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 องค์การและการจัดการทรัพยากรมนุษย์
 

องค์การและการจัดการทรัพยากรมนุษย์

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     องค์การและการจัดการทรัพยากรมนุษย์ องค์การและการจัดการทรัพยากรมนุษย์ Presentation Transcript

    •  100  20  10  10  20
    •   • HRM)         • six functional area) •1. human resource planning , recruitment and selection •2. human resource development •3. compensation and benefit •4. safety and health •5. employee and labor relation •6. human resource research
    •  -  -  Shared Service Center)   - Outsourcing Firm)      manager) work flow) The human resource
    •  - Strategic Partner)  HRM  HRM  HR company mission)   -  - Alignment generalist) specialist)
    •   1.   2.   3.     4. psycho logical contract compliance commitment
    • 1.  2.  3.   4.  5.
    •               Dimension Personnel/IR HRM Beliefs and assumptions 1. Contract Careful delineation of written contracts Aim to go 'beyond contract„ 2. Rules Importance of devising clear rules/mutuality 'Can-do' outlook; - ---impatience with 'rule' 3. Guide to management action Procedures'Business need' 4. Behaviour referent Norms custom and practice Values/mission 5 Managerial task vis a vis labour Monitoring Nurturing 6. Nature of relations Pluralist Unitarist 7. Conflict Institutionalised De-emphasised 8. Key relations Labour management Customer 9. Initiatives piecemeal Integrated 10.Corporate plan Marginal to Central to 11. Speed of decision Slow Fast
    • 12. Management role Transactional Transformational leadership  13. Key managers Personnel/IR specialists General/business/line managers  14. Communication Indirect Direct  15. Standardisation High (for example 'parity' an issue) Low (for example 'parity' not an issue)  16. Prized management skills Negotiation Facilitation  17. Selection Separate, marginal task Integrated, key task  18. Pay Job evaluation (fixed grades) Performance related  19. Conditions Separately negotiated Harmonisation 20. Labour management Collective bargaining contracts Towards individual contracts21  .21.Thrust of relations with stewards Regularised through facilities - and training Marginalised (with exception of some - bargaining for change model)
    •  - Scientific Management Human Relation Human Resource management Human Resource today Human Resource tomorrow Strategic Human Resource Management
    •       
    •   700 Practice Best choice 1.  2.  3.  4. Appraisal  staffing Job Design Information sharing Performance
    • 7. Incentive System  8. Grievance procedures  9. Labor-management participation    25%  25% 25% 6.5% 25% 6.8%
    •   18 Adam Smith division of labour) 19 Coordination)  Strategic choice)
    •  19 Engagement) HRM  psychology) Employee Industrial
    •    HRM) management) (Hard (Scientific   Management) Strategic
    •    Wayne F.Casio
    •     
    •     
    •         
    •            - - Soft HRM) Human Relation)
    •         Japanese Management) Commitment) Development) Organization Culture) Quality) Just-in time production) Continuous
    •       -  -  
    •  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.
    •      Career Ladder)
    •  1.  1.1  staffing) 1.2 1.3   2.  2.1  2.2 Retention)
    •  3. Development) 3.1   4.  5. Change Adjustment) Managing
    •  Operating Manager)  Human Resource Generalist) 
    •  (modify) enriching)    
    •       (Engineering Approach)
    •  Characteristic Approach)   - : Job
    •  Job Enrichment)   
    •   Oldham Hackman and   –   -
    •    Autonomy) Feedback) Motivating Potential Scores: MPS) = + 3X + X
    • 
    •   Job Rotaion)  Job Enlargement)  Enrichment) Job
    •  4. Flexitime)   5. Telecomuting)  6. Job Sharing)  7. week)  8. Condense work
    • What to do  1. duties)  2. tasks)  3. responsibility)  How to do it  1. (method)  2.  3. 
    • Why to do it  1.  2.  3.  Qualification  1.  2.  3.  KSA
    • Job Analysis is a systematic exploration, study and recording the responsibilities, duties, skills, accountabilities, work environment and ability requirements of a specific job. It also involves determining the relative importance of the duties, responsibilities and physical and emotional skills for a given job. All these factors identify what a job demands and what an employee must possess to perform a job productively.  What Does Job Analysis Involve ?  The process of job analysis involves in-depth investigation in order to control the output, i.e., get the job performed successfully. The process helps in finding out what a particular department requires and what a prospective worker needs to deliver. It also helps in determining particulars about a job including job title, job location, job summary, duties involved, working conditions, possible hazards and machines, tools, equipments and materials to be used by the existing or potential employee. 
