การพัฒนาทรัพยากรมนุษย์

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การพัฒนาคนสำคัญยิ่งต่อทุกองค์กร จึงทำให้องค์การตื่นตัวต่อการลงทุนในทรัพยากรมนุษย์โดยหวังว่าบุคลากรจะมีความสามารถ และทำประโยชน์ให้องค์การตามที่ฝายจัดการคาดหวัง

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  • Initiator ( n ) ผู้ริเริ่ม เริ่มแรก
  • Unique ( adj. ) หนึ่งเดียว เอกลักษณ์
  • Within ( adv. ) ภายใน
  • Aptitude ( n ) ความถนัด ความเหมาะสม ความฉลาด expertise ( n ) ความเชี่ยวชาญ
  • Envision ( vt. ) นึก คาดคิด integration ( n ) การรวมเป็นหนึ่งเดียว บูรณาการ
  • Unleashing ( vt. ) ปล่อยออก โจมตี
  • Label ( n ) ป้าย ฉลาก
  • Diversity ( n ) การผันแปร ชนิดต่าง ๆ หลากหลาย
  • note : Workplace learning
  • acquiring ( vt. ) ได้มา ได้รับ
  • Reinforcement ( n ) การเพิ่มเติมกำลัง เสริมแรง : Expectancy ( n ) การคาดหวัง อายุเกณฑ์เฉลี่ย
  • Storage ( n ) คลังสินค้า การประจุไฟ ; Semantic ( adj. ) เกี่ยวกบความหมาย ; Encoding รหัส : Retrieval ( n ) การปรับปรุง ;Generalizing ทั่วไป สรุป Gratifying ( v ) ควมพอใจ
  • Trait ( n ) คุณลักษณะพิเศษ Motive ( n ) เหตุจูงใจ
  • Providing ( v ) การเตรียมการ จัดหา ; Inhibit ( v ) กลั้น ยับยั้ง ขัดขวาง
  • Curriculum ( n ) หลักสูตร
  • Peer n ) เพื่อน ยศเท่าเทียมกัน Subordinate ( adj. ) ผู้ใต้บังคับบัญชา
  • Feature ( n ) ส่วนสำคัญ Occurs ( vt . ) ปรากฎ บังเกิด Mismatch ไม่ตรงกัน เข้ากันไม่ได้
  • Externship พ้นสภาพลูกจ้าง ; พนักงาน
  • Determine ( vt . ) กำหนดเป็นทางการ
  • Investigation ( V ) การสอบสวน
  • Derive ( V ) สิ่งที่มาจาก Instructional ( n ) คำแนะนำ วิธีการ
  • Occurs ( vt. ) บังเกิด
  • Emphasis ( n ) ความสำคัญ : Appropriate ( adj. ) เหมาะสม ถูกต้องสถานการณ์ : Enhance ( vt. ) ปรับปรุง ทำให้สวยงามขึ้น Stimulus ( n ) สิ่งเร้า กระตุ้น : Cognitive ( n ) การคาดการณ์ ลางบอกเหตู
  • Aspects ( n ) ทัศนะ ท่าทาง มุม ด้าน
  • Determining ( v ) ตัดสินใจ กำหนด : Consequences ( n ) ผล ความสำคัญ : Acquired ( v. ) ได้รับ : Reinforcement ( n ) การเสริมแรง เพิ่มเติมกำลัง
  • Peer ระดับ เท่ากัน
  • Obstacles ( n ) อุปสรรค ; Inhibit ( vt. ) ยับยั้ง ขัดขวาง ; Inadequate ( adj. ) ไม่เพียงพอ ; Transfer ( n ) การโอน การส่งผ่าน
  • Provide จัดหา เตรียมการ
  • Inhibit ( vt. ) ยับยั้ง ขัดขวาง ; Oppose ( vt. ) ขัดขวาง ต่อต้าน
  • Perform ( v ) แสดง การกระทำ
  • Acquired ( v ) ได้รับ ; Prompt ( adj. ) พร้อม ทันที ; ( n ) กำหนดเวลา ( vt. ) กระตุ้น เตือน ; Cues ( v ) คำแนะนำ ; consequence ( n ) ความสำคัญ
