Public Human Resource
Management
Public Human Resource Management)
• 1.

•

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•

Pendleton Act)

10/27/2013

•

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• Van Riper (1958)

•

19

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3
• Mosher (1982)

Spoil System)
•
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4
•
•
1964
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
1972
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5
•

merit pay

•

Cutback

management)
•
10/27/2013

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Traditional

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• 3.

strategic model)
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• 4.
• privatization or outsourcing model)
•

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Goal Orientation)

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top-down)
two way)

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feedback type)

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Value Orientation)
Frank Thompson 1989)

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5

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staff)

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strategic human resource management)

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civil service system)

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1990

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Human Resource Management in A Human Capital
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31
• Driving Value with a New Human
• Capital Strategy
•
•
•
•
•

Public administrations around the world
share the goal of t...
•
•
•
•
•
•

for the underlying business process.
Often these initiatives failed to deliver
anticipated improvements in ef...
• more apparent than in the domain of
• human resources. Most HR departments
• have already automated transactional
• acti...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Meeting the Human Capital
Challenges of the Public Sector
The diversity of the public sector workforce
cr...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

maximizing workforce performance. To
optimize both processes, organizations
must provide life-cycle car...
• Public sector agencies need to develop
• strategic human capital management
• (HCM) operations that align
and engage
• e...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Unfortunately, existing government
technology and tools often complicate
HCM transformation efforts. Beca...
• But modernizing your HR organization
• requires more than simple transactional
• automation. You need a transformative
•...
•
•
•
•
•

Platform
built around government specific
practices that lets you implement
changes to deliver long-term
benefi...
• Maximizing the Potential of Your
• Workforce
• The HCM functionality of the SAP for
• Public Sector solution portfolio h...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

and employee life-cycle management.
Because public sector agencies manage
some of the largest, most complex...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Communicate organizational priorities
aligned with goals
• Establish a trained and capable
workforce
• Me...
• Align resources for optimum
• utilization
• Let’s start with the concept of strategically
• aligning your workforce. Ali...
• The software can also provide a foundation
• for achieving accountability and
• establishing a results-oriented culture....
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

programs, and activities; analyze compliance
with merit system principles;
and identify and monitor nec...
• And you can deploy the right people to
• the proper strategic initiatives as needed.
• By providing a single view of the...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

The SAP software can be easily adjusted
to meet changing HR mandates and
requirements – providing a consi...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

The SAP software can be easily adjusted
to meet changing HR mandates and
requirements – providing a consi...
Streamlining Administrative
Processes for Reduced Costs
Improving workforce performance
means reducing the cost of back-of...
• • Handle payroll and legal reporting –
• You can standardize payroll processes
• and legal reporting while addressing
• ...
•
•
•
•
•
•

Optimize employee services
delivery – Workforce assessment
and deployment tools eliminate timeand
cost-intens...
•
•
•
•
•
•

staff skills using multiple learning
channels, a learning portal, an
authoring environment, and rich instruct...
• Recruit and hire a diverse and high
performing
• workforce – You can use
• the solutions to staff up for both
• short- a...
•
•
•
•
•

recruitment offers and conduct
more focused campaigns. Moreover,
you can use analytics to understand
hiring req...
• Provide actionable insight – Decision
• makers get fast, easy access to
• meaningful information. Embedded
• analytics h...
• Empower your workforce –
• Employee and manager self-service
• functionality gives your staff
• convenient access to per...
• Build on the best technology
• platform – With SAP NetWeaver,
• your agency can compose ―businessspecific‖
• application...
•
•
•
•
•
•

