Chapter Outline The Devolpment of Higher Education Programs for Police + Federal Programs and Support for Higher Education + Quality of Higher Education Programs +Higher Education Requirements for Police +Police Chiefs, Promotion, and Higher Education
Chapter Outline Cont.. The Impact of Higher Education on Policing +Higher Education and Attitudes We will be discussing the history, also how and if a college education for police officers is necessary. Key Terms from pages 437 to 445
Important Key Terms President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration Justice Comprehensive report that was issued by the commission titled The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society (1967) Documented the serious impact of crime on U.S. society Issued over 200 specific proposals for action involving all levels of the government and society. Majority of recommendations dealt with the police.
Key Terms Cont.. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Created after Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act Through LEAA, the federal government poured literally billions of dollars into the criminal justice system, focusing on police, in an attempt to improve their effectiveness and reduce crime. Money was used for departments that could not afford cars, communication devices, weapons, and training. Rather than introducing programs, it gave a perspective of “more of the same”.
Key words Cont.. Law Enforcement Education Program Alsoknown as (LEEP) Established in late 1960s Provided financial assistance to police personnel and to others who desired to become a police officer by assisting with them with a college education. Impact of LEEP was successful; In 1955 there were 22 such programs, by 1975 a increase of 700 community colleges and 400 colleges and universities.
Key Terms Cont.. National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals Created in 1973 and was heavily influential Report on Police Advanced the higher recommendations made by the president’s commission Required police officers at the time of employment to have completed a certain amount of education.
National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals Required police officers at the time of employment, to have completed at least two years of education (60 semester units) at an accredited college or university by 1975. By 1978, at least three years of education (90 semester units) By 1982, a baccalaureate degree must be obtained.
Key Terms Cont.. Crime Control Act Most comprehensive federal crime legislation since the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968. This act allocated approximately $30 billion dollars to various criminal justice agencies $11 billion for state and local law enforcement $9 billion to hire an additional 100,000 police officers under the community-orientated policing services (COPS) program.
Crime Control ActWhat did it do? New officers were used by local departments to help further their community-policing efforts. Legislation provided federal funds to establish a police corps, scholarships, and recruiting programs for local police departments. Largest federal investment in education for law enforcement personnel since LEEP.
Key Terms Cont.. Police Corps/scholarship and recruitment programs Established under Title XX of the Crime Control Act and administered through the Office of the Police Corps program. Under the program, full-time college students are eligble up to $10,000 annual tuition reimbursement. Must agree to work in a state or local police force up to at least four years after graduating.
Key Words Cont.. National Advisory Commission on Higher Education for Police Officers Created by the Police Foundation and put together a commission spending two years conducting a national survey and documenting problems of police education. Was extremely critical of the state of the art of police education at the time. Recommended changes of all phases in police education such as: institutional, curriculum, and faculty.
National Advisory Commission on Higher Education for Police Officers Recommended changes in: Federal funds for police higher education should go to broad curriculums and well-educated faculty rather than narrow technical programs. No college credit should be granted for attending police department training program. Recommended changes in: Community colleges should phases out terminal two-year programs in police education. Colleges should employ primarily full-time police education teaching staffs seeking members with PhDs Prior employment in criminal justice field Government policies at all levels should encourage educating police officers before they begin their careers.
Introduction Initial requirement of a high school education to enter the police field, when most officers never finished high school. Statistics from the Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare indicated that half of the population in 1946 never graduated high school. High school diploma or GED became standard requirement for a majority of the country’s police department. Today, having a college degree is above average level of education attainment in the U.S. Police departments have not raised their education requirements, because of the tradition to higher people with above-average education.
Requirements based on job. Police forces at various government levels require different levels of education. Most federal agencies such as: the FBI, DEA, and ATF require at least a college degree. Many police departments now require a two-year degree, but the inflation candidates having a two-year degree is equivalent to those having a high school diploma in the 1960s.
