Tech 571 taylor mounts design principals module 3


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Tech 571 taylor mounts design principals module 3

  1. 1. Instructional Design Principals<br />Tech 571—Distance Learning<br />Virginia Lee Taylor-Mounts<br />July 13, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Rationalization<br />Improve Student Experiences in Distance Learning Environments<br />Diversified Instruction<br />Communication/Feedback<br />Collaboration<br />("Differentiated Instruction | Classroom Challenges | Focus on Effectiveness," n.d.)<br />
  3. 3. Diversified Instruction<br />Provides students with appropriate challenges and support<br />Should begin with an assessment to determine prior knowledge and move the student forward<br />Provides a variety of ways to interact with the curriculum<br />Technology creates new ways to interact with curriculum<br />("Differentiated Instruction | Classroom Challenges | Focus on Effectiveness," n.d.)<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  4. 4. Diversified Instruction--Activities<br />Case study<br />Reflective journal<br />Research report<br />E-Portfolio<br />Wiki<br />Blogs<br />Podcasts<br />Simulation/Games<br />Authentic Project<br />Group Projects<br />Test/Quiz<br />Bulletin boards<br />Bulletin board<br />Chat discussions<br />
  5. 5. Communication/Feedback<br />Students need to know expectations<br />Information needs to be clearly communicated<br />To show emotions, use graphics, videos, & photographs<br />This helps to build excitement <br />Helps student to feel included and not separated<br />("Is Distance Learning Lacking In Communication?," n.d.)<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  6. 6. Communication/Feedback<br />Channels of communication include: email, website forums, chat rooms, & internet conferencing<br />Help the student to stay in contact<br />Provides the student a means of asking questions<br />Provides more opportunities for communication than some of the traditional classroom settings<br />("Is Distance Learning Lacking In Communication?," n.d.)<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  7. 7. Communication / Feedback-- Activities<br />E-mail<br />With instructor & classmates<br />Use a Course Management System<br /> Desire 2learn<br /> Blackboard<br /> Angel<br />Moodle<br />Notes <br />Study Guides<br />Survey Tools<br />Define objectives thoroughly <br />Wikis<br />Blogs<br />
  8. 8. Collaboration<br />Promotes interaction among students for class assignments<br />Students learning teamwork skills (21st Century Skills)<br />Creates a sense of community (Garrison, 2006)<br />Facilitates sharing of knowledge (Logan, Cowan, Herring, & Wilkes, 2009)<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  9. 9. Collaboration<br />Promotes reflection<br />Students build upon the comments of others<br />Student comments are saved in the discussion area and provide opportunity for students to reflect before contributing to the discussion)<br />Helps to build and maintain group/class cohesion(Garrison, 2006)<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  10. 10. Collaboration--Activities<br />Email <br />Bulletin boards<br />Social chat rooms<br />List serves<br />Phone conferencing<br />Web page <br />Post Photographs<br />Instant messaging<br />Wikis<br />Blogs<br />Use of cloud storage<br />
  11. 11. E-Learning Design Principals<br />Multimedia Principles<br />Collaboration Principles<br />Personalization<br />(Merrill, 2008<br />
  12. 12. E-Learning Design Principals<br />Multimedia--Students learn better when:<br />Words & pictures are better than words alone<br />Words & pictures need to be close on a page<br />Words & pictures need to be presented at the same time <br />Animation and narration are included rather than animation and text<br />(Merrill, 2008)<br />
  13. 13. E-Learning Design Principals<br />Collaboration--The main method of collaboration is text but technology is changing to allow for real-time collaboration.<br />Imperative to create a sense of community among the group. This helps to keep the group engaged and seeking knowledge.<br />(Garrison, 2006)<br />
  14. 14. E-Learning Design Principals<br />Collaboration– Trust must be built among the members of the group.<br />A sense of community among the group. This helps to keep the group engaged and seeking knowledge.<br />Have an area where students introduce themselves.<br />Have an area where students can post questions<br />(Garrison, 2006)<br />