With more than 10,500 HCM customers
worldwide, only SAP has the worldwide
HCM expertise to help governments
t...
• Effects of the New Economy
• The ―new‖ national economy has created dramatic
changes in the labor market that are
• havi...
• public sector’s less-than-proactive attempts to
deal with future workforce needs.
• The impacts of the workforce crisis ...
• agency indicates previous attempts at
• ―workforce planning‖ have been ad-hoc and not
strategic, resulting in downsizing...
• Workforce Planning
• Although there are many ways to define workforce
planning, the definition in this Guide
• addresses...
• Many public and private organizations have developed
models for workforce
• planning. However, aside from variations in ...
• Preparing and implementing plans to build the
workforce needed for the future
• Evaluating the success of the workforce ...
• Workforce planning addresses the staffing
implications of strategic and operational
• plans, including managed movements...
• Why Workforce Planning is Important
• Changes in demographics paint a compelling picture for
workforce planning because
...
• higher average age than the overall civilian labor
force because of reductions-in-force
• and freezes on hiring over the...
• Trends
• Changes in economic systems, demographics, the
economy, and the workplace clearly
• and compellingly make the c...
• planning must be flexible enough to keep pace
with emerging trends. Forces such as
• technology, globalization, deregula...
• Some visible trends that illustrate the importance of
workforce planning include:
• - Baby boomers are getting older and...
• with other legislation, such as the Family and
Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)....
• Certain trends will be with us for the long term, and your
organization will need to
• plan for those trends in order to...
• understanding different languages.
• • Retirement at age 65 in the U.S. is disappearing.
Organizations are creating work...
• • Organizations will need to utilize their most
experienced workers, placing high value
• on experience, organization me...
• Today’s economic systems that provide labor have changed from
the past, as seen in
• Figure 2. Changing Economic Systems...
•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Workforce changes—as seen in Figure 3—illustrate just some of the
changing
economic conditio...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment rate was at an • The unemployment
rate all-time low of
was a...
• Economics and the Workforce
Economics and the Workforce
No recession, low unemployment, • Economic downturn is
economic ...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Employment Arrangement Employment Arrangement
Not an employer’s job market. The remaining workfor...
• Technology
Technology
• Technology created plenty Technology will continue to
• of new jobs, but it
cause huge skills
al...
•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Figure 3. Comparative Workforce Information for 1995-2000 and 20012008 (continued)
Workforce Inf...
• Legal
• Filing of new private

Legal
If there is an economic

• civil-rights lawsuits reached downturn, the areas that

...
• Changing Role in Workforce Planning for
Human Resource Professionals
• With rules of the game in the workplace
changing,...
• ―personnel‖ gave way in the 1990s to ―human
resources,‖ which is now evolving to
• ―human capital.‖
• HR’s changing role...
• 1. Leader—having the same opportunity, responsibility and
accountability, and influence
• as any other member of the lea...
• Changing Models for Human Resource Service
Delivery
• As the workforce changes and the roles of HR change,
the way human...
• (cost/benefit and quality) and/or
• have the most direct accountability for HR results.
• • Outsourcing all administrati...
• Sharing HR services for administrative and transactional
functions to create
• efficiencies and save money. This reduces...
• Decentralizing HR business partners by transforming the
personnel specialist into a
• strategic partner who understands ...
• Returning key elements of people-management

