Cold War Begins
– a non-military battle of
the United States and
– Lasted from 1945-1990
– led to “hot” wars around globe
in Korea, Vietnam
- Many of the smaller wars were
called proxy wars because the
U.S. and U.S.S.R. never fought
face to face
U.S. vs. USSR (Soviet
Private property State owns
The Ideological Struggle
US & the
Communism & the
eventual collapse of
the Communist world.
Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
Arms Race [nuclear escalation]
Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts
of Third World peoples [Communist govt. &
command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist
economy] “proxy wars”
Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The “Iron Curtain”
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the
Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
CONTAINMENT POLICY: The U.S.
would work to stop the spread of
1. Truman Doctrine
2. Marshall Plan
3. NATO and other alliances
4. The Truman Doctrine &
Truman Doctrine: U.S. would aid
countries around the world who
are fighting communism (like
Greece and Turkey).
Domino Theory: If the U.S. doesn’t
fight communism, then
countries will fall to communism
The ‘Truman Doctrine’
• Truman had been horrified at the pre-
war Allied policy of appeasement and
was determined to stand up to any Soviet
The Truman Doctrine in March 1947
promised that the USA “would support
free peoples who are resisting
subjugation by armed minorities or
by outside pressures”.
• Triggered by British inability to hold the
line in Greece, it was followed by aid to
Greece and Turkey, and also money to
help capitalists to stop communists in
Italy and France.
It signalled the end of “isolationst”
The Marshall Plan 1948
• Plan to aid Europe—
– Prevent countries
from falling to
– Aid American
• $17 billion to 16
countries in Europe
(not Soviet Union)
The ‘Marshall Plan’
• The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to
enable the economies of Europe to rebuild
after World War II, and, by generating
prosperity, to reject the appeal of
The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern
European countries from receiving American
NATO vs. WARSAW PACT
North Atlantic Treaty
alliance among U.S. and
Europe against the
Soviet Union. Still
Warsaw Pact: Defense
alliance among Soviet
Union and its satellite
governments in Eastern
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1952: Greece &
1955: West Germany
Warsaw Pact (1955)
} U. S. S. R.
} East Germany
• Nuremburg Trials for war crimes
• Divided into 4 zones:
– West Germany – U.S., Britain, and
– East Germany- Soviets
– Capitol city of Berlin divided into 4
zones (in East Germany)
• Berlin Airlift: In 1948-49, the U.S.
and Europe flew food and
supplies to save West Berlin,
until Soviets reopened roads.
Improve your knowledge
• The Russians took very high casualties to
capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the
early occupation trying to take over all zones
of the city but were stopped by German
democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad
Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to
admit the Americans, French and British to
their respective zones.
Iron Curtain –
A term used by
to describe the
lands of East
Europe from the
• West Berlin, was an outpost of Western
democracy and economic success deep within
the communist zone – like a capitalist island
within communist East Germany
• The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to
starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up]
to the communists
• The Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the
West’s determination to use all resources to
It was felt by both sides that Berlin could act as
the trigger for general war between capitalist
and communist countries
Post War Japan:
• U.S. occupied – under
– New constitution
– Democracy with Emperor as
– Rebuild economy
– Abolished army and navy
• Tokyo trials convicted war
The Red Scare
• Intense fear of Communists taking
– China became a Communist country
– Soviets developed an atomic bomb
– Rosenbergs convicted of selling
atomic secrets to Soviet Union.
• In 1950, Republican Senator
Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin
claimed that he had “lists” of
communists in the U.S.
• Falsely accused hundreds of
people of being active
Communists, ruining lives.
• When hearings were televised,
people saw that McCarthy was
wrongly accusing many people.
• Censured (punished) by Senate.
• U.S. General Douglas MacArthur led the U.N. force,
approximately 80% of which were U.S. soldiers.
Korean War, 1950-53
• Divided north and south at 38th
parallel at end of WWII.
• In 1950, Communist North
Korea invaded South Korea.
• The U.S. and United Nations,
aided the South; China aided
the North Koreans.
• Treaty signed in 1953, keeping
dividing line at 38th parallel
• 33,000 American soldiers died,
Ending the War:
• President Truman disagreed with MacArthur about attacking
• Gen. MacArthur wanted to attack China with support of
• U.N. troops regained South Korea by March of 1951.
• Truman fired MacArthur for defying him by publicly
taunting and threatening the Chinese.
• Began when Soviets beat the
U.S. into space
– Soviet satellite Sputnik launched in
– Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite,
was launched in 1958.
• The National Defense Act of
1958 approved federal funding
of education in math, science
and foreign languages.
• Reforms in education –
The Arms Race:
A “Missile Gap?”
} The Soviet Union
exploded its first
A-bomb in 1949.
} Now there were
Nuclear Arms Race
• Hydrogen bomb
invented – both U.S.
and Soviets had them
• 1,000 times more
powerful than atomic
• Dangers of fallout and
• Many built
Improve your knowledge
• The nuclear bomb gave America a lead
which was expected to last at least 5
years. The rapid Russian development of
nuclear technology, helped by the work of
the “atom spies” was a shock.
Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared
war against Japan at the beginning of
August 1945 and rushed to advance into
Asia to stake out a position for the post-
war settlement. This helped make both the
Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more
Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist
states, it doesn't
depend on you
(Soviet Union) exist.
If you don't like us,
don't accept our
invitations, and don't
invite us to come
to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our
side. We will bury you. -- 1956
An Historic Irony: Sergei
Khrushchev, American Citizen
Who buried who?