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Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules
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Biomolecules macromolecules

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gk12 test 1 - 6-9-12

gk12 test 1 - 6-9-12

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  • Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
  • Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
  • Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides
  • Figure 5.6 Storage polysaccharides of plants and animals
  • Figure 5.10 Chitin, a structural polysaccharide
  • Figure 5.14 Bilayer structure formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in an aqueous environment
  • For the Cell Biology Video Space Filling Model of Cholesterol, go to Animation and Video Files. For the Cell Biology Video Stick Model of Cholesterol, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 5.15 Cholesterol, a steroid
  • Figure 5.12 Examples of saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids
  • Figure 5.12 Examples of saturated and unsaturated fats and fatty acids
  • Figure 5.11 The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol
  • Figure 5.11 The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol
  • Figure 5.17 The 20 amino acids of proteins
  • Figure 5.21 Levels of protein structure — primary structure
  • Figure 5.21 Levels of protein structure — primary structure
  • Figure 5.21 Levels of protein structure — secondary structure
  • Figure 5.21 Levels of protein structure — tertiary and quaternary structures
  • Figure 5.22 A single amino acid substitution in a protein causes sickle-cell disease
  • Figure 5.26 DNA → RNA → protein
  • Figure 5.27 Components of nucleic acids
  • Figure 5.27 Components of nucleic acids
  • Transcript