to the line, reducing or eliminating HR
• control over these functions. For...
• Reducing the number of “HR business partners,” but ensuring
that, freed from the administrative work they did in the pas...
• members, but recruit the internal or external consulting resources
each project
• requires. Second, the teams do not dev...
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  1. 1. Public Human Resource Management
  2. 2. Public Human Resource Management) • 1. • - • Pendleton Act) 10/27/2013 • - Free template from www.brainybetty.com 1883 2
  3. 3. • Van Riper (1958) • 19 • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 3
  4. 4. • Mosher (1982) Spoil System) • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 4
  5. 5. • • 1964 Equal Employment Opportunity Act 1972 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 5
  6. 6. • merit pay • Cutback management) • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 6
  7. 7. • 5 • 1. Model) • 10/27/2013 Traditional Free template from www.brainybetty.com 7
  8. 8. • 3. strategic model) Perry 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8
  9. 9. • 4. • privatization or outsourcing model) • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 9
  10. 10. • • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 10
  11. 11. • • 10/27/2013 Goal Orientation) Free template from www.brainybetty.com 11
  12. 12. • top-down) two way) • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com feedback type) 12
  13. 13. • • 10/27/2013 Value Orientation) Frank Thompson 1989) Free template from www.brainybetty.com 13
  14. 14. • • 10/27/2013 5 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 14
  15. 15. • • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 15
  16. 16. • • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 16
  17. 17. 2 • • • 1. Administrative Role) 2. Development) OD) • 10/27/2013 Organization Consulting role) Free template from www.brainybetty.com 17
  18. 18. • staff) in-house external staff) • several contractors) • strategic human resource management) 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 18
  19. 19. : • 19 • 10/27/2013 civil service system) Free template from www.brainybetty.com 19
  20. 20. • 1990 2000 • outsorcing) • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 20
  21. 21. • 1990 total quality management:TQM) TQM specialist) generalist) cross-training) 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 21
  22. 22. • reinventing government 1993 • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 22
  23. 23. • striking the Right Balance) • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 23
  24. 24. • • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 24
  25. 25. • • frenchising) outsourcing) 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 25
  26. 26. : • Contracting out) backroom function) 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 26
  27. 27. : Partner) • Business line manager) OD • 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 27
  28. 28. : • - • - • performance) • • - 10/27/2013 pay for Free template from www.brainybetty.com 28
  29. 29. • 1. An increase in hiring and streamlined process) • 2. An increase in insourcing and Less Balkanization) • 3. Government wide Pay for Performance) • 4. A changed labour-management 10/27/2013 Free template from environment) www.brainybetty.com 29
  30. 30. Human Resource Management in A Human Capital Environment • 19 market-oriented reforms) 3 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com Succession Planning) 30
  31. 31. • - human capital) Becker,1962) • - 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 31
  32. 32. • Driving Value with a New Human • Capital Strategy • • • • • Public administrations around the world share the goal of transforming traditional government agencies into performance oriented providers of citizen-centric Services . Yet several decades of modernization programs have delivered 10/27/2013 Free template from 32 www.brainybetty.com • mixed results. In many cases, improvement
  33. 33. • • • • • • for the underlying business process. Often these initiatives failed to deliver anticipated improvements in efficiency and effectiveness, and some even created a negative impact on the community and its constituents. • Today the focus on targeted outputs • has shifted to one in which operational 10/27/2013 Free • outcomes are alignedtemplatemeet organizational to from www.brainybetty.com 33
  34. 34. • more apparent than in the domain of • human resources. Most HR departments • have already automated transactional • activities such as payroll, time • and attendance, pension management, • and personnel data. However, substantive • transformation for these organizations • necessitates further change, • requiring HR departments to become 10/27/2013 Free template from • more embedded inwww.brainybetty.com agency day-to-day 34
  35. 35. • • • • • • • • Meeting the Human Capital Challenges of the Public Sector The diversity of the public sector workforce creates challenges that would defy )most private sector companies. These issues are compounded by an aging workforce, which threatens to eradicate ( ) valued skills and knowledge 10/27/2013 Free template from • upon retirement. Pressure is mounting www.brainybetty.com 35
