Old Covenant quick overview The old covenant was made to expose sin and make way for the new covenant in Jesus Christ. A important thing to remember is that since Jesus has not been risen to glory yet they did not have the Holy Sprit. It was also the time were Moses received the 10 commandments. I will be making most of my references from the book of Exodus if you wish to read that before reading this.
Starting of the Covenant Before the 10 Commandments were given God spoke to Moses and made him a offer. “Now then, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own possession among all the peoples, for all the earth is Mine; and you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words that you shall speak to the sons of Israel." Exodus 19:5-6
Meeting with the Elders When God said this Moses went down called the Elders and told them everything the LORD has said. They all agreed to obey God and they all said “All that the LORD has spoken we will do!”. After this Moses went back to God and told him that everyone will obey him and keep his commandments.
Three Days After Moses returns to the LORD he tells Moses that he will come to him in a thick cloud so everyone will see and hear him so everyone will believe him. Then Moses told God what the people said and the LORD told him. “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments; and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the LORD will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.”
The Third Day In the morning on the third day their was lighting, thunder and a cloud over the mountain. Also a very loud sound like a trumpet so everyone was scared. The mountain was up in smoke and quaked violently. After the LORD called Moses to come up he told him to go back down and tell everyone to stay back and not to come up. When Moses returned it is then he gave Moses the ten commandments.
The Ten Commandments I am the LORD your God, you shall have no other gods before me. You shall not take the Name of the LORD your God in vain. Keep holy the Sabbath day. Honor your father and your mother. You shall not kill.
The Ten Commandments 6. You shall not commit adultery. 7. You shall not steal. 8. You shall not bear false witness. 9. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife. 10. You shall not covet your neighbor's goods. All of these representing a quality we all should have: Faith (Trust in God), Respect, Renewal, Family, Respect For Life , Chastity, Justice (Honesty), Truth, ,Purity , Generosity.
The fallen Since Jesus has not been glorified yet they did not have the Holy Sprit. Since they did not have the Holy Sprit to help and guide them like we do now they were unable to keep and obey the LORDS commandments. They made idols and broke commandments. As it says in Hebrews 8:7 “For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion sought for a second.”
Last Thoughts Since I know most people do not like long lengthy reading I try to keep it short and to the point. To get the full knowledge please read or listen to Exodus from chapter 20 and on. For a comparison of the Old and New covenant please visit: http://www.biblestudy.org/beginner/brief-comparison-of-old-and-new-covenant.html