    •  However, the process is not limited to determination of these factors only. It also extends to finding out the necessary human qualifications to perform the job. These include establishing the levels of education, experience, judgment, training, initiative, leadership skills, physical skills, communication skills, responsibility, accountability, emotional characteristics and unusual sensory demands. These factors change according to the type, seniority level, industry and risk involved in a particular job.  Importance of Job Analysis The details collected by conducting job analysis play an important role in controlling the output of the particular job. Determining the success of job depends on the unbiased, proper and thorough job analysis. It also helps in recruiting the right people for a particular job. The main purpose of conducting this whole process is to create and establish a perfect fit between the job and the employee. Job analysis also helps HR managers in deciding the compensation package and additional perks and incentives for a particular job position. It effectively contributes in assessing the training needs and performance of the existing employees. The process forms the basis to design and establish the strategies and policies to fulfill organizational goals and objectives.  
    • However, analysis of a particular job does not guarantee that the managers or organization would get the desired output. Actually collecting and recording information for a specific job involves several complications. If the job information is not accurate and checked from time to time, an employee will not be able to perform his duty well. Until and unless he is not aware of what he is supposed to do or what is expected of him, chances are that the time and energy spent on a particular job analysis is a sheer wastage of human resources. Therefore, proper care should be taken while conducting job analysis.  A thorough and unbiased investigation or study of a specific job is good for both the managers and the employees. The managers get to know whom to hire and why. They can fill a place with the right person. On the other hand, existing or potential employee gets to know what and how he is supposed to perform the job and what is the desired output. Job analysis creates a right fit between the job and the employee. 
    •      Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place. Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individual‟s output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training. Compensation Management: Of course, job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees. After all, the pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a job. The process guides HR managers in deciding the worth of an employee for a particular job opening. Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output.
    • Job Analysis Process  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6. 
    • 7. 8. 9. JD JS  Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first step in the process is to determine its need and desired output. Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until HR managers don‟t know why data is to be collected and what is to be done with it.  Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it. Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They don‟t have any personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job.   
    •         How to Conduct the Process: Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to investigate a specific job. Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. It‟s about deciding the extent of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and segregation of collected data. Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the selected methods for collection and recoding of job data. Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and feedback forms. Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy, required human traits, job activities, duties and Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final information that is used to describe a specific job. Developing Job Description and Job Specification: Now is the time to segregate the collected data in to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills required to perform the job. Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance measurement standards. responsibilities involved and employee behaviour.
    •      What to Collect ? Job Content Job Context Job Requirements Job Content: It contains information about various job activities included in a specific job. It is a detailed account of actions which an employee needs to perform during his tenure. The following information needs to be collected by a job analyst: › Duties of an employee › What actually an employee does › Machines, tools and equipments to be used while performing a specific job › Additional tasks involved in a job › Desired output level (What is expected of an employee?) › Type of training required
    •                 The content depends upon the type of job in a particular division or department. For example, job content of a factory-line worker would be entirely different from that of a marketing executive or HR personnel. Job Context: Job context refers to the situation or condition under which an employee performs a particular job. The information collection will include: Working Conditions Risks involved Whom to report Who all will report to him or her Hazards Physical and mental demands Judgment Well like job content, data collected under this category are also subject to change according to the type of job in a specific division or department. Job Requirements: These include basic but specific requirements which make a candidate eligible for a particular job. The collected data includes: Knowledge or basic information required to perform a job successfully Specific skills such as communication skills, IT skills, operational skills, motor skills, processing skills and so on Personal ability including aptitude, reasoning, manipulative abilities, handling sudden and unexpected situations, problem-solving ability, mathematical abilities and so on Educational Qualifications including degree, diploma, certification or license Personal Characteristics such as ability to adapt to different environment, endurance, willingness, work ethic, eagerness to learn and understand things, behaviour towards colleagues, subordinates and seniors, sense of belongingness to the organization, etc
    •        Most Common Methods of Job Analysis Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and nonperformed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one. Why? Let‟s Discover. It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behaviour of an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviours that result in performance. Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group. Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees.
