Fig. 5-2a HO 1 2 3 H HO H Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond H2O HO 1 2 3 4 H Longer polymer (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer
Proteins• Organic compound made up of:CarbonHydrogenOxygenNitrogen
3. Proteins are essential to living things: Proteins are needed to build & maintain cells, digest food, growth, insulin, antibodies for immunity, transmit heredity, movement.4. Examples of Proteins: ◊ Hemoglobin – carries O2 ◊ Actin – muscle contraction ◊ Saliva (Enzyme) – breakdown Carbohydrates. ◊ Lactase (Enzyme) – digest lactose sugar
ProteinsPolymers of amino acids Amino Acids are linked together to make proteins. Amino acids are the monomers and proteins are the polymers.
Amino acids• There are 20 different amino acids that are incorporated into proteins.• All amino acids have an Amino Group (NH2), a Carboxyl group (COOH), and an R-Group (unique side chain that distinguishes that amino acid.
Fig. 5-UN1 g carbon Amino Carboxyl group group
Fig. 5-17 Nonpolar Glycine Alanine Valine Leucine Isoleucine (Gly or G) (Ala or A) (Val or V) (Leu or L) (Ile or ( ) Methionine Phenylalanine Trypotphan Proline (Met or M) (Phe or F) (Trp or W) (Pro or P) Polar Serine Threonine Cysteine Tyrosine Asparagine Glutamine (Ser or S) (Thr or T) (Cys or C) (Tyr or Y) (Asn or N) (Gln or Q) Electrically charged Acidic Basic Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Lysine Arginine Histidine (Asp or D) (Glu or E) (Lys or K) (Arg or R) (His or H)
Fig. 5-21d Abdominal glands of the spider secrete silk fibers made of a structural protein containing c pleated sheets. The radiating strands, made of dry silk fibers, maintain the shape of the web. The spiral strands (capture strands) are elastic, stretching in response to wind, rain, and the touch of insects.
Fig. 5-21f Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals interactions Polypeptide backbone Hydrogen bond Disulfide bridge Ionic bond
5. All chemical reactions that take place in the body are controlled by enzymes and all enzymes are proteins.
Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?• A. store and transmit heredity in the form of a chemical code• B. Help to fight disease (antibodies for immunity)• C. Control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes• D. Build tissues such as bone and muscle
Answer• A. store and transmit heredity in the form of a chemical code
___ link together to make up proteins.• A. sugars• B. lipids• C. amino acids• D. nucleic acids
If you were trying to identify a structuralformula as protein, what would you look for?• A. less than 2:1• B. greater than 2:1• C. 2:1• D. an NH2 & -COOH group, which are known as an amino group and a carboxyl group
• D. an NH2 & -COOH group, which are known as an amino group and a carboxyl group
D. Nucleic Acids• Function- transmits and stores genetic information• Composed of C, H, O, N & P (Phosphorous).
Structure of a nucleotide, the monomer of a nucleic acid
2 types of Nucleic acids• 1) Deoxyribonucleic acid – Contains the sugar deoxyribose – Double stranded• 2)Ribonucleic acid – Contains the sugar ribose – Single stranded
Fig. 5-26-1 DNA 1 Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus mRNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM
E. Testing summary for Biomolecules• Benedict’s solution = yellow or reddish-orange for simple sugars.• Iodine solution = black for starch (complex carbohydrate)• Biuret solution = violet for protein.• Sudan IV solution = red for lipids5. Lipids = clear or translucent spot on brown paper.
Question• Which biomolecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous. It also stores and transmits genetic information?b.Carbohydratesc. Proteinsd.Lipidse.Nucleic acids