  15. 15. E-Learning Design Principals<br />Personalization—Advances in technology have opened up the avenue of distance learning; information can now be shared quickly and in a variety of formats.<br />When planning instruction, it must be learner centered.<br />Effective learning takes place when students are challenged to think critically—take the material and move beyond just knowing.<br />(Teo & Leng Gay, 2006)<br />
  16. 16. E-Learning Design Principals<br />Personalization—As distance learning becomes more prevalent instructional designers must strive to create lessons that are more learner centered, giving the learner more choices in how to learn the content and how to demonstrate their mastery of the content. <br />(Teo & Leng Gay, 2006)<br />
  17. 17. Software Applications<br />Students will use software to interact in the following ways:<br />Learner to the software<br />Learner to the content<br />Learner to other learners<br />Learner to the instructor<br />(Choy, Ng, & Tsany, 2005)<br />
  18. 18. Software Applications<br />Provide students a location to access class materials—Course Management System<br />Course Materials<br />Textbooks<br />Supplemental Materials<br />Correspondence<br />Discussion forms<br />Place to ask questions of instructors<br />(Choy, Ng, & Tsany, 2005)<br />
  19. 19. Software Applications for DE<br />Moodle—Course Management System<br />Supports a social constructionist theory of learning<br />Open Source Course Management System<br />Must be installed on a web server<br />Can be use for fully on-line or blended courses<br />Activity modules include:<br />Forums, databases, wikis, assessments, delivery of online content<br />Runs on Linux, Mac, Solaris, or Windows<br />(" About," n.d.)<br />
  20. 20. Software Applications for DE<br />Manhattan—Course Management System<br />Can be used to add an on-line component to the traditional classroom or for fully on-line classes<br />Software is a free download<br />Must be loaded on a server<br />Components include: Assignments, Lectures, Handouts, Internet Resources, Tests, Chat, Post Office for e-mail, Class Discussion, Podcasts, Grades, or Team Discussion<br />(Manhattan: Simple. Smart. - Welcome, n.d.)<br />
  21. 21. Software Applications<br />If not using a Learning Management System that contains all the components necessary for student interaction, the following must be easily accessible.<br />E-mail for communication<br />Course materials for reviewing/learning content<br />Discussion area<br />Drop box for assignments<br />(Choy, Ng, & Tsany, 2005)<br />
  22. 22. Other software or Web 2.0 tools to use to ensure that your students have a positive Distance Learning Experience. <br />Just a few examples; there are many <br />other open source/free tools available.<br />
  23. 23. Software—Multi Media<br />Audacity—Audio Player software<br />Recording and editing sounds<br />Record live audio<br />Convert into digital recordings<br />Edit MP3, WAV, or AIFF sound files<br />Cut, copy, splice or mix sounds<br />Change speed or pitch<br />Available for: Mac, Windows, Linux<br />Free, open source<br />(Audacity: Free Audio Editor and Recorder, n.d.)<br />
  24. 24. Software—Multi Media<br />Windows Media Player—Digital media player <br />Play audio, video<br />View images on computer running Windows<br />Rip music from and copy music to CDs<br />Burn recordable CDs in Audio format<br />Available for: Windows<br />Free, open source<br />(, n.d.)<br />
  25. 25. Software—Multi Media<br />PodBean—Podcast hosting<br />Create podcasts<br />Create, upload, publish, & manage your podcast<br />Embed posdcasts into your email, blogs, websites,<br />Free , must sign up to use<br />(, n.d.)<br />
  26. 26. Software—Multi Media<br />PowerPoint—Presentation software<br />Create slide-based presentations– can include:<br />Text<br />Images<br />Color slide designs & diagrams<br />Video—can be embedded or linked<br />Animation<br />Sound<br />Cost = $57/license (Pomeroy IT Resources) WV State Contract<br />("Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 - Presentation and slide software -," n.d.)<br />
  27. 27. Software—Multi-Media<br />Prezi—Presentation software<br />Created and stored on-line<br />Use frames to show multiple items<br />Insert Google images without leaving the Prezi site<br />Insert bendable lines<br />Image cropping<br />Customizable themes<br />Drag & drop files to Prezi Desktop<br />Collaborate in real-time with Prezi Meeting<br />Cost = Free for educators with registration<br />(Prezi - The Zooming Presentation Editor, n.d.)<br />