    •        Job Analysis Tools O*Net Model: The beauty of this model is that it helps managers or job analysts in listing job-related data for a very large number of jobs simultaneously. It helps in collecting and recording basic and initial data including educational requirements, physical requirements and mental and emotional requirements to some extent. It also links the level of compensation and benefits, perks and advantages to be offered to a prospective candidate for a specific job. FJA Model: FJA stands for Functional Job Analysis and helps in collecting and recording job-related data to a deeper extent. It is used to develop task-related statements. Developed by Sidney Fine and his colleagues, the technique helps in determining the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job. This workoriented technique works on the basis of relatedness of job-data where complexity of work is determined on a scale of various scores given to a particular job. The lower scores represent greater difficulty. PAQ Model: PAQ represents Position Analysis Questionnaire. This well-known and commonly used technique is used to analyze a job by getting the questionnaires filled by job incumbents and their superiors. Designed by a trained and experienced job analyst, the process involves interviewing the subject matter experts and employees and evaluating the questionnaires on those bases. F-JAS Model: Representing Fleishman Job Analysis System, it is a basic and generic approach to discover common elements in different jobs including verbal abilities, reasoning abilities, idea generation, quantitative abilities, attentiveness, spatial abilities, visual and other sensory abilities, manipulative abilities, reaction time, speed analysis, flexibility, emotional characteristics, physical strength, perceptual abilities, communication skills, memory, endurance, balance, coordination and movement control abilities. Competency Model: This model talks about the competencies of employees in terms of knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, expertise and performance. It also helps in understanding what a prospective candidate requires at the time of entry in an organization at a particular designation in a given work environment and schedule. The model also includes some basic elements such as qualifications, experience, education, training, certifications, licenses, legal requirements and willingness of a candidate. Job Scan: This technique defines the personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model. However, it does not discuss the individual competencies such as intellect, experience or physical and emotional characteristics
    •      Lack of Management Support: The biggest problem arises when a job analyst does not get proper support from the management. The top management needs to communicate it to the middle level managers and employees to enhance the output or productivity of the process. In case of improper communication, employees may take it in a wrong sense and start looking out for other available options. They may have a notion that this is being carried out to fire them or take any action against them. In order to avoid such circumstances, top management must effectively communicate the right message to their incumbents. Lack of Co-operation from Employees: If we talk about collecting authentic and accurate job-data, it is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the support of employees. If they are not ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of time, money and human effort to conduct job analysis process. The need is to take the workers in confidence and communicating that it is being done to solve their problems only. Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis: If the objectives and needs of job analysis process are not properly identified, the whole exercise of investigation and carrying out research is futile. Managers must decide in advance why this process is being carried out, what its objectives are and what is to be done with the collected and recorded data. Biasness of Job Analyst: A balanced and unbiased approach is a necessity while carrying out the process of job analysis. To get real and genuine data, a job analyst must be impartial in his or her approach. If it can‟t be avoided, it is better to outsource the process or hire a professional job analyst. Using Single Data Source: A job analyst needs to consider more than one sources of data in order to collect true information. Collecting data from a single source may result in inaccuracy and it therefore, defeats the whole purpose of conducting the job analysis process.
    • Job Analysis       Provides First Hand Job-Related Information: The job analysis process provides with valuable job-related data that helps managers and job analyst the duties and responsibilities of a particular job, risks and hazards involved in it, skills and abilities required to perform the job and other related info. Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit: This is one of the most crucial management activities. Filling the right person in a right job vacancy is a test of skills, understanding and competencies of HR managers. Job Analysis helps them understand what type of employee will be suitable to deliver a specific job successfully. Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices: Who is to be filled where and when? Who to target and how for a specific job opening? Job analysis process gives answers to all these questions and helps managers in creating, establishing and maintaining effective hiring practices. Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes: Job Analysis helps managers evaluating the performance of employees by comparing the standard or desired output with delivered or actual output. On these bases, they appraise their performances. The process helps in deciding whom to promote and when. It also guides managers in understanding the skill gaps so that right person can be fit at that particular place in order to get desired output. Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs: The process of job analysis gives answer to following questions: › › › › ›  Who to impart training When to impart training What should be the content of training What should be the type of training: behavioral or technical Who will conduct training Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job: A genuine and unbiased process of job analysis helps managers in determining the appropriate compensation package and benefits and allowances for a particular job. This is done on the basis of responsibilities and hazards involved in a job.