  36. 36. • • • • • • • • • maximizing workforce performance. To optimize both processes, organizations must provide life-cycle career management and support from hire to retire. You need to match skilled individuals to your most pressing business requirements and find ways to provide training and development opportunities to support existing workers. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 36
  37. 37. • Public sector agencies need to develop • strategic human capital management • (HCM) operations that align and engage • every employee in pursuit of organizational • mission delivery. HCM is the • discipline of acquiring, retaining, measuring, • managing, and leveraging the • workforce. In short, it’s about treating • employees as an asset rather than mere • overhead – helping them understand • their own effectiveness on the job. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 37
  38. 38. • • • • • • • • Unfortunately, existing government technology and tools often complicate HCM transformation efforts. Because many underlying IT systems are not integrated, silos of disconnected information are common. Planners and decision makers cannot easily access the information they need. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 38
  39. 39. • But modernizing your HR organization • requires more than simple transactional • automation. You need a transformative • HCM approach – and that requires • analytics for insight, usability for • productivity and efficiency, end-to-end • integration to drive information, and • process improvement. HCM transformation • requires a carefully crafted 10/27/2013 Free template from • process and a supporting technology www.brainybetty.com 39
  40. 40. • • • • • Platform built around government specific practices that lets you implement changes to deliver long-term benefits – for both the organization and its individual employees. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 40
  41. 41. • Maximizing the Potential of Your • Workforce • The HCM functionality of the SAP for • Public Sector solution portfolio helps • public sector agencies like yours • streamline HR processes, reduce • costs, and optimize finite personnel • resources. Using the integrated SAP • NetWeaver technology platform as 10/27/2013 Free template from • the foundation for a business process www.brainybetty.com 41
  42. 42. • • • • • • • and employee life-cycle management. Because public sector agencies manage some of the largest, most complex and diverse workforces in the world, your HCM challenge is significant. Yet SAP solutions are designed specifically to help you do the following: 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 42
  43. 43. • • • • • • • • Communicate organizational priorities aligned with goals • Establish a trained and capable workforce • Measure and monitor progress against stated goals • Provide tools to better manage personnel-related processes 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 43
  44. 44. • Align resources for optimum • utilization • Let’s start with the concept of strategically • aligning your workforce. Alignment • occurs when every employee is aware, • motivated, and working toward the • organization’s overall mission, not just • on day-to-day tasks. SAP solutions, • because they are based on SAP 10/27/2013 Free template from • NetWeaver, help link all aspects of www.brainybetty.com 44
  45. 45. • The software can also provide a foundation • for achieving accountability and • establishing a results-oriented culture. • You can more effectively differentiate • between high and low performance • while linking individual, team, and unit • performance to desired results, and • measuring and monitoring employee • progress against goals. Predictive and 10/27/2013 Free template from • embedded analytics let you monitor www.brainybetty.com 45
  46. 46. • • • • • • • • • programs, and activities; analyze compliance with merit system principles; and identify and monitor necessary improvements. You can realign organizational structures to address changing missions and cope with shifting employment conditions – especially useful when facing the exodus of retiring employees anticipated over the next 10/27/2013 Free template from decade. www.brainybetty.com 46
  47. 47. • And you can deploy the right people to • the proper strategic initiatives as needed. • By providing a single view of the • employee across multiple dimensions, • the software helps you make more • effective decisions about resource • deployment, compensation, benefits, • and advancement. You can better • manage position plans and personnel 10/27/2013 Free template from • budget with ―full-time equivalent‖ www.brainybetty.com 47
  48. 48. • • • • • • • • The SAP software can be easily adjusted to meet changing HR mandates and requirements – providing a consistent, standardized HCM solution supporting the complete employee life cycle, while preventing the high costs and inefficiencies of disconnected, custom-built legacy systems. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 48
  49. 49. • • • • • • • • The SAP software can be easily adjusted to meet changing HR mandates and requirements – providing a consistent, standardized HCM solution supporting the complete employee life cycle, while preventing the high costs and inefficiencies of disconnected, custom-built legacy systems. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 49
  50. 50. Streamlining Administrative Processes for Reduced Costs Improving workforce performance means reducing the cost of back-office processes – freeing up funds for enhancing services to meet constituent demands. SAP solutions help you do the following: 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 50
