved when we study couples or sharingtheir responsibilities.Store involvement in this article was not a priority, child involvement while the couples workwas more in it. Pakistan no doubt is a free state but again working women‟s are very less so theconcept of sharing home responsibility between husband and wife finishes because maximumnumber of women‟s are house wife and they take care of the home chores.In case if both couples are working then again female involvement is more in house she comeshome and takes care of children and the house too. Pakistani women attitude towards the home ispositive men rely more on women to get their home chores get done. A woman goes forshopping more while we were doing our survey in Hyperstar we notice maximum no of women‟sbuying grocery for their home.
Page | 31Article # 10The female fashion consumer behavior (From the perspective of the shopFever in Gothenburg)Authors: Julia Holmberg Rebecca OhnfeldtSummary:Fashion is one of the fast moving processes which changes almost daily similarly this research isabout that how a small independent retailer named as Fever should affect the female consumers.In March 1998 Fever started its operations as an independent retailer in Gothenburg, Swedenwith one shop and one web shop. The clothes made sold by fever were found at the middle offashion pyramid means the clothes which were sold they were in so fast process that sold clothesget in the middle of fashion when new are coming in. In Hyperstar clothes are not that muchprominent as they should there are two to three sections of clothes in which females and malesclothes both are different. Consumers at Hyperstar are not that much happy with clothes therebecause they are expensive in terms of quality.The target market of Fever is the men and women who are 20 to 40 years old. Large clothingchains like H&M, Lindex and Kappahl are market leaders at that time when research isconducted so due to this the fever store was in a problematic situation. Now days we can easilybuy a high fashion at a lower price from fever and this is how customer shows a responsetowards Fever retail.This retail is facing the difficulty in reaching the female target group the male customers areloyal to the retail. The main purpose of the study is to investigate that why female customers arenot able to understand the Fevers clothes shopping but in Hyperstar you can get conveniencetrendy clothes not specialized clothes like fancy or bridal wear etc so our study with this relationis different.The theories and models that constitute the theoretical framework include market segmentation,the Marketing Mix, consumer behavior and the female consumer behavior. The marketsegmentation they have segmented the market on the bases of geographic (according to region),demographic, psychographic and behavioral. In marketing mix they will focus on the 4ps that areproduct, price, place and promotion.
Page | 32The scientific research approach which they have used is hypothetical deduction in which theywill first derive the hypothesis and then tested empirically and in this the hypothesis is how thefemale consumer behavior affects the shop Fever.The method which they have used is the combination of two quantitative surveys of femaleconsumer behavior and an interview to obtain more knowledge about the female behavior. In thebeginning the research is exploratory because the knowledge and understanding of the problemarea is needed for the rest of the thesis. And this is also descriptive because this study is based onprimary data that seeks information about specific situations.They techniques which they have used for the data collection involved both interviews andsurveys which is quiet similar to our research. They use two types of interview one theyconducted in city and outside Fever and other are the less structured interview.The conclusion shows that the female consumer behavior effect the Fever is both positive andnegative.Positive aspects are in such a way that women considered that shopping is a joyfulactivity. Several women had heard about Fever from the friends this means Fever has a goodreputation which means word of mouth counts for retailer. Fevers unique clothes help them tomake their strong identity which could be a brand image but in Hyperstar it will not be the samesituation for e.g. if a person bought puma shoes from Hyperstar then friends or family afterwatching might say bought from an outlet specifically for puma. Negativeaspects are thatwomen‟s were preferred strong chain for shopping which sell fast fashion at low price. And themajor problem was to get women to purchase the clothes at their shop.This research is little bit different from Hyperstar no doubt the fashion changes in it butconsumer are buying on their convenience and some crazy people come twice a month to checkpromotion on clothes.Article # 11Gender Differences in the Fashion Consumption and Store Characteristicsin Swedish Clothing StoresAuthor: PiseyCheaSummary:
Page | 33Study examines and explains the different behavior of male and female in the shop again genderdifference. This shows that the women‟s who go for shopping they will spent most of the timefor enjoyment and relaxation and they will spend more time on comparing price, products, andtheir quality but men‟s on the other hand found that they will go only when there is need forshopping they don‟t spent any extra time while shopping as mentioned and discussed in abovestudies also.Shopping is a relaxing activity so women‟s will be involved more in it as compared to the men‟sbut now a days there is a change in the trend that men‟s also go for shopping in which retailersare trying to make strategies and target this new group also which is gaining a good popularity.Bakewell& Mitchell (2006) indicated that men had a high independent, confident, risk inspending. They seem to make quick and careless decision on purchasing clothes, and they areless influenced by opinion from friends or companions this argument is set by only this articlebut in Pakistani context males mostly are influenced by their friends and family or peer groups.Descriptive research methodology is adopted for this study and the study is conducted inBoras‟s city, in the south of Sweden. This is a small city where all the need is within walkingdistance more often you can say the convenience stores you just step out and get the thingsspecifically researcher wanted to work on the textile and fashion clothing so they choose it. Fewcriteria‟s are set for this studies which are as follow:location close to the University with numerous of fashion shopping stores.a large number of shoppersCombination of shop selling both women and men.Both primary and secondary data was used in this research. Secondary data were sources such asjournal articles, theses, dissertations, books, statistic and reports. Data is also collected fromwebsite of shop, magazine, newsletter and brochure. Few retail stores which are used for thestudy is H&M, MQ, Carlings, Gina tricot and Dressman.Concluding this article it is proved that men are speedy in doing shopping the lanes which aremade in mega stores men‟s are seen walking fast while women stay and enjoy the shopping
Page | 34Researcher expresses that men do shopping like a hunter. Men are more specific in buying theyjust think what to buy and just come back impulse buying in men is very less.In our study when we were asking questioning from men they were in rush as they just boughtand wanted to go .Hyperstar being the busiest super store of Lahore customer enters after every 5to 20 seconds on average men spend 15 to 20 minutes in Hyperstar while they enter in so it‟s truein Pakistan men shop like hunters. Women‟s are totally different then the male shoppers they doshopping in a very relax mood they will take a lot of time while shopping in comparing goods,their prices and their quality.In Pakistan people got a lot of time they only get busy when someone ask to do them in otherwords the most busy people on planet while we were conducting research maximum respondentsrefused due to time constraint and yes it is proved men do shopping quickly while women‟senjoy whether professional or non-professional.Article # 12Age gender effects on consumer’s awareness and source of awareness forfood related private label brandAuthors: IriniTzimitra,Irene kamenidou, Konstantinos, VasilisTziakasSummary:This article is about that how age and gender effects on the consumer‟s awareness and source ofawareness for food regarding private label brands available in market. There are four types ofawareness i.e.: Top-of-mind awareness Brand recall Brand recognition Unaware of a brand.
Page | 35All these kind of awareness regarding the product that if any one recall the name of the productthen the image of the product will be recall in your mind and you will recognized that this personis talking about that brand. For e.g. telling anyone about the Cadbury and they will quickly recallthe sizes, shape and color of the Cadburys everyone know that it‟s in blue and white coloredlabeled.Taking another e.g. from our own research if ladies tried the cosmetics there they will definitelylet other females know about it also and the other females can easily recall the last time theyshop a loreal nail polish or any other cosmetic.The nature of the study is exploratory and they have used qualitative research method in whichthey have taken three adult groups with 15 adults ranging from different ages in the centraldivision of Thessaloniki.The research hypothesis is based on three points that:1: In case of food related private label brand, genders effect on the awareness of private labelbrand?2: In case of food related private label brand, genders effect on the source which producedawareness?3: In case of food related private label brand, age effects on the recall of the supermarket whichpractices these brands?For verifying the above hypothesis structured questionnaire was designed and it was divided infour parts: Private label brand awareness Source of awareness Purchasing behavior and attitude Demographic variables
Page | 36And the results of first hypothesis is that the difference between males and females exists in theawareness of food related private label brand that females have greater level of awareness ascompared to the males and the females are the dominant shoppers in the family.This hypothesis completely applies on Pakistani context because males are less aware of the foodrelated private label brands. In Hyperstar while questioning we noticed females were more awareof the food related private label brands for e.g. K & Ns, Menu etc.In the case of second hypothesis that is the effect of gender on the source which producedawareness are that the males are more common source of awareness then the females becausemales are less willing to pay higher price premium for national brands then the females. InPakistan males do less shopping preferably wanted to buy the local brands.In the case of third hypothesis in which age effect on the recall of the nearby supermarket whichshows that the difference in the age exists and the people of the older age have a high level of therecall for the supermarket that is near to their home because the people of elder age may be notable to pronounce or remember it due to age factor so preferably they to places where there aregoing for years. For e.g. after starting a retired life a major living in sadar started buying groceryfrom Hyperstar it‟s convenient with competitive prices.Article # 13Drivers of local merchant loyalty: Understanding the influence of genderand shopping motivesAuthors: Stephanie M. Noble, David A. Griffith, Mavis T. AdjeiSummary:Loyalty once again the most important thing for a store but in this article the loyalty will be seenamong the local merchants .How to make loyalty among the local merchant who comes to a storelike Wal-Mart? What are the drivers which forcing the merchandiser to come and shop and stayloyal and how important gender role is important in it. In a previous study loyalty to localmerchants by (stone 1954) 124 married females interviewed because they support the local