  • Extrinsic ( adj. ) จากภายนอก ; Intrinsic ( adj. ) แท้จริง , จากภายใน
  • Attend ( v ) ติดตาม ; Session ( n ) การประชุม ; Accommodate ( vt. ) ปรับ รองรับจัดหา ; Rearranging ( n ) การจัดใหม่ ; Acknowledge ( vt. ) ยอมรับ
  • Enhance ( vt. ) เพิ่มพูน ; Scrutinized ( vt. ) เฝ้าดู ติดตามสังเกต พิจารณาอย่างละเอียดรอบคอบ ; Aligned ( vt. ) จัดให้ตรง สอดคล้อง
  • Features ( n ) เรื่องราว ลักษณะ ; Generation ( n ) การผลิต
  • Tacit ( n ) ความรู้ที่ติดตัวมา ความสามารถเฉพาะ ถ่ายทอดยาก ; Explicit ( adj. ) ชัดเจน ความรู้ได้จากการเรียนรู้ตามระบบ ถ่ายทอด เรียนรู้ง่าย
  • Enhance เพิ่มพูน
  • Assemble ( vt. ) ประชุม ประกอบ ; Throughout ( adv. ) ตลอดเวลา โดยทั่ว
  • Endurance ( n ) ความมานะ อดทน ; Pay - off ( idiom ) กำหนดจ่ายเงิน
  • Devoted ( vt. ) เสียสละ actually ( adv. ) อย่างแท้จริง
  • Collected ( adj. ) รวบรวม
  • Formative ( adj. ) ทำให้เป็นรูปร่าง ; Summative ( adj. ) การรวบรวมผล สรุปผล ; Extent ( n ) ขอบเขต ความกว้าง
  • Contribute ( v ) มีส่วน บริจาค
  • Execute ( vt. ) ปฏิบิตตาม
  • Acquisition ( n ) การได้มา การแสวงหา สิ่งที่พีงประสงค์
  • Cognitive ( adj. ) การคาดการณ์ ล่วงหน้า
  • Emphasizes ( vt. ) เน้นหนัก ; Acquisition ( n ) การได้มา การแสวงหา สิ่งที่พึงประสงค์
  • Perceptions ( n ) การหยั่งรู้
  • Relevant ( adj. ) ความเกี่ยวข้อง สัมพันธ์ ; Discriminate ( v ) มีความแตกต่าง
  • Emphasized ( adj. ) เน้นหนัก ; Contamination ( vt. ) ทำให้ไม่บริสุทธิ์ ;Inappropriate ( adj. ) ไม่ถูกต้อง ไม่เหมาะสม ; Extraneous ( adj. ) นอกเรื่อง Deficiency ( adj. ) ไม่เรียบร้อย ขลุกขลัก
  • Consistently ( adv. ) อย่างเรื่อย ๆ
  • Reversal ( n ) การเปลี่ยนแปลง
  • การพัฒนาทรัพยากรมนุษย์

    1. 1. : HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Dr. TERMSAK SUWANSAK 6 November 2010 PHITSNULOK UNIVERSITY HRD
    2. 2. A picture of today’s management ? From Western perspectives!
    3. 3. <ul><li>Getting the Work Out/ Result-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the Work Done with and through Others </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Vision and Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Development/Continuous Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>( KAIZEN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Managing People </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1. HR as THE Initiator and Designer of Development Experiences 2. HR as The Partner of Top Management for Development HRD People’s Roles!
