The state of the transportation sector is at a tipping point With almost every aspect of standard of living and economic stability dependent on transportation - the rising price of fuel and environmental problems could literally undermine the past 200 years of economic progress › Prices of food, water, durable goods and almost all commodities drastically inflate as oil prices increase. › Many other consequences and externalities
Baglione, M., Duty, M., & Pannone G. (2007). Vehicle System Energy Analysis Methodologyand Tool for Determining Vehicle Subsystem Energy Supply and Demand. SAE TechnicalPaper 2007-01-0398, 2007 SAE World Congress, Detroit, Michigan.
The basic design of the internal combustion engine has been unchanged for over 200 years For every 5 gallon of gas put into your car only 1 gallon is turned into useful work
Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT. (2005) Waste Heat Recovery inAutomobile Engines Retrieved April 7, 2012 from Mit.edu.
75% of the energy is turned into waste heat Creates harmful emissions Unreliable Many “band-aid” components that increase complexity and cost
The primary source of the inefficiency is the failure to recover heat In fact, current technologies actively dispose of the heat energy into the atmosphere. If the heat loss was not a concern engines would be up to 4 times more efficient
While new promising technology such as electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells, or biodiesel are growing alternatives they are not perfect and do very little to combat the main source of inefficiently, heat loss. › Hybrid vehicles › Clean diesels › Hydrogen vehicles › Etc.
Mining for precious metal is costly Hydrogen tanks are very explosive Hydrogen releases water the greatest green house gas › Water has an effective green house gas coefficient of 5 times CO2. Biodiesel would increase food prices and lower standard of living › Crops would be refined lowering food supply
Very simple – combine a heat engine and conventional engine Integrate a Stirling engine that runs off heat into a conventional heat engine. The Stirling engine „absorbs‟ the waste heat turning it into useful work.
Volume expansion must be 90 degrees out of phase for use as an engine -90 degrees out of phase the Stirling engine works as a heat pump
Cold temperature 273K Engine temperature 500K 1-273/500 = .454 Efficiency of heat recovery .454*75% waste heat 34.05% increase in fuel efficiency 34.05%/18% = 1.9x better fuel economy
Integrate the Stirling engine such that the hot cylinder is near the combustion cylinders and the cold cylinder is thermally isolated and cooled.
• During braking the engine can store kinetic energy as a temperature differential within the Stirling engines and utilize this temperature differential at a later time.
Regenerative braking › When the vehicle needs to slow down the engine will store the energy as a temperature differential › When the vehicle needs to accelerate the engine will use the temperature differential to power the vehicle Fuel-less Idle › During a no or low load situation the Stirling engines can run off the temperature differential and the injection of fuel can be omitted.
Car can idle without using gas No need for a quick start mechanism No need for a radiator No need for water based coolant Self regulating temperature No need to idle the engine to warm up the engine Engine is capable of recovering and reusing kinetic energy Often times the combustion of fuel can be omitted and the Stirling engine can power the vehicle alone
Applied for a patent application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office Abstract: Claims › The design or apparatus › The methods of operation › Means of operation Patent Pending › Acquire Investors
Why are companies not doing this › Rather complex design All components must work together › There is really no “need” too Companies are going to profit regardless of the type of cars they sell Would producing these Engines be a practical business venture? › Yes, very large demand, possibility for high volume and high margin manufacturing. › Vehicles and power generation
Baglione, M., Duty, M., & Pannone G. (2007). Vehicle System Energy Analysis Methodology and Tool for Determining Vehicle Subsystem Energy Supply and Demand. SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0398, 2007 SAE World Congress, Detroit, Michigan. Bandivadekar, A., Bodek, K., Cheah, L., Evans, C., Groode, T., Heywood, J., Kasseris, E., Kromer, M., and Weiss, M.. (2008). On The Road in 2035: Reducing Transportations Petroleum Consumption and GHG Emissions MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Report No. LFEE 2008-05 RP, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Baglione, M. (2007). Development of System Analysis Methodologies and Tools for Modeling and Optimizing Vehicle System Efficiency. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Michigan. Bellis, M. (2008). The History of the Automobile - Gas Engines. Inventors. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarsgasa.htm California Energy Commission. (2011). Energy Losses in a Vehicle California Consumer Energy Center Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/transportation/consumer_tips/vehicle_energy_losses.html Consumer Energy Center. California Energy Commission. (2012). Energy Losses in a Vehicle. Retrieved April 07, 2012, from http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/transportation/consumer_tips/vehicle_energy_losses.html Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT. (2005) Waste Heat Recovery in Automobile Engines Retrieved April 7, 2012 from Mit.edu. Green Car Congress (2011) Honda Outlines Technology for Fuel Efficiency Push; Engines, Transmissions, Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Powertrains. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://www.greencarcongress.com/2011/11/honda- 20111130.html Green Car Congress. (2008) Green Car Congress: Waste Heat Recovery System. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://www.greencarcongress.com/2008/11/waste-heat-reco.html U.S. Department of Energy. (2007). Engine Technologies Retrieved April 7, 2012 from http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/tech_engine_more.shtml United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Engine Technologies, Fuel Economy. Retrieved April 07, 2012, from http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/tech_engine_more.shtml Yokoyama, T. (2010) Energy Efficiency. Clean Car Options. Retrieved April 7, 2012 from http://www.cleancaroptions.com/html/energy_efficiency.html