Page | 37merchants and larger chains like Wal-Mart .Study conducted by stone was a exploratory researchin which stone divided the respondent into four different groups which were: Economic: Consumers who look price, quality and variety when they go for shopping orthey choose according to these factors. Pakistani maximum consumers are priceconscious so Hyperstar would be the right place to shop due to variety and promotion onseveral things. Personalizing: Consumers who go to their local area shops due to their interaction withthe staff. For instance in Pakistani context people of Y block in defence goes forshopping to HKB because they are familiar with staff. Ethical: Consumer who go to local merchants due to the personal attention they get fromthere. Apathetic: Consumer who find convenience say for e.g. the nearby merchandiserThe purpose of this research is to give a theoretical background to the local merchant‟s loyalty.Particularly this study investigated how gender influence consumers local merchants loyalty. Aconsumer who goes for shopping at local merchant he will get more attention and themerchandiser will try to build personal contacts with the customer but store like Wal-Mart and inHyperstar in Pakistani context doesn‟t make self-interaction with consumer they only distributetheir leaflets. This could be a biggest tool for local merchants that they distinguish themselvesfrom a discount store by their personal personalization with the consumer. The secondhypothesis also proves that there is the negative relationship price and loyalty of local merchants.Some of the shopping motives like convenience, information attainment, price attainment,assortment and uniqueness, as well as social interaction and browsing on which most of theconsumer rely .These shopping motives are helpful in this study and 15 hypotheses aredeveloped on the basis of these shopping motives keeping gender and local merchant loyalty inview.Sample size of 2000 consumer was selected randomly nationwide with the age of 16 years andabove in a retail context. Some of the restriction that was put on the consumer he/she should
Page | 38have access to the internet and the consumer should have three main means of shoppingavailable to them: Brick and mortar (Nearby local grocery or any other store) Catalogue InternetThe reason for these shopping means was that consumer just not only shop to the localmerchandise but he/she had option for buying. After the findings of this study indicted again thegender difference in which males are more relied upon information attainment and convenienceseeking whereas females are more towards uniqueness and assortment seeking, socialinteraction, and browsing. Females got more association while shopping and males gotinformation attainment when they shop so its proven that shopping motives are different of bothgenders.This study is already extended relating to loyalty to local merchants as discussed above andfurthermore it is based on some sociological theories of gender differences and some of theshopping motives on which hypothesis is built upon. It is proven in this study that today loyaltyis not only important for the large chain store perhaps now it is equally important for localmerchants .Some light is also thrown upon the strategies that how can a local merchant can makeits customer loyal .Some of the shopping motives discussed above like convenience, information attainment, priceattainment, assortment and uniqueness all of these are present in hyperstar except the personalinteraction .Hyperstar being the largest retail chain of Pakistan also does not works on thispersonalization concept their customers are loyal due the shopping motives like say for e.g.uniqueness of price and product they have kept in it which are local and multinational both.Stores like best buy in cavalry ground have more interaction with customer and they are making
Page | 39their customer day by day. Hyperstar is capturing there customer and making them loyal on thebasis of as follows: Attractive promotion Competitive prices Cleanliness and hygienic food Easy access and car parkingWhile the local merchants are only struggling to make loyal on the basis of personal interactionfor e.g. in a best buy store if you can‟t find anything the staff there will ask you May I help you!Where the concept in Hyperstar changes with how I may help you printed on the shirt of staffwhich simply means they will help you as per desire. Loyalty of a local merchant in the area ofLahore and retail chain like Hyperstar is different local merchants need to build more strategiesand Hyperstar need to work on personalizationArticle # 14The Emergent Male Grocery Shopper: An Identification of MaleSupermarket Shopper TypesAuthors: Mortimer, GarySummary:Male grocery shopping is gaining popularity day by day so the researcher needed to research onthis specific male group how it should be treated in the retail environment. As the traditionalvalues are changing all over the world males are more interested in shopping as far as female iscompared. A question that comes in mind of the researcher could be that:Should this specific male grocery shopper should be treated differently? If so what should bethe strategies be adopted to treat this specific group?Though the researcher has segmented shoppers demographically and psychographic-ally as wellbut they have over looked the male grocery shoppers. This research “the emergent of male