  28. 28. Software—Communication<br />G-Mail<br />Account free with registration<br />Google Docs<br />Create documents, upload files, share with others<br />Google Talk<br />Chat application, share messages in real time, file transfer, voice chat<br />G-Mail<br />Spam blocker, message search, storage space, chat (Gmail, face to face, video), secure, <br />Blogger<br />Collaborate, discuss, share with others, add video<br />("Google Help Centers - Google Help," n.d.)<br />
  29. 29. Software—Communication<br />ClassChatter<br />Use for blogging and class mail<br />Save for students—private & secure<br />Information is archived permanently for safety<br />Class mail <br />Electronic mail can be share with class or individual student<br />Cannot add images directly to page, can use PicOodle (a free image hosting site)<br />Account free for educators with registration<br />(ClassChatter | Safe and Effective Web Tools For the Classroom, n.d.)<br />
  30. 30. Software--Collaboration<br />GoToMeeting<br />Use a Mac, PC, or iPad<br />Conference via Phone or computer w/speakers<br />Collaborate with small groups<br />Share any application on your computer in real time<br />Joining the meeting takes only seconds<br />Online demonstrations<br />Cost $500 to $1500 per year<br />("Online Meeting | GoToMeeting," n.d.)<br />
  31. 31. Software--Collaboration<br />Skype--<br />Free video calling on computer, mobile, Skype enabled TV--High Definition capability<br />Windows, Mac, Android, iPhone<br />Screen sharing<br />Instant Messaging<br />Group video call (3 or more)<br />Send photos or files while you chat<br />Free<br />(Skype, n.d.)<br />
  32. 32. Software--Collaboration<br />Slideshare--<br /> Share presentations, documents, videos<br />Share privately or publicly<br />Share PDFs, Office, OpenOffice, iWorks, docs<br />Can embed widget on blogs, wikis, & websites<br />Create slidecasts—a combination slideshow and podcast<br />Sync MP3 audio with your slides<br />Free—must create account<br />(Upload & Share PowerPoint presentations and documents, n.d.)<br />
  33. 33. Software--Collaboration<br /><br /> Can be private and moderated<br />Can share photos and videos<br />Chat in real-time<br />Can create groups<br />Can enable blogging<br />$19.95--$59.95 per year <br />Ad-free<br />(Ning, n.d.)<br />
  34. 34. Design processes for Implementation<br />The interaction of these is necessary for learning for student learning. <br />Learners<br />Content<br />Method & Materials<br />Environment <br />Evaluation<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  35. 35. Design processes for Implementation<br />Learners<br /> Recognize that learners come from different backgrounds<br />Get to know your students<br />Age, grade, rural/urban, cultural background<br />Understand their technology abilities<br />Student handouts should be age appropriate<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  36. 36. Design processes for Implementation<br />Learners<br />Student need to learn new material with visuals, simulations, and games<br />Students benefit from chat type discussions<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  37. 37. Design processes for Implementation<br />Content<br />Should be relevant to the student<br />Instruction should be visual<br />Use tables, presentations, graphics, video<br />Student group work<br />All areas of the process should be interactive<br />Student training on the technology during the course<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  38. 38. Design processes for implementation<br />Content<br /> Alternative assignments in case of technical problems<br />Alternate modes of communication in case of technical problems<br />Preplanning for technical problems; communicate with students in the beginning.<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  39. 39. Design processes for implementation<br />Content<br /> Assignments that allow for reflection will increase depth of knowledge<br />Create a variety of learning experiences<br />Content should cover review, new content, & enrichment <br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  40. 40. Design processes for Implementation<br />Methods & Materials<br />Student group work<br />Alternative assignments in case of technical problems<br /> Lay out the lesson to flow smoothly; carefully consider the order of presentation of learner materials<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  41. 