    •       Time Consuming: The biggest disadvantage of Job Analysis process is that it is very time consuming. It is a major limitation especially when jobs change frequently. Involves Personal Biasness: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of the same organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and dislikes. This is a major hindrance in collecting genuine and accurate data. Source of Data is Extremely Small: Because of small sample size, the source of collecting data is extremely small. Therefore, information collected from few individuals needs to be standardized. Involves Lots of Human Efforts: The process involves lots of human efforts. As every job carries different information and there is no set pattern, customized information is to be collected for different jobs. The process needs to be conducted separately for collecting and recording job-related data. Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills: If job analyst is not aware of the objective of job analysis process or does not possess appropriate skills to conduct the process, it is a sheer wastage of company‟s resources. He or she needs to be trained in order to get authentic data. Mental Abilities Can not be Directly Observed: Last but not the least, mental abilities such as intellect, emotional characteristics, knowledge, aptitude, psychic and endurance are intangible things that can not be observed or measured directly. People act differently in different situations. Therefore, general standards can not be set for mental abilities.
    •      How to Establish Effective Hiring Strategies ? Identifying KRAs: Job Analysis process helps in identifying Key Result Areas/ Key Responsibilities Areas (KRAs) such as knowledge, technical, communication and personal skills, mental, aptitude, physical and emotional abilities to perform a particular task. Different jobs have different requirements. Therefore, the process needs to be performed every time when there is a requirement to fill the job opening. This is a basis for developing questionnaires, devising interview questions and setting selection test papers. The information in the form of scores or grades can then be used for hiring process. Setting Selection Standards: Job Analysis also helps managers in setting certain standards for selection process in terms of educational qualifications, work experience, expertise, special skill sets, unusual sensory abilities, specific career track, certifications and licenses and other legal requirements. This helps in identifying the basic requirements that make a candidate eligible for a particular post. Identifying KSAs: The process also helps managers in determining Key Success Areas or Key Performance Areas. These are performance measurement tools that are used by companies around the world to measure those aspects that determine success of a job such as organizational goals, individual goals and the actions required to achieve these goals. This is about comparing the actual results delivered by an individual with pre-set success factors and analyzing the performance. Once through, the whole process may require few changes if achieved results are around the set standards. They may require a complete change if there is a huge gap between the expected and delivered results. Therefore, a thorough and unbiased job analysis process can help organizations source right candidates, hire the most suitable individual and set appropriate selection standards.
    • Human Resource Management is the most critical function of any organization as it deals with the most complicated problems - the people problems, especially when the organizations are operating in highly competitive and uncertain environments. Strategic HRM lays emphasis on developing and implementing policies and strategies in order to get the desired output. Therefore, job analysis and strategic HRM are inter-related. In fact, we can say, establishing a person-job-environment fit is the basic function of SHRM.  Person-Job-Environment Fit  Job analysis demonstrates who can fit at a particular place and why. The process promotes the alignment of other HR processes and functions. Additionally, it supports the organizational strategy to deal with talent crisis and market competition. The process of job analysis involves collecting job-related information and assembling it together to design a corporate strategy that helps HR managers in determining whom to target and how to fill a particular job vacancy. 
    •     it also creates linkages between other HR verticals including recruitment and selection, training needs analysis, performance evaluation and appraisal, entry and exit of talent and many more. Strategic Human Resource Management endeavors to connect all these HR functions with organizational goals, work quality, organizational culture, annual turnover and profit and tapping resources for future organizational needs. SHRM is basically concerned with the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats of an organization. The identification of organization‟s competencies and flaws is extremely crucial for its success. It provides a clear vision to managers to source, recruit and retain people, develop their skills and competency, address their issues and concerns, motivate people to produce desired output and ensure future planning. Inter-relationship between Job Analysis and SHRM Job Analysis, being an integral part of strategic planning, provides a detailed analysis of tasks and responsibilities, risks and hazards, functions and duties, tools and equipments to be used and the expected output. The main objective of conducting the process is to understand who to fit at a particular place to get the work done. Whereas, the fundamental aim of Strategic Human Resource Management is to determine how to exploit
    • Job Analysis deals in determining the training needs analysis of employees to get the desired output whereas SHRM decides upon the training content, when and how to train the employees to increase the output to achieve higher business profits. To successfully plan the future strategies of a company, the process of job analysis serves as the basis. If information collected during the process is genuine, managers can make effective strategies and policies in advance and can remain pro-active to deal with unforeseen situations.  The main aim of conducting job analysis process is to determine the things affecting human behavior in an organization. The idea is to find out if they are competent enough to perform the assigned job successfully or they need to be placed somewhere else. Strategic Human Resource Management is all about making strategies and policies to place right person at the right place and at the right time to get the maximum out of an employee. In other way, it is concerned about optimal utilization of human resources. 