Page | 40grocery shopper” is purely conducted on a superstore situated in Australia which will be quieteasy to compare this research with Pakistani context where we are working on a super storenamely Hyperstar. Five types of male grocery shoppers are identified in this research.Different studies with their reference of authors are discussed in this research which is quiethelpful for this research as well as our own research. Researchers say that men who shop arehighly educated with income group and they are with white collar jobs. Men are completely priceinsensitive they don‟t bother for price which we also while we were asking question in hyperstarthey don‟t care for price as far as Pakistani consumers are concerned it might be males are theearners so they know what and for how much they have to buy.Old people plans and then go for buying while the younger ones just go and buy and spent lesstime than the women‟s do .According to previous studies the researcher says men do not care forthe parking, friendly operators, friendly environment they just go and shop but the women needsall these characteristics.A questionnaire survey was done with 140 male respondents who go for shopping and itconducted in four different supermarkets of Australia with different demographics. After theprocedure is done a 5 new group of male shopper are identified in which equitable is the newone. The 5 group of male shoppers are as follows:1. Budget conscious: Group of male who were price conscious ranging from age of 26-45who spent time in supermarkets and check prices which suits their budget. They are notcomfortable with this task but they have to control their home expenses .Yes thiscompletely relates with our male consumers in Pakistan also because most of them areearning for their family and the middle class spend money according to their budget.2. Controlled: The one who make the complex decision makings not because of financiallimitations but due to some purpose. They are the good salaried class people. For e.g. Wemet a person in Hyperstar who was a financial analyst in a firm with quiet a good salaryand he came there to buy a Nokia N9 there but he couldn‟t get it thought he can boughtany other model but he didn‟t.
Page | 413. Egocentric: Generally these people according to the study are older married and buythings which are unplanned we can say these are the people who do impulse buying. InHyperstar we many people who didn‟t get the right sizes of their shirts or pants and theybought something else which attracted them.4. Equitable: A completely new identified group which consists of younger people withlow and they involved in activities going around while enjoying shopping. For e.g. InHyperstar we met many youngsters who came to enjoy the environment of hyperstar anddo very less buying but while going outside or coming inside of the store they don‟tforget to get the pamphlet of Hyperstar with advertised promotion and products. OurPakistani youth mostly comes in this context.5. Convenience: One of the variables that we have used for our research was conveniencethat customer needs while he comes for shopping it could be parking, hyperstar location,efficient staffing etc. They are the educated earner shoppers.The male shoppers from 16 and above learnt to do shopping through the tradition of the societyor from the family where their father or elder brothers used to shop. The male shoppers willemerge up with new segments so retailers should get aware of this segment now.In Pakistan a child when started growing he learns to do shopping from family or friends whichare the tradition of Pakistan till now and yes we got all these 5 group of male shoppers inPakistan as discussed above while asking question from the male shoppers in Hyperstar we cameacross all of these 5 group of male shoppers.Article # 15Factors Influencing Customer Loyalty and Choice of Retailer WhileBuying Fast Moving Consumer GoodsAuthor: PoornimaPugazhenthi
Page | 42Summary:This research makes us clear with the name that this article is about the factors which influencethe customer loyalty and choice of retailer while buying FMCG. Retail includes every kind ofbusiness in which we sell different products to the customers or consumers and type of retailstores are: Departmental stores Supermarkets: Like Hyperstar, Metro & Makro Hypermarkets Discount stores General merchandise stores Warehouse stores Variety store or "dollar store" Boutiques Convenience stores Automated Retail stores like Kiosks Grocery stores and e-Retails.Only few of them are active in Pakistan rest are related to the studies done abroad. The conceptof retail store few years ago was that it is a small shop nearby from where consumers will buygrocery or other products. Now there is a great change in the retail industry from small retailstore to hypermarkets. Every retail store is doing some kind of activity to attract customers andto fulfill their needs. The main reason of doing this is that there are a lot of competitors in themarket and everyone is trying to get a competitive edge over the other. Taking the e.g. ofHyperstar when it came into existence in 2009 other retailers like HKB, pot pori and Al-Fatehfaced a bad competition but only few retailers knew about the Hyperstar and they startedrefocusing on their strategies.
