Harder Sess8 102209

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Harder Sess8 102209

  1. 1. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood Presenter: Leslie F. Harder, Jr., PhD, PE, GE
  2. 2. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood <ul><li>Coauthors : </li></ul><ul><li>Noah Vroman, PE </li></ul><ul><li>Dam Safety Program Manager, Vicksburg District, USACE, Vicksburg, MS </li></ul><ul><li>George L. Sills, PE </li></ul><ul><li>Manager, George Sills Geotechnical Engineering Consultants, Vicksburg, MS </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Groves </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Vice President, Shannon & Wilson, Saint Louis, MO </li></ul><ul><li>Julie R. Kelley </li></ul><ul><li>Research Geologist, Engineer Research Development Center, USACE, Vicksburg, MS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood <ul><li>Presentation Outline : </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>East Saint Louis Levee (East St. Louis, IL) </li></ul><ul><li>Pin Oak Levee System (Winfield, MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap au Gris Levee Breaches (Eastern MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Birdland Levee Breach (Des Moines, IA) </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>June 2008 Floods : </li></ul><ul><li>14 river systems in Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri, and Minnesota heavily affected by heavy rainfall and flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Both federal and non-federal levee systems along the Illinois, Mississippi, Cedar, Des Moines, White, Missouri, and Grand Rivers affected </li></ul><ul><li>22 levee breaches (due mainly to overtopping) </li></ul><ul><li>19 locations of overtopping without levee failure </li></ul><ul><li>Two dozen lives lost, thousands of homes, businesses flooded </li></ul><ul><li>Over $2 billion in agricultural economic losses, estimated tens of billions of dollars in total damages </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>July 2008 Inspections : </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and document information relating to levee performance and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Sites selected because of the potential for information to be collected relating to vegetation impacts and animal burrowing: </li></ul><ul><li>- East St. Louis Levee </li></ul><ul><li>- Pin Oak Levee Sites </li></ul><ul><li>- Cap au Gris Levee Breaches </li></ul><ul><li>- Birdland Levee Breach </li></ul>
  6. 6. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood <ul><li>Presentation Outline : </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>East Saint Louis Levee (East St. Louis, IL) </li></ul><ul><li>Pin Oak Levee System (Winfield, MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap au Gris Levee Breaches (Eastern MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Birdland Levee Breach (Des Moines, IA) </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks </li></ul>
  7. 7. East St. Louis Levee Distress <ul><li>Mississippi River Levee : </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Berm(s), Relief Wells Installed in 1950’s at ~165-ft spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Landward toe of berm at Cahokia Slough </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Stage 2008 was 11 feet lower than in 1993 Flood </li></ul><ul><li>No distress in 1993, but sand boils observed/flood fight in 2008 </li></ul>
  8. 8. East St. Louis Levee Distress
  9. 9. East St. Louis Levee Distress Relief Well
  10. 10. East St. Louis Levee Distress Disturbed Ground
  11. 11. East St. Louis Levee Distress Uprooted Trees and Root Balls Uprooted Trees and Root Balls Uprooted Trees and Root Balls Disturbed Ground – Broken Roots
  12. 12. East St. Louis Levee Distress
  13. 13. East St. Louis Levee Distress Sand Boils, Rings Disturbed Ground
  14. 14. East St. Louis Levee Distress
  15. 15. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood <ul><li>Presentation Outline : </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>East Saint Louis Levee (East St. Louis, IL) </li></ul><ul><li>Pin Oak Levee System (Winfield, MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap au Gris Levee Breaches (Eastern MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Birdland Levee Breach (Des Moines, IA) </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  17. 17. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  18. 18. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  19. 19. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  20. 20. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  21. 21. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  22. 22. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  23. 23. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach Constructing Emergency Flood Wall Using Hesco Baskets
  24. 24. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  25. 25. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  26. 26. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  27. 27. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  28. 28. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  29. 29. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach Stacked Hesco Baskets Used in New Orleans During Hurricane Gustav
  30. 30. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach
  31. 31. Pin Oak Levee Distress and Breach Animal Burrows Observed in Breach Section
  32. 32. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood <ul><li>Presentation Outline : </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>East Saint Louis Levee (East St. Louis, IL) </li></ul><ul><li>Pin Oak Levee System (Winfield, MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap au Gris Levee Breaches (East. MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Birdland Levee Breach (Des Moines, IA) </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches
  34. 34. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 1
  35. 35. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 1
  36. 36. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 1
  37. 37. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  38. 38. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  39. 39. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  40. 40. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  41. 41. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  42. 42. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  43. 43. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  44. 44. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  45. 45. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  46. 46. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  47. 47. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2 Tree roots extending up and obliquely toward River Burned tree stump at landside toe
  48. 48. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  49. 49. Cap au Gris Levee Breaches – Site 2
  50. 50. Inspection of Levee Distress and Breaches During the Spring 2008 Midwest Flood <ul><li>Presentation Outline : </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>East Saint Louis Levee (East St. Louis, IL) </li></ul><ul><li>Pin Oak Levee System (Winfield, MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Cap au Gris Levee Breaches (Eastern MO) </li></ul><ul><li>Birdland Levee Breach (Des Moines, IA) </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding Remarks </li></ul>
  51. 51. Birdland Levee Distress and Breach (Des Moines, IA)
  52. 52. Birdland Levee Distress and Breach <ul><li>Levee Issues Identified Prior to Failure : </li></ul><ul><li>Located at an Oxbow Lake </li></ul><ul><li>Located in a sharp bend in the river </li></ul><ul><li>Past levee breach at this location in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Levee composed of miscellaneous fill materials, rubble and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Variable slope due to erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Sand seams present within levee - possible source of seepage prior to failure </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive tree and brush growth </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to have ~50-year Flood Protection </li></ul>
  53. 53. Birdland Levee Distress and Breach Area of 2008 Breach
  54. 54. Birdland Levee Distress and Breach
  55. 55. Birdland Levee Distress and Breach
  56. 56. Birdland Levee Distress and Breach Repaired Breach Section
  57. 57. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>Distress and failure of the Pin Oak Levee provided more evidence of the destructive effects on levees by burrowing animals </li></ul><ul><li>The two Cap au Gris levee failures, caused by overtopping flows, exposed previously hidden extensive tree root systems within the breaches. There is no evidence that the roots impacted the performance of the levees. </li></ul><ul><li>Removing trees and their root balls without adequately remediating the disturbed ground and extracting the root system appears to have exacerbated the marginal underseepage/seepage conditions at the east St. Louis levee. </li></ul><ul><li>Large tree roots in the Midwest can penetrate deep into levees, even if they are located more than 15 feet away from the toe of the levee. Many of the existing levee systems in the Midwest, if situated near large trees, are possibly embedded with extensive tree root systems. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Lessons Can Be Learned

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