    •   Job Analysis and Total Quality Management (TQM)  TQM is a management approach that concentrates on teamwork, integrity, continuous improvement and continuous assessment jobs and their worth. On the other hand, job analysis deals in investigating each job separately and collecting the jobrelated information. Usually, the process is conducted in an organization once in a while especially when HR department has to source candidates for a particular job. TQM is a new approach and is almost inconsistent with traditional management approaches and processes. Job Analysis is no exception. Points of Inconsistency between Job Analysis and TQM The concept of Total Quality Management stresses on continuous improvement of management processes as well as employees. For example, if employee joins an organization at a certain level, according to TQM, he or she should not confine themselves to their basic jobs only. Instead they should consider other options and try to learn more and more in order to explore other areas of operations. Whereas, job analysis process is conducted to determine what an employee is supposed to do and how specific duties and activities need to be performed. Total Quality Management approach focuses on an all-round development of employees and expects them to do everything while on job in order to attain higher levels of quality. It also concentrates on their continuous improvement personally as well as professionally. While job analysis defines specific duties and responsibilities of an employee and each one of them is supposed to do only what is assigned to them. The concept is just opposite to TQM approach. The job description and job specification talk about employee‟s job title, job summary, job duties, job responsibilities, educational qualifications and working conditions. While it does not discuss about maintaining quality in operations, treating waste and scraps properly and quality of services delivered. It simply gives brief details about what an    
    •     TQM does not confine employees only to a particular job. The concept leaves scope for additional duties along with the basic job duties. Whereas, it is not true in case of job analysis. It simply measures the worth of a job and determines the duties involved in it. Employees are not encouraged to explore other areas of operations. Instead they are supposed to perform only the assigned job. Relevance of Job Analysis Job Analysis is not consistent with TQM. They do not go hand in hand as they focus on entirely different theories and operate on different models. But it does not mean that job analysis has lost its relevance in today‟s world. It has its own importance and is still required to be carried out as this gives basic information related to specific jobs and helps managers in decision making process. It assists in various other management processes including recruitment and selection, job evaluation, performance evaluation and appraisal and training and development need analysis. It also regulates the entry of talent in an organization and helps in sourcing and attracting a pool of talent to work with the organization.
    •      HRP Acquisition), Utilization),
    •    HRP
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    •    Macro HRP) -   Micro HRP) -
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    • Advantage) (Disadvantage) Estimate) Expert Opinion) Delphi Technicque) -
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    •         
    •   Talent Management, as the name itself suggests is managing the ability, competency and power of employees within an organization Talent Management in organizations is not just limited to attracting the best people from the industry but it is a continuous process that involves sourcing, hiring, developing, retaining and promoting them while meeting the organization‟s requirements simultaneously. For instance, if an organization wants the best talent of its competitor to work with it, it needs to attract that person and offer him something that is far beyond his imagination to come and join and then stick to the organization. Only hiring him does not solve the purpose but getting the things done from him is the main task. Therefore, it can be said that talent management is a full-fledged process that not only controls the entry of an employee but also his or her exit.