Page | 43All of the products sold in the market the fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) have a highvolume because these products will be used by everyone in his/her daily life. There are six kindof FMCGs on which we are focusing in this article that are:A. Highly Perishable Fast Moving Consumer Goods:I. Vegetables & Fruitsii. Dairy ProductsIii. Bakery ItemsB. Other Fast Moving Consumer Goods:I. Personal Care Products 6ii. Cleaning Productsiii. ConfectionariesAll of these FMCG products are available at Hyperstar and consumer are quiet happy with theFMCG products because mostly promotion is put on any of the fast moving consumer goods.The research methodology they have used in this research is that they have developed aquestionnaire based on the various characteristics/demographics of the customers that will helpto attract customers to buy FMCG. They are gathering information by using interviews,questionnaires and online survey. For data collection they have used various methods likepersonal interviewing, telephone, mail and the Internet.The result which they get they have to link with the background of the customer, Price, ProductQuality and availability. Women prefer location while buying vegetables & fruits and dairyproducts while men prefer ambience, location and availability. Pakistani men need a quick freeof rush place so they choose the place like Hyperstar where easy access to car park, Convenientlocation and friendly operator with clean and hygienic food.
Page | 44Article # 16Men and shopping Exploring the ‘Mister Myths’Authors: Stephen Ogden-BarnesSummary:Gender difference chasing in every second article again come to the male gender in which wewill come to know what the behavior of men is and how they do shopping? Today researchersare more concerned about this new emergent male group while previously in whole world therewas the concept of feminine shopping only which is reducing on daily basis. After having thebrief review of this research again it proved men just hate to do shopping while female feelsenjoyment or pleasure while shopping and it is identified that males are not good shoppers. Menare always in rush there are different personality people who spend time while shopping but fewin fact many don‟t like to spend time on shopping.Study also proves they don‟t like to do shopping with their partners neither their partners so thismeans they prefer to do shopping alone. As far as Pakistani males are concerned they do like doshopping with their friends either or partner concept of doing shopping of males in Pakistan isvery less while we interviewed males in Hyperstar they were either with friends or with theirpartner.They are a hunter gathers means that when they will go into the malls for shopping they will notwaste their time in comparing the quality or price like women‟s but they will search that productfor which they have come to buy. We consider male from abroad and Pakistani studies as a timesaver more than females. Women neither like to do shopping rather they love to do shoppingPakistani females do shopping twice or thrice a week automatically they get different from men.Not all men hate shopping but most of the men‟s will like to do shopping as mentioned abovedepends on the personality of that person but still in fact that they do shopping faster than thewomen‟s. They will usually go for which product they will find and buy that they will not gothrough many products and then buy which is looking best which feels like men‟s are hunters orchasers.
Page | 45In Pakistan it is also little bit same that there most of the shopping will be done by the women‟sbecause the men is not available for shopping they have to work and on the weekend they willlike to do rest but in some case men‟s will also go to the shopping centers but they will not wastetheir time like women‟s. In our research we got more male on weekends which were mostlymarried.