    1. BiomoleculesThe structures Of Life.
    2. Macromolecules• Monomers= single units• Polymer= many monomers bound together• Monomers, the single units, are polymerized (joined together) to form a polymer
    3. 4 Biomolecules in living thingsFour groups of organic compounds found in living things are: • carbohydrates • lipids • nucleic acids • proteins
    4. I. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates • organic compound made of C, H, & O. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are usually in the ratio of 1:2:1 C6H12O6
    5. Function of Carbohydrates• Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy• Plants and some animals use them as structural support
    6. Examples of Carbohydrates• Sugars – Monosaccharides – Disaccharides – Polysaccharides
    7. 3 types of sugars:• Monosaccharides- simple sugars ( 1 sugar Glucose carbohydrate) • Glucose & Fructose• Disaccharides – sucrose & Lactose ( 2 Sucrose sugars linked together)• Polysaccharides – many simple sugars linked together
    8. Fig. 5-2a HO 1 2 3 H HO H Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond H2O HO 1 2 3 4 H Longer polymer (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer
    9. • A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides• This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage Animation: DisaccharidesCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    10. Fig. 5-2b HO 1 2 3 4 H Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond H2O HO 1 2 3 H HO H (b) Hydrolysis of a polymer
    11. Fig. 5-3 Trioses (C3H6O3) Pentoses (C5H10O5) Hexoses (C6H12O6) Aldoses Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Ketoses Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Fructose
    12. A monosaccharide is a• A. carbohydrate• B. lipid• C. nucleic acid• D. protein
    13. • A. carbohydrate
    14. How many sugars make up a disaccharide?• A. one• B. two• C. three• D. many
    15. • B. two
    16. Sugars, starches, and cellulose are all examples of which group of biomolecules?• A. proteins• B. amino acids• C. lipids• D. carbohydrates
    17. • D. carbohydrates
    18. Storage Polysaccharides• Starch, a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers• Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastidsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    19. Fig. 5-6 Chloroplast Starch Mitochondria Glycogen granules 0.5 µm 1 µm Amylose Glycogen Amylopectin (a) Starch: a plant polysaccharide (b) Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide
    20. • Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals• Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cellsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    21. • Chitin, another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods• Chitin also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungiCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    22. Fig. 5-10 (a) The structure (b) Chitin forms the (c) Chitin is used to make of the chitin exoskeleton of a strong and flexible monomer. arthropods. surgical thread.
    23. Lipids• Fats, oils, waxes, steroids (examples)• Are made mostly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen• Are not soluble in water (they are nonpolar)• Hydrogen : oxygen ratio is greater than 2:1
    24. Functions of Lipids• Used to store energy• Important part of biological membranes
    25. Fig. 5-14 Hydrophilic WATER head Hydrophobic WATER tail
    26. Steroids• Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings• Cholesterol, an important steroid, is a component in animal cell membranes• Although cholesterol is essential in animals, high levels in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular diseaseCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    27. Fig. 5-15
    28. • Saturated Lipids : Solid fats, animals3. Unsaturated Lipids: Oils, plants
    29. Fig. 5-12a Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid (a) Saturated fat
    30. Fig. 5-12b Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule Oleicacid, an unsaturated fatty acid cis double bond causes bending (b) Unsaturated fat
    31. • Hydrogenation is the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen• Hydrogenating vegetable oils also creates unsaturated fats with trans double bonds• These trans fats may contribute more than saturated fats to cardiovascular diseaseCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    32. Q. What is the difference betweensaturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
    33. Q. What is the difference betweensaturated and unsaturated fatty acids? C10H20O2 C10H18O2 A. Unsaturated fatty acids have a carbon = carbon double bond.
    34. Fig. 5-11a Fatty acid (palmitic acid) Glycerol (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a fat
    35. Fig. 5-11b Ester linkage (b) Fat molecule (triacylglycerol)
    36. • Biomolecules composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 2 hydrogen for every 1 oxygen would be a ___________.b.Carbohydratec. Proteinsd.Amino acidse.Nucleic acids
    37. • A. carbohydrate
    38. • This atom is a major part of biomolecules, or organic molecules. A. helium (He) B. fluorine (F) C. carbon (C) D. sodium (Na)
    39. • C. carbon
    40. The structural component of plant cell wallsb.cellulosec. Starchd.proteinse.Glycogen
    41. • C. cellulose
    42. • Which of the following is not a polymer?b.Starchc. Glucosed.Cellulosee.chitin
    43. • A. cellulose
    44. • On food packages, to what does the term "insoluble fiber" refer?b.Polypeptidec. Chitind.Starche.Cellulose
    45. • D. cellulose
    46. • A molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6 is probably ab.Lipidc. Proteind.Carbohydratee.None of the above
    47. • C. carbohydrate
    48. • Cell membranes are made of A. many lipids called phospholipids B. long chains of sugar C. amino acids and water
    49. • A. many lipids called phospholipids
    50. Which type of fat is healthy?b.Saturated fatsc. Unsaturated fats
    51. • B . Unsaturated fats
    52. Proteins• Organic compound made up of:CarbonHydrogenOxygenNitrogen
    53. 3. Proteins are essential to living things: Proteins are needed to build & maintain cells, digest food, growth, insulin, antibodies for immunity, transmit heredity, movement.4. Examples of Proteins: ◊ Hemoglobin – carries O2 ◊ Actin – muscle contraction ◊ Saliva (Enzyme) – breakdown Carbohydrates. ◊ Lactase (Enzyme) – digest lactose sugar
    54. ProteinsPolymers of amino acids Amino Acids are linked together to make proteins. Amino acids are the monomers and proteins are the polymers.
    55. Amino acids• There are 20 different amino acids that are incorporated into proteins.• All amino acids have an Amino Group (NH2), a Carboxyl group (COOH), and an R-Group (unique side chain that distinguishes that amino acid.
    56. Amino Acid Monomers• Amino acids differ in their properties due to differing side chains, called R groupsCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    57. Fig. 5-UN1 g carbon Amino Carboxyl group group