  51. 51. • • Handle payroll and legal reporting – • You can standardize payroll processes • and legal reporting while addressing • all regional and local requirements. • The configurable solution, • integrated with your financial systems, • lets you manage country specific • payroll processes, comply • with current legal regulations, and 10/27/2013 Free template from • meet agreement specifications in www.brainybetty.com 51
  52. 52. • • • • • • Optimize employee services delivery – Workforce assessment and deployment tools eliminate timeand cost-intensive manual processes. Transparent ( HR processes can be Streamlined ) to reduce operational • costs and increase efficiencies. • • Maximize staff skills and enhance 10/27/2013 Free template from • productivity – Comprehensive learning www.brainybetty.com 52
  53. 53. • • • • • • staff skills using multiple learning channels, a learning portal, an authoring environment, and rich instructional and assessment functionality – reducing the delivery costs of staff training and development. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 53
  54. 54. • Recruit and hire a diverse and high performing • workforce – You can use • the solutions to staff up for both • short- and long-term requirements, • conduct internal lateral movement, • or search for special skills and • competencies from entry-level to • executive positions. You can personalize 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 54
  55. 55. • • • • • recruitment offers and conduct more focused campaigns. Moreover, you can use analytics to understand hiring requirements, fills gaps, and take proactive action. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 55
  56. 56. • Provide actionable insight – Decision • makers get fast, easy access to • meaningful information. Embedded • analytics help you clearly understand • how the performance of individuals, • departments, and organizations affects • agency outcomes. You can use • this information to dig deeply into the • views of the workforce, identifying 10/27/2013 Free template from • and understanding www.brainybetty.com gaps and potential 56
  57. 57. • Empower your workforce – • Employee and manager self-service • functionality gives your staff • convenient access to performance • progress and lets them enact • personal change requests, view • online pay stubs, change benefits • enrollment, and more. A recent • benchmark study from the Americas’ • SAP Users’ Group (ASUG) found • that employee and manager selfservice • functionality reduces costs • by 25% over traditional transactional 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com • HR processes. 57
  58. 58. • Build on the best technology • platform – With SAP NetWeaver, • your agency can compose ―businessspecific‖ • applications that leverage • legacy IT infrastructures, enabling a • lower total cost of ownership. With • familiar screens and interfaces, • employees adapt more easily to the • new way of working. Most important, • the platform provides unparalleled • opportunities to link disparate from 10/27/2013 Free template functions www.brainybetty.com • and create better employee 58
  59. 59. • • • • • • With more than 10,500 HCM customers worldwide, only SAP has the worldwide HCM expertise to help governments transform their HR functions into an accountable, high-performance workforce. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 59
  60. 60. • Effects of the New Economy • The ―new‖ national economy has created dramatic changes in the labor market that are • having many effects. For example: • • More executives have adopted a ―wait-and-see‖ attitude about implementation of • strategic plans • • Two-thirds of them, according to an American Management Association (AMA) study, • have chosen to reduce spending and put business plans on hold 10/27/2013 Free template from • In government, economic changes have exacerbated 60 www.brainybetty.com problems already created by the
  61. 61. • public sector’s less-than-proactive attempts to deal with future workforce needs. • The impacts of the workforce crisis on government and the lack of workforce planning • that has resulted have been highlighted by the General Accounting Office (GAO) and by • the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. • • For the first time ever, GAO has placed human capital on its list of ―high-risk‖ federal • government functionstemplate from 10/27/2013 Free 61 www.brainybetty.com • • In OPM’s report, Civil Service–2020, the
  62. 62. • agency indicates previous attempts at • ―workforce planning‖ have been ad-hoc and not strategic, resulting in downsizing without purpose • Despite these findings, workforce planning, when done right, can be a powerful tool to • help public sector organizations meet their human capital needs and achieve business • objectives. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 62
  63. 63. • Workforce Planning • Although there are many ways to define workforce planning, the definition in this Guide • addresses key aspects for the public sector HR professional: • Workforce planning is the strategic alignment of an organization’s human capital with • its business direction. It is a methodical process of analyzing the current workforce, identifying • future workforce needs, establishing the gap between the present and future, and 10/27/2013 Free template organization can • implementing solutions so thefrom www.brainybetty.com accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives 63