Page | 47(4.0) Methodology:(4.0.1) Nature of research:Nature of our research is exploratory because we explored almost all the data by our own self.We explore the Hyperstar consumers and gender differences relating to their perceivedimportance levels of store characteristics.(4.0.2) Target population:The research has been conducted in Lahore cantonment board area where Hyperstar is located intherefore the target population for this research is all the people who shop at Hyperstar. When wewere conducting research we came to knew that people from Sargodha, Faisalabad, Multan, andBahawalpur also come for shopping.(4.0.3) Primary Data sources:Our primary data source was the administer questionnaire in which we ask the questions fromthe customer in the environment of Hyperstar and fill it by our own self.Secondary data sources:Our primary data sources were Internet, journals & articles.(4.0.4) Research approach:We have used administer questionnaires in which interviewee asks questions from therespondent and filled the questionnaire on the spot. A copy of evaluative questionnaire isattached in appendix.(4.0.5) Sample size:The sample of our research is the ultimate consumers who are shopping at Hyperstar A samplesize of 280 respondents is taken from Hyperstar only which is the best superstore of Lahore.
Page | 48Sampling procedure:We have used non-probability sampling due to lack of time and resource constraint.(4.0.6) Data collection method:Method which we have adopted for research is personally administered questionnaire (PAQ).The questionnaire technique which we have used is evaluation technique means only close endedquestions are asked and the sample of 280 questionnaires are filled by us by asking customerquestions and filling their responses in right box and questionnaire is attached in the Appendix.(4.0.7) Research instrument:Survey is conducted through administer questionnaire which is a research instrument.(4.0.8) SPSS Data analysis:Statistics:BiweeklypromotionTrainedstaffEasy Access tocar parksWell StockedShelvesConvenientlocationNValid 264 264 264 264 264Missing 0 0 0 0 0Mean 2.10 1.95 1.39 2.03 2.05Median 2.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00Mode 1 1 1 1 2Std.Deviation1.151 .942 .834 1.052 .989Variance 1.324 .887 .696 1.106 .978Sum 555 514 368 535 542
Page | 49Biweekly promotion:Frequency Percent Valid Percent CumulativePercentValidExtremelyImportant100 37.9 37.9 37.9Very important 86 32.6 32.6 70.5Somewhat important 42 15.9 15.9 86.4Not very important 23 8.7 8.7 95.1Not at all important 13 4.9 4.9 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0Statistics:Healthy fresh food Competitive pricesNValid 264 264Missing 0 0Mean 1.90 1.48Median 2.00 1.00Mode 2 1Std. Deviation .790 .745Variance .624 .555Sum 501 392
Page | 50Trained Staff:Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValidExtremly Important 103 39.0 39.0 39.0Very important 93 35.2 35.2 74.2Somewhat important 47 17.8 17.8 92.0Not very important 21 8.0 8.0 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0Easy Access to car parks:Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValidExtremely Important 202 76.5 76.5 76.5Very important 33 12.5 12.5 89.0Somewhat important 21 8.0 8.0 97.0Not very important 3 1.1 1.1 98.1Not at all important 5 1.9 1.9 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0
Page | 51Well Stocked Shelves:Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValidExtremely Important 105 39.8 39.8 39.8Very important 79 29.9 29.9 69.7Somewhat important 53 20.1 20.1 89.8Not very important 22 8.3 8.3 98.1Not at all important 5 1.9 1.9 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0Convenient Location:Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValidExtremely Important 88 33.3 33.3 33.3Very important 102 38.6 38.6 72.0Somewhat important 52 19.7 19.7 91.7Not very important 16 6.1 6.1 97.7Not at all important 6 2.3 2.3 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0
Page | 52Healthy fresh food:Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValidExtremely Important 91 34.5 34.5 34.5Very important 115 43.6 43.6 78.0Somewhat important 52 19.7 19.7 97.7Not very important 6 2.3 2.3 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0Competitive Prices:Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValidExtremelyImportant167 63.3 63.3 63.3Very important 75 28.4 28.4 91.7Somewhatimportant13 4.9 4.9 96.6Not very important 9 3.4 3.4 100.0Total 264 100.0 100.0
Page | 61(5.0) Limitations of the study:As we were conducting research and its one of the basic type of research there were certainlimitations for this study which are as follows: There were certain limitations involved which crawled out of the research process due totime and resource constraint. This research is on the basic level and so to complete ontime with minimal budget was the priority. While conducting research people were not cooperative. The biggest constraint was we had to speak and explain each and every question to therespondent and then fill on the right space. We conducted an exploratory research so we had to choose the non-probability samplingand convenience sampling as a sub-sample. Due to busy life‟s respondents was not that much accurate as they should be. Due to illiteracy rate in Pakistan it went difficult for us to rephrase the question toconsumer. Again due to illiteracy we met many window shoppers in Hyperstar. One of the biggest constraints we faced that Hyperstar office management was notcooperative so we had to talk to floor manager and different concern persons inside thestore. First time experience with SPSS became a problem. Due to family days on weekend became a time constraint.