    5. 5. 5. HR’s Unique Role is Closing the Gaps 3. Selling Top Management on Their Mission Critical Role in Talent Development 4. Managing the Talent Supply
    6. 6. Example Definitions of HRD <ul><li>Nadler ( 1970 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Swanson ( 1987 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Marsick & Watkins </li></ul><ul><li>( 1994 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Nadler : บิดาแห่ง HRD </li></ul>
    7. 7. Nadler ( 1970 ) <ul><li>“ HRD is a series of organized activities conducted within a specified time and designed to produce behavioral change” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Swanson ( 1987 ) <ul><li>HRD is a process of improving an organization’s performance through the capabilities of its personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>HRD includes activities dealing with work design , aptitude , expertise , and motivation. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Marsick & W atkins ( 1994 ) <ul><li>“ HRD as a combination of training , career development , and organization development offers the theoretical integration need to envision a learning organization , but it a must also be positioned to act strategically throughout the organization”. </li></ul>
    10. 10. HRD: Swanson& Holton(2002) <ul><li>is a process for developing and unleashing human expertise through organization development and personnel training and development for purpose improving performance </li></ul>
    11. 11. Concept, activity areas, and types or labels for activities of HRD: NADLER Job Org Individual Training Development Education The concept of HRD
    12. 12. Principles of HRD Model: Gilley & Eggland& Maycunich, 2002: 14 Performance Management Individual Development Career Development Organization development HRD Roles & Practices Focus Individual organization Short-term Long-term RESULTS
    13. 13. New Theoretical Concepts: 07/10/11 HRD HRM The management of Diversity The New Management Theories The knowledge creation HRM Delahaye(2000)
    14. 14. Delahaye(2005)
    15. 15. <ul><li>Learning: the process of acquiring new knowledge and expertise in people </li></ul>Important definitions:
    16. 16. L = P + Q <ul><li>L = Learning </li></ul><ul><li>P = Programmed learning that comes from books, lectures, or secondary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Q = learning that comes from asking questions, looking at the evidence, and discussing or drawing conclusions based on experience </li></ul>
    17. 17. It is what we think “ we know already that ” often prevents us from learning. Claude Bernard
    18. 18. Learning Theories Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories Need Theories Expectancy Theory Adult Learning Theory Information Processing Theory
    19. 19. บิดาแห่ง : Adult Learning <ul><li>: Malcolm Knowles </li></ul><ul><li>August,24.1913-November,27.1997 </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Learning Process: Mental and Physical Processes LEARNING Expectancy Perception Working Storage Semantic Encoding Long –Term Storage Retrieval Generalizing Gratifying
    21. 21. Self-concept Trait Motive Skill Knowledge Hidden Visible The Iceberg Model
    22. 22. Approaches to Employee Development Formal Education Assessment Job Experiences Interpersonal Relationships
    23. 23. Formal Education <ul><li>Formal education programs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>off-site and on-site programs designed specifically for the company’s employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short courses offered by consultants or universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>executive MBA programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>university programs in which participants actually live at the university while taking classes </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Assessment <ul><li>Assessment involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Used most frequently to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify employees with managerial potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measure current managers’ strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify managers with potential to move into higher-level executive positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with teams to identify members’ strengths and weaknesses, and factors that inhibit productivity </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Popular Assessment Tools Benchmarks Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Assessment Center Performance Appraisals & 360-Degree Feedback
    26. 26. Myers – Briggs Type Indicator : MBTI <ul><li>Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs , her mother. ทดสอบโดย C.G. Jung ( 1875-1961 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Types: ความแตกต่างระหว่างบุคคล </li></ul><ul><li>Self – understanding and development </li></ul><ul><li>Career development and exploration </li></ul><ul><li>O.D : Organization Development </li></ul><ul><li>Team Building > Management & Leadership Training </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving > Relationship Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Education and curriculum Development </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity and multicultural Training </li></ul>
    27. 27. 360- Degree Feedback System Rating Form Rating Form Rating Form Rating Form Self Peers Customers Subordinates Manager
    28. 28. Job Experiences <ul><li>Job experiences refer to relationships, problems, demands, tasks, or other features that employees face in their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most employee development occurs through job experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>A major assumption is that development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employee’s skills and past experiences and the skills required for the job. </li></ul>
    29. 29. How Job Experiences are Used for Employee Development Enlargement of Current Job Experiences Promotion Job Rotation (Lateral Move) Transfer (Lateral Move) Downward Move Temporary Assignment with Another Organization Externship
    30. 30. The Critical Events Model: CEM used in Training Leonard Nadler