  64. 64. • Many public and private organizations have developed models for workforce • planning. However, aside from variations in terminology, the processes are very much • alike. For example, all models rely on: • • Analyzing present workload, workforce, and competencies • • Identifying workload, workforce, and competencies needed for the future • • Comparing the present workload, workforce, and competencies to future needs to • identify gaps and surpluses from 10/27/2013 Free template 64 www.brainybetty.com
  65. 65. • Preparing and implementing plans to build the workforce needed for the future • Evaluating the success of the workforce planning model to ensure it remains valid and • objectives are being met 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 65
  66. 66. • Workforce planning addresses the staffing implications of strategic and operational • plans, including managed movements of employees in, out and within an organization. • Therefore, workforce planning affects the full range of HR activities: recruiting, hiring, • classification, compensation, promotion, transfer, redeployment, attrition, retention, • succession planning, employee training and development, etc. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 66
  67. 67. • Why Workforce Planning is Important • Changes in demographics paint a compelling picture for workforce planning because • there are 70 million baby boomers and only 40 million Generations X-ers behind them. • Clearly, a major talent and successor crisis looms. Therefore, the basic question all • employers should be asking is, ―WHO WILL DO OUR WORK?‖1 • Although the national workforce as a whole is aging, the public sector workforce has a 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 67
  68. 68. • higher average age than the overall civilian labor force because of reductions-in-force • and freezes on hiring over the past two decades. This means government will feel the • impact of the workforce crisis first, as retirements accelerate. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 68
  69. 69. • Trends • Changes in economic systems, demographics, the economy, and the workplace clearly • and compellingly make the case for workforce planning. • The set of assumptions organizations use to make decisions about the size and • makeup of their workforces is radically different today than it was even a decade ago. • Because economic systems are constantly changing, human capital needs associated • with those economic systems are also changing. Therefore, approachesFree template from to workforce 69 10/27/2013 www.brainybetty.com
  70. 70. • planning must be flexible enough to keep pace with emerging trends. Forces such as • technology, globalization, deregulation, stakeholder power, and the movement toward • free agency have combined to change the social contract between the employee and the • organization. These forces shape workforce allocation, the flow of people, and work • efficiency. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 70
  71. 71. • Some visible trends that illustrate the importance of workforce planning include: • - Baby boomers are getting older and the overall population is aging. • - These baby boomers are completely redefining the idea of what retirement is. • - Technology is being harnessed to change the HR function; save money; and improve • hiring, retention, and other elements of workforce management. • - Rules and regulations are proliferating yet new legislation often competes and collides 10/27/2013 Free template from 71 www.brainybetty.com
  72. 72. • with other legislation, such as the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). • The available labor pool is shrinking, requiring us to understand different cultures, • languages, and global business practices and integrating these differences into the • organization’s culture 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 72
  73. 73. • Certain trends will be with us for the long term, and your organization will need to • plan for those trends in order to remain effective as the economic and social issues • involved affect your organization’s ability to fulfill its mission. Such trends include: • • Labor flow will be opened up further for optimum allocation through globalization • and telecommuting. • • Major technological changes may soon make keyboards and language barriers obsolete • as voice recognition programsfrom automatic language 73 10/27/2013 Free template and www.brainybetty.com translators eliminate barriers to
  74. 74. • understanding different languages. • • Retirement at age 65 in the U.S. is disappearing. Organizations are creating work • arrangements that allow seniors to work past age 70 or 80. Part-time, contingency, and • consulting work arrangements allow seniors to rebalance work/personal life needs • • The sheer number of people with advanced educational degrees is advancing human • knowledge at an unprecedented rate 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 74
  75. 75. • • Organizations will need to utilize their most experienced workers, placing high value • on experience, organization memory, and knowhow. These are traits older people are • most likely to have, and organizations are responding by hiring older workers in • record numbers. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 75