41. Design processes for Implementation<br />Methods & Materials<br />Post pertinent course information on-line<br />Use games & simulations<br />Discussions<br />Threaded discussion<br />Chat<br />Business hours via chat<br />Submit Assignments electronically<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  42. 42. Design processes for Implementation<br />Environment<br />Plan for student access of materials<br />Ex. Provide student access to materials in MS Office form and PDF format<br />Use materials that are visual<br />Large font<br />Use fewer words<br />Use upper and lower case letter<br />Make use of white space<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  43. 43. Design processes for Implementation<br />Environment<br /> Use materials that are visual<br /> Use color<br />Copyright issues<br />Always abide by all copyright laws and guidelines<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  44. 44. Design processes for Implementation<br />Environment--Technology<br /> Operation should be smooth<br />Students should be able to do the assignments within the environment<br />Technology should fade to the background; it should be seen as just a tool to get to the content. <br />Plan alternative activities<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />
  45. 45. Design processes for Implementation<br />Evaluation<br />Student evaluations<br />Deadlines are critical<br />Use online assessments<br />Give practice tests<br />Plan for student assessment of the distance learning experience (Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />(Simonson, 2009, pp. 145-160)<br />("Principles of Online Design," n.d.)<br />
  46. 46. References<br />Audacity: Free Audio Editor and Recorder. (n.d.). Retrieved July 09, 2011, from<br />Barclay, M., & Schaak, A. V. (2008). Perscriptive principles of instructional design. In M. Merrill (Author), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Tecnology. Retrieved July 4, 2011, from<br />Choy, S., Ng, S., & Tsany, Y. (2005, November 2). Software agents to assist in distance learning environments. Educause Quarterly. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from<br />ClassChatter | Safe and Effective Web Tools For the Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved July 10, 2011, from<br />Differentiated Instruction | Classroom Challenges | Focus on Effectiveness. (n.d.). Northwest Educational Technology Consortium. Retrieved July 05, 2011, from<br />Garrison, D. R. (2006). Online collaboration principles. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(1).<br />Google Help Centers - Google Help. (n.d.). Google. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from<br />Is Distance Learning Lacking In Communication? (n.d.). SG & Singapore Map - Singapura, Singapur, Singapore Information. Retrieved July 05, 2011, from learning_lacking_in_communication.html<br />Logan, L., Cowan, W., Herring, S., & Wilkes, W. (2009, April 1). Collaborate, engage, and interact in on-line learning [Scholarly project]. Retrieved July 5, 2011, from ttp:// actPaper.pdf<br />Manhattan: Simple. Smart. - Welcome. (n.d.). Retrieved July 10, 2011, from<br />
  47. 47. References<br />Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 - Presentation and slide software - (n.d.). Office - Retrieved July 09, 2011, from<br /> About. (n.d.). Open-source Community-based Tools for Learning. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from<br />Ning. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2011, from <br />Online Meeting | GoToMeeting. (n.d.). Web Conferencing | GoToMeeting. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from <br />Prezi - The Zooming Presentation Editor. (n.d.). Retrieved July 09, 2011, from<br />Principles of Online Design. (n.d.). Florida Gulf Coast University - Fort Myers, Florida. Retrieved July 03, 2011, from<br />Simonson, M. R. (2009). Teaching and learning at a distance: foundations of distance education (pp. 145-160). Boston: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson.<br />Skype. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2011, from <br />Teo, C. B., & Leng Gay, R. K. (2006). A knowledge-driven model to personalize e-learning. ACM Journal of Educational Resources in Computing, 6(1).<br />Upload & Share PowerPoint Presentations and Documents. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2011, from <br />Who are we. (n.d.). Wikispaces. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from<br /> (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2011, from media<br />