    31. 31. Identify the Needs of the Organization Specify Job Performance Build Curriculum Identify Learner Needs Determine Objectives Select Instructional Strategies Obtain Instructional Resources Conduct Training Evaluation and Feedback
    32. 32. P-KD = N where P = Job performance KD = What learner already knows or Doe s N= Needs FORMULA FOR Needs:
    33. 33. Four Stages of HRD: <ul><li>Investigation: HRDNI </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation - การปฏิบัติ </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation - การประเมินผล </li></ul><ul><li>HRDNI : HRD – Needs Investigation - การสอบสวน </li></ul>
    34. 34. How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and Instruction Conducive to Learning: Creating A Learning Setting Preparation Classroom Management Engaging Trainees Managing Group Dynamics
    35. 35. Glodstein ’s instructional system Assessment instructional need Derive Objectives Development criteria Pretest trainees Monitor training Evaluate training Evaluate transfer Select training media and learning principles Conduct training Assessment Phase Development Phase Training and Development Phase
    36. 36. Recognize the Need for Change Determine T&D Need Establish Specific Objectives Select T&D Media Implement T&D Programs Evaluate T&D Programs Select T&D Method(s) external environment internal environment External Environment Internal environment
    37. 37. Transfer of Training <ul><li>Transfer of training refers to trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training on their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>The work environment plays an important role in ensuring that transfer of training occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of training is also influenced by trainee characteristics and training design. </li></ul>
    38. 38. A Model Of The Transfer Process Trainee Characteristics Training Design Work Environment Motivation Ability Create a Learning Environment Apply Theories of Transfer Use Self-Management Strategies Climate for Transfer Management and Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support Learning Retention Generalization and Maintenance
    39. 39. Transfer of Training Theories Near and far All types of training and environments Meaningful material and coding schemes enhance storage and recall of training Cognitive theory Far Work environment is unpredictable and highly variable General principles are applicable to many different work situations Stimulus generalization Near Work environment features are predictable and stable Training environment is identical to work environment Identical elements Type of Transfer Appropriate Conditions Emphasis Theory
    40. 40. 1. Trainee Characteristics <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul>
    41. 41. 2.Training Design <ul><li>Training design refers to factors built into the training program to increase the chances that transfer of training will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>For transfer of training to occur we need to apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of training theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of self – management </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Self-Management Strategies <ul><li>Self-management refers to a person’s attempt to control certain aspects of decision making and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Training programs should prepare employees to self-manage their use of new skills and behaviors on the job. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Self-Management Involves: <ul><li>Determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for using newly acquired skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals for using learned capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Applying learned capabilities to the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring use of learned capabilities on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Self – reinforcement. </li></ul>
    44. 44. 3. Work Environment <ul><li>Climate for Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Management and Peer Support </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to Perform </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Support </li></ul>
    45. 45. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: <ul><li>Work Conditions (Trainee has difficulty using new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few opportunities to use skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate budget </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Peer Support (Peers do not support use of new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourage use of new knowledge and skills on the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See training as a waste of time </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of Management Support (Managers do not reinforce training or provide opportunities to use new knowledge, skills, or behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not accept ideas or suggestions that are learned in training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not discuss training opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose use of skills learned in training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate that training is a waste of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwilling to provide feedback and reinforcement for trainees to use training content </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Work Environment Characteristics Influencing Transfer of Training: Climate for Transfer Manager Support Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support
    49. 49. Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: <ul><li>Supervisors and co-workers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul><ul><li>Task cues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a trainee’s job prompt or remind him to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: (continued) <ul><li>Lack of punishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic reinforcement consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic reinforcement consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Levels of Management Support for Training: Level Description Teaching in Program Practice Skills Reinforcement Participation Encouragement Acceptance Participate as Trainer Allow Trainees Opportunity to Practice Discuss Progress with Trainees; Ask How to Support Trainees’ Use of New Capabilities Attend Session Accommodate Attendance at Training Through Rearranging Work Schedule; Endorse Employees’ Attending Training Permit Employees to Attend Training; Acknowledge Importance of Training HIGH SUPPORT LOW SUPPORT