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police In the early 1900s, Chief Police August Vollmer campaigned for police courses in higher education. Created and established the first police school in higher education at the University of California Berkeley. His efforts reformed and professionalized the police. Vollmer gained the reputation as the “Father of modern American policing”
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. Following Vollmer’s lead, other programs at universities began emphasizing in police education. Between the 1920s and mid 1930s, a number of schools established studies in criminal justice programs, primarily the police. A majority of the programs still exist today such as : Michigan State University, Indiana University, San Jose State University, and University of Chicago.
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. Early programs laid the foundation for higher education in criminal justice. Labeled such as police science, police administration, or law enforcement. Developed in four-year institutions and many community colleges in the 1960s. Programs dealt with administration and supervision issues in policing, and the applications of the science of policing such as: patrol procedures, traffic enforcement, criminalistics, criminal investigation, and report writing. During these years many police departments had no formal training programs and were designed to fill in the gaps.
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. The concept of college-educated police officers were strongly resisted by rank-and-file officers. “College Cops” were viewed as suspicious and distrustful. Based by Goldstein’s reasoning based on the findings during this era.
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. Goldstein found that: Viewing the police role in simplistic terms The need to hire only low-quality personnel to perform the job Low pay Lack of advancement opportunities Low status It should be noted that all continued to play a role discouraging the concept of advanced education for the police.
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. Two significant and interrelated events that took place in the 1960s that lead to the level of professionalism of U.S. police forces as well as the rest of the criminal justice system The two events played a major role at ushering the “golden age” of higher education.
The Two Events were… The first event was… The enormous increase in the crime rate that began in the 1960s and moved up in the 1980s. One of the first Gallop polls taken found that crime was ranked as the most national issue. Found that 3 persons in 10 and 4 in ten woman of larger cities were afraid to go out at night. The second event was… Inner city rioting, which occurred in the mid-1960s. Burning, looting, and general turmoil in many cities spurred officials to take action. At this juncture, the “war on crime” began.
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. Serious and continuing problems between the community and police were a major concern. Minority groups and lower socioeconomic groups were the majority of voicing concerns Commission recommended “wide spread improvement in strength and caliber of police man power was needed.” Upgrading the quality of policing was thought to be more effective and fairer law enforcement .
The Development of Higher Education Programs for Police Cont.. Most controversial and significant recommendations was to aim for all police departments hiring personnel with a baccalaureate degree. Immediate steps should be taken for all police departments to have a baccalaureate degree as a minimum for all supervisory and executive level positions.
Higher Education Requirement for Police Advances in raising educational requirements for police have been slow and sporadic. Until the 1980s, many police departments showed resentment towards officers with a college degree. It was not understood why someone with a college degree would become a police officer. The Bureau of Justice Statistics found that only 1%of departments required a college degree for employment.
Higher Education Requirement for Police Cont… Look at Table 14.1 for examples of disparities among officers with and without a college degree. Only 1% of departments in cities serving more than 1,000,000 residents, required a four-year degree. 18% of departments in cities serving more than 1,000,000 residents, require some college. 9% of departments required a two-year degree.
Higher Education Requirement for Police Cont… BJS survey reports that 12% of sheriff's offices require some college. 6% of all offices require a two-year degree. According to BJS survey in 2003, 33% of offices required some college education. From 1990-2000 the percentages of officers with a degree requirement jumped from 3% to 9%. For sheriff's offices the rate jumped from 3% to 5%
Higher Education Requirement for Police Cont… Formal requirement of college education requirements have been slow. One quarter to one third of officers in the field have a four-year degree. In a 1994 national study with departments with more than 500 sworn officers, found that approximately 28% of officers were college graduates. In a study performed by the Police Executive Research Forum found that of 985 municipal, county, and state police one-third had a college degree.
Conclusion Higher education is a growing requirement throughout police departments across the nation. Stigmas of hiring a college education has grown to be the norm. Higher education effectiveness has yet to be further researched. If all of you in class graduate, the chances of you obtaining a position as a police officer is significantly increased. Congratulations!
Class Discussion Do you feel that higher education is needed to become a police officer? What should be the standard? Some college, two-year, or four-year degree? Why is it important? Should we invest more emphasis in requiring graduate programs for police officers? What would you recommend as “training” for police officers in the classroom? Certain classes? Do you believe that higher education and community-policing go hand-in-hand?