    58. Fig. 5-17 Nonpolar Glycine Alanine Valine Leucine Isoleucine (Gly or G) (Ala or A) (Val or V) (Leu or L) (Ile or ( ) Methionine Phenylalanine Trypotphan Proline (Met or M) (Phe or F) (Trp or W) (Pro or P) Polar Serine Threonine Cysteine Tyrosine Asparagine Glutamine (Ser or S) (Thr or T) (Cys or C) (Tyr or Y) (Asn or N) (Gln or Q) Electrically charged Acidic Basic Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Lysine Arginine Histidine (Asp or D) (Glu or E) (Lys or K) (Arg or R) (His or H)
    59. • The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s three-dimensional structure• A protein’s structure determines its functionCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    60. Four Levels of Protein Structure• The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids• Secondary structure, found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain• Tertiary structure is determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups)• Quaternary structure results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains Animation: Protein Structure IntroductionCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    61. Fig. 5-21 Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Structure Structure Structure Structure S pleated sheet H3 N + Amino end Examples of amino acid subunits A helix
    62. Fig. 5-21a Primary Structure 1 5 H3N + Amino end 10 15 Amino acid subunits 20 25
    63. Fig. 5-21d Abdominal glands of the spider secrete silk fibers made of a structural protein containing c pleated sheets. The radiating strands, made of dry silk fibers, maintain the shape of the web. The spiral strands (capture strands) are elastic, stretching in response to wind, rain, and the touch of insects.
    64. Fig. 5-21f Hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals interactions Polypeptide backbone Hydrogen bond Disulfide bridge Ionic bond
    65. Sickle-Cell Disease: A Change in Primary Structure• A slight change in primary structure can affect a protein’s structure and ability to function• Sickle-cell disease, an inherited blood disorder, results from a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobinCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    66. Fig. 5-22c 10 µm 10 µm Normal red blood Fibers of abnormal cells are full of hemoglobin deform individual red blood cell into hemoglobin sickle shape. molecules, each carrying oxygen.
    67. What Determines Protein Structure?• In addition to primary structure, physical and chemical conditions can affect structure• Alterations in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other environmental factors can cause a protein to unravel• This loss of a protein’s native structure is called denaturation• A denatured protein is biologically inactiveCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    68. 5. All chemical reactions that take place in the body are controlled by enzymes and all enzymes are proteins.
    69. Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?• A. store and transmit heredity in the form of a chemical code• B. Help to fight disease (antibodies for immunity)• C. Control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes• D. Build tissues such as bone and muscle
    70. Answer• A. store and transmit heredity in the form of a chemical code
    71. ___ link together to make up proteins.• A. sugars• B. lipids• C. amino acids• D. nucleic acids
    72. Answer• C. amino acids
    73. If you were trying to identify a structuralformula as protein, what would you look for?• A. less than 2:1• B. greater than 2:1• C. 2:1• D. an NH2 & -COOH group, which are known as an amino group and a carboxyl group
    74. • D. an NH2 & -COOH group, which are known as an amino group and a carboxyl group
    75. D. Nucleic Acids• Function- transmits and stores genetic information• Composed of C, H, O, N & P (Phosphorous).
    76. Structure of a nucleotide, the monomer of a nucleic acid
    77. 2 types of Nucleic acids• 1) Deoxyribonucleic acid – Contains the sugar deoxyribose – Double stranded• 2)Ribonucleic acid – Contains the sugar ribose – Single stranded
    78. Fig. 5-26-1 DNA 1 Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus mRNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM
    79. The Structure of Nucleic Acids• Nucleic acids are polymers called polynucleotides• Each polynucleotide is made of monomers called nucleotides• Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate groupCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    80. Fig. 5-27 55 end Nitrogenous bases Pyrimidines 55C 33C Nucleoside Nitrogenous base Cytosine (C) Thymine (T, in DNA) Uracil (U, in RNA) Purines Phosphate group Sugar 55C (pentose) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) 33C (b) Nucleotide Sugars 33 end (a) Polynucleotide, or nucleic acid Deoxyribose (in DNA) Ribose (in RNA) (c) Nucleoside components: sugars
    81. Fig. 5-27c-1 Nitrogenous bases Pyrimidines Cytosine (C) Thymine (T, in DNA) Uracil (U, in RNA) Purines Adenine (A) Guanine (G) (c) Nucleoside components: nitrogenous bases
    82. E. Testing summary for Biomolecules• Benedict’s solution = yellow or reddish-orange for simple sugars.• Iodine solution = black for starch (complex carbohydrate)• Biuret solution = violet for protein.• Sudan IV solution = red for lipids5. Lipids = clear or translucent spot on brown paper.
    83. Question• Which biomolecule is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous. It also stores and transmits genetic information?b.Carbohydratesc. Proteinsd.Lipidse.Nucleic acids
    84. Answer• D. nucleic acids
    85. DNA & RNA are two types of ____• A. carbohydrates• B. nucleic acids• C. proteins• D. lipids
    86. • B. nucleic acids
    87. All chemical reactions that take place in the body are controlled by• A. enzymes• B. lipids• C. sugars• D. RNA
    88. Answer• A. enzymes
    89. Which group of biomolecules do enzymes belong to?a. Lipidsb. Carbohydratesc. Proteinsd. Nucleic acids
    90. Answer• C. proteins
    91. Which biomolecule does deoxyribonucleic acidbelong to?• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. proteins• D. nucleic acids
    92. • D. nucleic acid
    93. Which monomers contain N?• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. proteins• D. nucleic acids
    94. • C & D- proteins, nucleic acids
    95. Some of these are inorganic• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. proteins• D. none
    96. • D. none
    97. Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. proteins• D. nucleic acids• E. all of the above
    98. • E. all of the above
    99. Contain all the elements C,H, O, N, and P• A. carbohydrates• B. nucleic acids• C. proteins• D. lipids• E. none
    100. • B. nucleic acids
    101. Examples are glucose, sucrose, and maltose• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. proteins• D. nucleic acid• E. none
    102. • A. carbohydrate
    103. Fats, oils, and waxes• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. proteins• D. nucleic acids• E. none
    104. • B. lipids
    105. Monomers made of sugar, N-base, andphosphate• A. carbohydrates• B. lipids• C. nucleic acid• D. protein• E. none
    106. • C. nucleic acid
    107. Enzymes are• A. carbohydrates• B. proteins• C. lipids• D. nucleic acids• E. none
    108. • B. proteins
    109. THEEND

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