    52. 52. Organizational Environments That Encourage Transfer of Training: <ul><li>The Learning Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and Knowledge Management </li></ul>
    53. 53. The Learning Organization <ul><li>A learning organization is a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change. </li></ul><ul><li>Training processes are carefully scrutinized and aligned with company goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Training is seen as one part of a system designed to create intellectual capital. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Key Features of a Learning Organization Continuous Learning Knowledge Generation and Sharing Critical Systematic Thinking Learning Culture Encouragement of Flexibility and Experimentation Valuing of Employees
    55. 55. Knowledge and Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge refers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a company’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tacit knowledge, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. The Knowledge Creation Process between two people PERSON A PERSON B TACIT EXPLICIT Externalisation Internalisation Socialisation Combination Internalisation Externalisation Socialisation Combination
    57. 57. Knowledge and Knowledge Management (continued) <ul><li>Knowledge management refers to the process of enhancing company performance by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Knowledge and Knowledge Management (continued) <ul><li>Knowledge management can help companies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get products to market quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better serve customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop innovative products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attract new employees and retain current ones by giving people the opportunity to learn and develop </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Examples of Knowledge Management <ul><li>Ernst & Young has information on employees’ skills and competencies to help assemble project teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox has created a database of “communities of interests:” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employees throughout the organization who have a common interest in a technology, product, service, or process who may not formally work together, but share and build knowledge for themselves and the company </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. HRD Evaluation
    61. 61. The Techniques used in Training Evaluation :
    62. 62. Kirkpatrick Model: <ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
    63. 63. Brinkerhoff ’ s six stages (1987) <ul><li>Evaluation of needs and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of HRD design </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation during implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of usage and endurance (behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation the payoff (results) </li></ul>
    64. 64. Parker Model: <ul><li>Job performance </li></ul><ul><li>Group performance </li></ul><ul><li>Participants’ satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Participants’ knowledge gain </li></ul>
    65. 65. Bell System Approach: <ul><li>Reaction outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Capability outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Application outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Worth outcomes </li></ul>
    66. 66. CIRO Model: <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul>
    67. 67. Introduction <ul><li>Walgreen Company wanted to determine if the time, money, and effort devoted to training technicians actually made a difference. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was interested in assessing the effectiveness of the training program. </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. How to evaluate: <ul><li>Training effectiveness refers to the benefits that the company and the trainees receive from training. </li></ul><ul><li>Training outcomes or criteria refer to measures that the trainer and the company use to evaluate training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Training evaluation refers to the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training is effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation design refers to from whom, what, when, and how information needed for determining the effectiveness of the training program will be collected. </li></ul>
    69. 69. Reasons for Evaluating Training <ul><li>Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Training investment is increasing because learning creates knowledge which differentiates between those companies and employees who are successful and those who are not. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Reasons for Evaluating Training (continued) <ul><li>Because companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Training evaluation involves: <ul><li>Formative evaluation – evaluation conducted to improve the training process. </li></ul><ul><li>Summative evaluation – evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. </li></ul>
    72. 72. Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? <ul><li>To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program. </li></ul>
    73. 73. Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? (continued) <ul><li>To gather data to assist in marketing training programs. </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program. </li></ul>
    74. 74. The Evaluation Process Conduct a Needs Analysis Develop Measurable Learning Outcomes Develop Outcome Measures Choose an Evaluation Strategy Plan and Execute the Evaluation
    75. 75. Training Outcomes: Kirkpatrick ’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria Business results achieved by trainees Results 4 Improvement of behavior on the job Behavior 3 Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior Learning 2 Trainee satisfaction Reaction 1 Focus Criteria