  76. 76. • Today’s economic systems that provide labor have changed from the past, as seen in • Figure 2. Changing Economic Systems and Relationships • Then Now • Lifetime employment Contingent workforce • Individual identity tied to the organization Individual identity tied to • profession • Loyalty to the organization Looking out for #1 • Entry-level hiring Hiring as competency is • needed • The ―Organization Man‖ Work/life balance • Unions were a major force Union influence declining • 14% in private sector Free template from 76 • and 37% in government 10/27/2013 www.brainybetty.com
  77. 77. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Workforce changes—as seen in Figure 3—illustrate just some of the changing economic conditions for the periods 1995-2000 and 2001-2008. Figure 3. Comparative Workforce Information for 1995-2000 and 20012008 Workforce Information Workforce Information – 2001– The country experienced unprecedented A recession and the war on prosperity, which produced a growing national terrorism have imposed labor crisis that involved changing demographics a new set of challenges on education, technology, and an increasing skills on the U.S. economy and imbalance its workforce. Growing unemployment has been to the demographics, education, technology, and 77 Free template from www.brainybetty.com imbalance. skills imbalances that still impact the workforce
  78. 78. • • • • • • • • • • • Unemployment Unemployment Unemployment rate was at an • The unemployment rate all-time low of was at 5.7 percent 3.9 percent overall and even lower (November 2001) in specific regions of the country and rising. The last time this • Low unemployment caused a regions of the country face recession staffing drought and mass layoffs were in that forced U.S. businesses to fiercely the early compete for labor. 1990s. During the last downturn in the economy today’s talent crisis didn’t exist. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 78
  79. 79. • Economics and the Workforce Economics and the Workforce No recession, low unemployment, • Economic downturn is economic growth forcing the elimination of Only 1.6 percent of all firms reported slowing economic growth. jobs and layoffs, downsizing due to • The number of available workers an actual or anticipated is declining downturn in business—the number because of an aging workforce one reason one reason and a significant for layoffs in the past. drop in the birth rate. -During the 1980s, workforce growth stood at • According to the 2.5 percent annually as compared to early 2000 Bureau of Labor When that figure declined to about 1.2% Statistics (BLS),, employment in the United States is expected Free template from to 10/27/2013 www.brainybetty.com 79
  80. 80. • • • • • • • • • • • • Employment Arrangement Employment Arrangement Not an employer’s job market. The remaining workforce Skilled workers • could pick. is a ―new breed of and choose for whom they versatile, autonomous, worked and highly skilled workers.‖ Employers hoping to effectively manage these workers must create on -the-job solutions,new management and support system,and team dynamics. Free template from 80 www.brainybetty.com
  81. 81. • Technology Technology • Technology created plenty Technology will continue to • of new jobs, but it cause huge skills also decimated an array mismatches. Employers will • of existing positions increase training and • Resulting in people not development expenditures to • Having approprate skill keep employee skills current • sets for the technology. • This caused huge skills • mismatches (and low-skill layoffs) • as we moved from an Industrial 10/27/2013 Free template from 81 • Age economy to an www.brainybetty.com
  82. 82. • • • • • • • • • • • • Figure 3. Comparative Workforce Information for 1995-2000 and 20012008 (continued) Workforce Information Workforce Information – 2001– Education/Skill Shortages Education/Skill Shortages • Although the U.S. Department of Education • Organizations will continue found that college enrollment in two-year to have considerable four-year schools rose 17 percent between difficulty finding 1984 and 1995 young people were learning qualified workers for certain skilled trades position Government, education, • According to the National Association of and business are working to close the skills gap. skilled trades. • Manufacturers, 10/27/2013 • 48 percent of organizations Free template from www.brainybetty.com believed the workforce lacked the ability to 82
  83. 83. • Legal • Filing of new private Legal If there is an economic • civil-rights lawsuits reached downturn, the areas that • a plateau at the beginning of 1997are going to be • and declined in 1998 and 1999. especially litigious are • age and sex discrimination 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 83
  84. 84. • Changing Role in Workforce Planning for Human Resource Professionals • With rules of the game in the workplace changing, the HR professional’s role must • change as well. Many people and organizations are still caught up in nostalgia for the • old, safer ways of doing business, but these are no longer effective. Today’s economy • operates differently, and HR must adapt to the differences. It is no wonder the term 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 84
  85. 85. • ―personnel‖ gave way in the 1990s to ―human resources,‖ which is now evolving to • ―human capital.‖ • HR’s changing role in organizations will require you to develop a new set of competencies • and approaches that will translate into the strategic HR skills and abilities you • will need for workforce planning. These skills and abilities overlap with the IPMA • Competency Model,Free template from which focuses on three key 85 10/27/2013 www.brainybetty.com HR roles:
  86. 86. • 1. Leader—having the same opportunity, responsibility and accountability, and influence • as any other member of the leadership team. Being a strategic leader means you can • show evidence that you have influenced the direction of the business • 2. Change Agent—addressing and initiating improvements that will meet the challenges • that make a difference for the organization • 3. Business Partner—taking a leadership position on issues that truly influence the Strategic direction of the business • IPMA has identified a set of 22 competencies you should possess to excel in these • roles. These competencies and the roles they support are listed and 10/27/2013 Free template from 86 described on the www.brainybetty.com
  87. 87. • Changing Models for Human Resource Service Delivery • As the workforce changes and the roles of HR change, the way human resource services • are provided is also changing. Some of those changes are outlined below. • • “Distributed HR.” Distributed HR is a new term to describe a trend in which the HR • services are designed and delivered through multiple channels. The goal is to deliver • HR through channels that provide the greatest return 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 87
  88. 88. • (cost/benefit and quality) and/or • have the most direct accountability for HR results. • • Outsourcing all administrative activities, removing them entirely from the internal HR organization and shifting them to an outside vendor who can take advantage of greater economies of scale. This provides greater opportunity to invest in new technologies and focus more resources on best practices. This approach has the advantages of reducing cost and allowing the internal HR function to move away from its transactional focus. On the other hand, disadvantages include less internal control • and the danger of locking the organization into a long-term commitment to one vendor. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 88
  89. 89. • Sharing HR services for administrative and transactional functions to create • efficiencies and save money. This reduces the redundancies of decentralized structures and allows the organization to focus on operational excellence. • • Developing Centers of Excellence (COE), which are centralized units responsible for developing programs and consulting with businesses in highly specialized areas [compensation, organization development (OD), benefits planning, etc.]. This • approach leads to creation of critical mass in specialized areas and attracts better qualified people to HR. The challenge is to ensure the COE doesn’t become disconnected from business realities. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 89
  90. 90. • Decentralizing HR business partners by transforming the personnel specialist into a • strategic partner who understands business issues and, as a member of a business • management team, can identify the HR implications of business decisions. HR • business partners can also coordinate help from the appropriate COE(s) or outside • vendors to deal with those implications. This new role, when played properly, • enhances the strategic value of HR as well as the organization’s people. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 90
  91. 91. • Returning key elements of people-management to the line, reducing or eliminating HR • control over these functions. For example, while HR or consultants must continue to • design compensation programs because these programs require special expertise, • salary administration can be managed by line managers through computer technology • that provides them the data and analytics they need. This reduces costs as well as • empowers line managers by giving them HR responsibility. 10/27/2013 Free template from 91 www.brainybetty.com
  92. 92. • Reducing the number of “HR business partners,” but ensuring that, freed from the administrative work they did in the past, the remaining partners are truly strategic thinkers and are regarded as such by line managers. This approach allows organizations to finally use their people as sources of competitive advantage. The challenge is to get the right HR people for these roles. Although the title ―business partner‖ has been with us for a while, there are few HR practitioners who are true partners. • • Developing small teams of specialists who function like SWAT teams to solve • specialized HR problems. These teams resemble the COE described above, with two exceptions. First, the teams are smaller and in many cases contain few permanent 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 92
  93. 93. • members, but recruit the internal or external consulting resources each project • requires. Second, the teams do not develop organization-wide programs, but focus • more on solving business-specific needs. • Although these models are more prevalent in the private sector right now, as HR • professionals you should be aware of possibilities for the future. For example, at least • two states, Florida and New Jersey, are experimenting with outsourcing and shared • services. Changes in the service delivery model of HR in general will most certainly • affect an organization’s approach to workforce planning. 10/27/2013 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 93
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