    •      Right Person in the right Job: Through a proper ascertainment of people skills and strengths, people decisions gain a strategic agenda. The skill or competency mapping allows you to take stock of skill inventories lying with the organization. This is especially important both from the perspective of the organization as well as the employee because the right person is deployed in the right position and employee productivity is increased. Also since there is a better alignment between an individual‟s interests and his job profile the job satisfaction is increased. Retaining the top talent: Despite changes in the global economy, attrition remains a major concern of organizations. Retaining top talent is important to leadership and growth in the marketplace. Organisations that fail to retain their top talent are at the risk of losing out to competitors. The focus is now on charting employee retention programs and strategies to recruit, develop, retain and engage quality people. Employee growth in a career has to be taken care of, while succession planning is being performed those who are on the radar need to be kept in loop so that they know their performance is being rewarded. Better Hiring: The quality of an organization is the quality of workforce it possesses. The best way to have talent at the top is have talent at the bottom. No wonder then talent management programs and trainings, hiring assessments have become an integral aspect of HR processes nowadays. Understanding Employees Better: Employee assessments give deep insights to the management about their employees. Their development needs, career aspirations, strengths and weaknesses, abilities, likes and dislikes. It is easier therefore to determine what motivates whom and this helps a lot Job enrichment process. Better professional development decisions: When an organization gets to know who its high potential is, it becomes easier to invest in their professional development. Since development calls for investment decisions towards learning, training and development of the individual either for growth, succession planning, performance management etc, an organization remains bothered where to make this investment and talent management just make this easier for them.
    • Before we discuss the financial benefits of talent management the following may be of our interest and worth a thought:  Most of the organizations are short sighted, when it comes to people management.  People management may not go well with pure capitalists.  Organizations and industries are growing at a fast pace, faster than the rate at which talent is produced.  There is dearth of talented and skilled professionals both at the top as well as bottom.  Due to cut throat competition and a consequent lack of talented professionals the attrition rates have increased across all industries, especially so in services industry.  Poaching has become common place; employee retention has become the Achilles heel of corporations. 
    •       Less attrition means lesser expenditure on hiring: BPO‟s and start ups, for example where the attrition rate is the highest remain occupied in searching for people every now and then. Now this incurs financial losses to the organization. An organization not only pays an employee for his/her work but also spends a considerable amount on their training and development. There is transfer of skill and expertise and when the same employee leaves after a brief stint with the organization, it costs the latter. The problem gets even worse when such a scenario occurs at the top level. An unoccupied executive position can cost an organization dearly. The solution - a proper talent management in place can solve this problem. The following facts become worth consideration here: New employees cost the company 30-60 % more than the existing employee in terms of compensation only. There is an additional cost incurred on training and developing the new individual. The process of recruitments itself costs an organization in a big way, right from advertising a post, to attracting talent and finally short listing and hiring someone for the job. Often there is a compromise in hiring when the need is urgent. Organizations clearly need to look inside for solutions and design and develop better employee retention, rewards and recognition strategy. Performance management needs to be taken care of.
    •  Principle 1 - Avoid Mismatch Costs In planning for future manpower requirements, most of the HR professionals prepare a deep bench of candidates or manpower inventory. Many of the people who remain in this bracket start searching for other options and move when they are not raised to a certain position and profile. In such a scenario it is better to keep the bench strength low and hire from outside from time to time to fill gaps. This in no way means only to hire from outside, which leads to a skill deficit and affects the organizational culture.  Principle 2 - Reduce the Risk of Being Wrong  In manpower anticipations for future an organization can ill afford to be wrong. It‟s hard to forecast talent demands for future business needs because of the uncertainty involved. It is therefore very important to attune the career plans with the business plans. A 5 year career plan looks ridiculous along with a 2 year business plan.  Further, long term development and succession plans may end up as a futile exercise if the organization lacks a firm retention strategy. 
    •  Principle 3 - Recoup Talent Investments  Developing talent internally pays in the longer run. The best way to recover investments made in talent management is to reduce upfront costs by finding alternative and cheaper talent delivery options. Organizations also require a rethink on their talent retention strategy to improve employee retention.  Principle 4 - Balancing Employee Interests How much authority should the employees‟ haves over their own development? There are different models that have been adopted by various corporations globally. There is „the chess master model‟, but the flipside in this is that talented employees search for options. Organizations can also make use of the internal mobility programs which are a regular feature of almost all the top organizations.  These principles are just broader guidelines; their application varies across industries and organizational cultures. 