    76. 76. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: Cognitive Outcomes Skill-Based Outcomes Affective Outcomes Results Return on Investment
    77. 77. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) <ul><li>Cognitive Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the degree to which trainees are familiar with the principles, facts, techniques, procedures, or processes emphasized in the training program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure what knowledge trainees learned in the program. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skill-Based Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess the level of technical or motor skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include acquisition or learning of skills and use of skills on the job. </li></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) <ul><li>Affective Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include attitudes and motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainees’ perceptions of the program including the facilities, trainers, and content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the training program’s payoff for the company. </li></ul></ul>
    79. 79. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) <ul><li>Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing the training’s monetary benefits with the cost of the training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul></ul>
    80. 80. How do you know if your outcomes are good? <ul><li>Good training outcomes need to be: </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminate </li></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul>
    81. 81. Good Outcomes: Relevance <ul><li>Criteria relevance – the extent to which training programs are related to learned capabilities emphasized in the training program. </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion contamination – extent that training outcomes measure inappropriate capabilities or are affected by extraneous conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion deficiency – failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in the training objectives. </li></ul>
    82. 82. Criterion deficiency, relevance, and contamination: Relevance Outcomes Identified by Needs Assessment and Included in Training Objectives Outcomes Measured in Evaluation Deficiency Contamination Outcomes Related to Training Objectives
    83. 83. Good Outcomes (continued) <ul><li>Reliability – degree to which outcomes can be measured consistently over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination – degree to which trainee’s performances on the outcome actually reflect true differences in performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Practicality – refers to the case with which the outcomes measures can be collected. </li></ul>
    84. 84. Evaluation Designs: Threats to Validity <ul><li>Threats to validity refer to a factor that will lead one to question either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The believability of the study results ( internal validity ) , or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which the evaluation results are generalizable to other groups of trainees and situations ( external validity ) </li></ul></ul>
    85. 85. Threats to Validity <ul><li>Threats To Internal Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threats To External Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to pretest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction to evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of selection and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of methods </li></ul></ul>
    86. 86. Methods to Control for Threats to Validity Pre- and Post - tests Use of Comparison Groups Random Assignment
    87. 87. Types of Evaluation Designs <ul><li>Posttest – only </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest / posttest </li></ul><ul><li>Posttest – only with Comparison group </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest / posttest with Comparison group </li></ul><ul><li>Time series </li></ul><ul><li>Time series with Comparison group and Reversal </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon Four – group </li></ul>
    88. 88. References : Brain L. Delahaye. 2000;2005. Human Resource Development Adult Learning and Knowledge Management John Wiley & Sons Australia , Ltd. Printed in Singapore. Jon M. Werner & Randy L. DeSimone .2009. Human Resource Development. 5e. South – Western CENGAGE Learning USA. James W. Vander Zanden, Thomas L. Crandell , and Corinne Haines Crandell. 2007. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. 8e McGraw – Hill International Edition. USA.
    89. 89. วัฒนธรรม คือ ความดีที่มนุษย์ทำขึ้น และเป็นวิถีชีวิตของมนุษย์ ........... ท่านพุทธทาสภิกขุ <ul><li>อ่อนน้อม ถ่อมตน </li></ul><ul><li>อ่อนโยน นุ่มนวล </li></ul><ul><li>อาทร มีน้ำใจ </li></ul><ul><li>อภัย สันติ และ อดทน ขันติ </li></ul>วัฒนธรรมไทย ทำให้คนไทย
    90. 90. I ntegrity ทำงานอย่างมีศักดิ์ศรี A ctiveness ขยัน ตั้งใจ ทำงานเชิงรุก M orality มีศีลธรรม คุณธรรม R elevance รู้ทันโลก ปรับตัวทันโลก ตรงกับสังคม E fficiency มุ่งเน้นประสิทธิภาพ A ccountability รับผิดชอบต่อผลงาน ต่อสังคม D emocracy มีใจและการกระทำที่เป็น ป ระชาธิปไตย เสมอภาค มีส่วนร่วม โปร่งใส Y ield มีผลงาน มุ่งเน้นผลงาน 6
    91. 91. อปริหานิยธรรม ๗ <ul><li>หมั่นประชุมหารือกันเนืองนิตย์ </li></ul><ul><li>พร้อมเพรียงจิต ทำงาน ไม่เกี่ยงหนี </li></ul><ul><li>เคารพกฎ เกณฑ์ ประจำ ทำให้ดี </li></ul><ul><li>ประธาน มี ฟังท่าน งานดำเนิน </li></ul><ul><li>ทั้งเล็กใหญ่ ยกย่องกัน ไม่หยันหยาม </li></ul><ul><li>สิ่งดีงาม ดำรงอยู่ ชูสรรเสริญ </li></ul><ul><li>น้อมรับผู้ ทรงธรรม ไม่ก้ำเกิน </li></ul><ul><li>....... เช่นนี้ เชิญ มาร่วมทำ จำเริญ เทอญ ........ </li></ul>
    92. 92. นักบริหารคือ ผู้นำ ผู้สร้างแรงบันดาลใจ การบริหารจึงไม่มีอะไรมากไปกว่าการสร้างแรงบันดาลใจให้ผู้คน
    93. 93. Love your friends, no matter who they are.
    94. 94. Hold onto good friends, they are few and far between!
    95. 96. ขอบคุณ ท่านอาจารย์ Dr. Sirapatsorn Wongthongdee Assistant Professor คณะรัฐศาสตร์ จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย
    96. 97. <ul><li>ขอให้โชคดีกันทุกคน .... </li></ul>

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