Page | 63(6.0) Conclusion:For the past 4 -5 years retail industry is on boom and growing rapidly it is all due to entrance ofnew retailers .In 2009 Hyperstar was launched which is the major giant super store of middleeast then metro cash n carry and Makro were already existing in the market but metro and Makroare more of wholesaler side while Hyperstar is a retail outlet.Small retailers like HKB, Alfateh, and Potpourri are working on their places and targeting peopleliving in nearby areas furthermore with their personal communication with the customer. Todaycustomer needs the attention of the retailers while he/she shops in store if that attention is notgiven then customer might become disloyal.This exploratory study with 280 administered questionnaires conducted in the environment ofHyperstar deduces many results ranging gender from age of 16 to 48. In Pakistan shopping wasonly consider to be the concept of females but now it‟s changed as our society is moving towardsthe independent family system men also goes for shopping.In past our society was a female dominated society where men use to work and women use toshop as a housewife but now it‟s changing that men use to work and shop but with differentcharacteristics while women works and enjoy shopping. In our research we came to the resultthat men differs from men and their perceived importance relating to store characteristics are alsodifferent and which are as follows:Female:Result deducted from female questionnaire and supporting journal is: Pakistan has female dominated society where female use to shop and men use to workbut now it‟s changing female work and does shopping also. Females enjoy shopping we met many who were either enjoying shopping or express itby themselves. Female spend more time on shopping.
Page | 64 They are price sensitive and they wanted to buy more in less money but in more time. They prefer more Promotion & specials and try to utilize items which are on promotionin Hyperstar. They require organized staff which could help them whenever help is required whileshopping in a concern section. Cleanliness and hygienic food is more preferred and they have started preferringHyperstar packaged and unpackaged food due to the certification from HACCP. Focus more on competitive prices as they knew more about grocery shopping andhousehold chores from men.Male:Result deducted from male questionnaire and supporting journal is: Males are the new emergent shoppers in the retail environment so retailers are trying towork on this new group that how to target male customers now. Men spent less time on shopping. They are always rushing either for home or back to office. They want the convince factor that either the store like Hyperstar has wide parking andeasy access to car parks. Product availability is also one of the factor that male requires now because they set theirmind and buy that product from the store.If retailers wanted to be successful they need to work on both genders because personality andage differs like older males spend more time while shopping and they are the most loyalcustomers of the store.
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Page | 68Questionnaire:Age: _______ Gender: ______ Occupation: ______________ Marital status: ______On a scale of 1-5 with 1 being the extremely important, 2 very important, 3 somewhat important,4 not very important, and 5 not at all important.Promotion & Specials 1 2 3 4 5Bi-weekly promotionSpecial gift cardsOccasional SpecialsStaffing of serviced departmentsNo waitingServed quicklyTrained staffAdvertised special promotionsProduct of the daySpecials I wantEfficient & accurate operationsFriendly operatorsEfficient operatorsAccurate operatorsEasy AccessEasy access to car parksEasy parking
Page | 69Parcel pick up areaProduct availabilityWell stocked shelvesProducts i wantConvenience & localityEasy to findEasy to goConvenient locationCleanlinessHygienic practicesCleanlinessQuality food handlingHigh quality fresh foodHealthy fresh foodQuality fresh foodStable low pricesCompetitive pricesLow, everyday prices