    •        Understanding the Requirement: It is the preparatory stage and plays a crucial role in success of the whole process. The main objective is to determine the requirement of talent. The main activities of this stage are developing job description and job specifications. Sourcing the Talent: This is the second stage of talent management process that involves targeting the best talent of the industry. Searching for people according to the requirement is the main activity. Attracting the Talent: it is important to attract the talented people to work with you as the whole process revolves around this only. After all the main aim of talent management process is to hire the best people from the industry. Recruiting the Talent: The actual process of hiring starts from here. This is the stage when people are invited to join the organization. Selecting the Talent: This involves meeting with different people having same or different qualifications and skill sets as mentioned in job description. Candidates who qualify this round are invited to join the organization. Training and Development: After recruiting the best people, they are trained and developed to get the desired output. Retention: Certainly, it is the sole purpose of talent management process. Hiring them does not serve the purpose completely. Retention depends on various factors such as pay package, job specification, challenges involved in a job, designation, personal development of an employee, recognition, culture and the fit between job and talent.
    •        Promotion: No one can work in an organization at the same designation with same job responsibilities. Job enrichment plays an important role. Competency Mapping: Assessing employees‟ skills, development, ability and competency is the next step. If required, also focus on behaviour, attitude, knowledge and future possibilities of improvement. It gives you a brief idea if the person is fir for promoting further. Performance Appraisal: Measuring the actual performance of an employee is necessary to identify his or her true potential. It is to check whether the person can be loaded with extra responsibilities or not. Career Planning: If the individual can handle the work pressure and extra responsibilities well, the management needs to plan his or her career so that he or she feels rewarded. It is good to recognize their efforts to retain them for a longer period of time. Succession Planning: Succession planning is all about who will replace whom in near future. The employee who has given his best to the organization and has been serving it for a very long time definitely deserves to hold the top position. Management needs to plan about when and how succession will take place. Exit: The process ends when an individual gets retired or is no more a part of the organization. Talent Management process is very complex and is therefore, very difficult to handle.
    •          Positive Aspects of Talent Management Consulting Primarily organizations outsource their talent management because of underlying assumptions like - the management will be effective, efficient and result oriented, HR people will be spared of unnecessary engagement, employees can be focused in their respective domains and the like. The following are some of the benefits or positive aspects of talent management Talent management consulting firms employ proven talent selection, career planning and development, people orientation and retention tools after strategizing with the top management. This is contrary to the common inhose organizational practice which is very unsystematic and does not make use of any tools. They are focused unlike in-house talent management team that has other things to take care of. Negative Aspects of Talent Management Consulting The negative views are based on the fact that since it‟s the employee data and the employees themselves that the talent management consulting deals with, there is a potential risk of the information getting leaked. However the negative aspects of talent management consulting are summarized as follows: Talent management consulting/outsourcing demands access to your critical organizational/people data. There is a potential risk of any consulting firm gaining insights into organizational functioning. Since organizations do not have a great belief upon the effectiveness of the practice they do not want to spend much on the same. There is a big cost attached to the outsourcing thing.
    •  It faces the following opportunities and challenges: Recruiting talent  Training and Developing talent  Retaining talent  Developing Leadership talent  Creating talented ethical culture   Recruiting Talent The recent economic downturn saw job cuts globally. Those who were most important to organizations in their understanding were retained, other were sacked. Similarly huge shuffles happened at the top leadership positions. They were seen as crisis managers unlike those who were deemed responsible for throwing organizations into troubled waters. It is the jurisdiction of talent management to get such people on onboard, who are enterprising but ensure that an organization does not suffer for the same. Training and Developing Talent The downturn also opened the eyes of organizations to newer models of employment part time or temporary workers. This is a new challenge to talent management, training and developing people who work on a contractual or project basis. What‟s more big a challenge is increasing the stake of these people in their work.     .
    •         . Retaining Talent While organizations focus on reducing employee overheads and sacking those who are unessential in the shorter run, it also spreads a wave of de motivation among those who are retained. An uncertainty about the firing axe looms in their mind. It is essential to maintain a psychological contract with employees those who have been fired as well as those who have been retained. Investing on people development in crisis is the best thing an organization can do to retain its top talent. Developing Leadership Talent Leadership in action means an ability to take out of crisis situation, extract certainty out of uncertainty, set goals and driving change to ensure that the momentum is not lost. Identifying people from within the organization who should be invested upon is a critical talent management challenge. Creating Talented Ethical Culture Setting standards for ethical behavior, increasing transparency, reducing complexities and developing a culture of reward and appreciation are still more challenges and opportunities for talent management. (Since an opportunity is the other face of challenge and vice versa, the words chall
    •    Talent management is now looked upon as a critical HR activity; the discipline is evolving every day. Let‟s analyze some trends in the same. Talent War: ( ) Finding and retaining the best talent is the most difficult aspect of HR management. HR survey consultancies are one in their view that organizations globally are facing a dearth of talented employees and it‟s often more difficult to retain them. Further research has also shown that there is clear link between talent issues and overall productivity.  Technology and Talent Management: Technology is increasingly getting introduced into people development. Online employee portals have become common place in organizations to offer easy access to employees to various benefits and schemes. In addition employees can also manage their careers through these portals and it also helps organizations understand their employees better.  Promoting Talent Internally: An individual is hired, when there is a fit between his abilities or skills and the requirements of the organization. The next step is enabling learning and development of the same so that he/she stays with the organization. This is employee retention. An enabled or empowered means an empowered organization. It is also of interest to organizations to know their skills inventories and then develop the right individual for succession planning internally. 
    •   Population Worries Globally: World populations are either young or aging. For example, stats have it that by 2050 60% of Europe‟s working population will be over 60! On the other hand a country like India can boast of a young population in the coming and present times. Population demographics are thus a disturbing factor for people managers. Still more researches have predicted that demographic changes in United States will lead to shortage of 10 million workers in the near future! Talent Management to rescue HR: HR has been compelled to focus on qualitative aspects equally and even more than quantitative aspects like the head count etc. Through talent management more effort is now being laid on designing and maintaining employee scorecards and employee surveys for ensuring that talent is nurtured and grown perpetually.  Increase in Employer of Choice Initiatives: An organization‟s perceived value as an employer as helps improve its brand value in the eyes of its consumer. Most importantly it helps it attract the right talent.
    •       Myth 1 - Paying higher compared to Rival Firms will stop the Employee from Leaving: Offering more compensations than rivals or above industry standard will prevent employees from leaving and will also attract the best talent. Reality: Paying higher than rival firms may help to a certain extent in retaining your employees. It may also help you poach certain employees from your rivals but in the long run, money fails to motivate people. Money is a hygiene factor; its absence may be a de-motivating factor but presence surely cannot be motivating for long. Solution: It is the day to day work, organizational culture and career progression that motivates people more on a daily basis. Analyze each employee on what motivates whom and try to align their career interests with their growth in the organization. Myth 2 - Rewards and Incentives only Motivate People: The first myth that we discuss here is that its rewards and incentives only that motivates people to give their hundred percent and work more productively. Consequently it‟s the rewards and incentives that is at the focus of HR people. Reality: It is the attributes and the culture of the organization that is most likely to motivate people to work better and be happy with their jobs. Leadership and job empowerment are other factors that contribute to that happiness of employees. Solution: Work on making the organization a better place in terms of enriching the culture, improving senior junior relationships and of course laying due emphasis on how the employees are being compensated.
    •       Myth 3 - Employee Engagement is Useless: In industries where the attrition rate is low there is a common feeling prevalent that employee engagement programs are of no benefit. Further there is also a feeling that employee engagement helps only the employees and not the organization. Reality: There is no direct connection between levels of attrition and employee engagement. In fact employees who are engaged well are more productive and take ownership of their work. Since organizations about people, well engagement not only improves employee performance but also organizational or corporate performance. According to one recent research engaged employees perform 22 percent better, have lesser rates of absenteeism, and produce greater customer satisfactions. Solution: Customize engagement strategy for each employee and show the connection between employees work commitment and organizational success. Improvise key drivers such as manager‟s expertise and future career opportunities and development. Myth 4 - Low Growth Periods do not require Employee Engagement: Organizations typically believe that low growth is an industry wise phenomenon and does not demand employee engagement. Employees are naturally left with lesser options to switch jobs. Reality: In absence of employee engagement the organizations stands at the risk of losing projects in hand. Continued absence of employee engagement may in fact demotivate an employee to contribute his best. Solution: Employee engagement is critically required to retain and polish talent that is essential for future growth and opportunities.
    • talent management system solutions typically take care of the following:  Performance Management  Goal Management  Talent acquisition  Learning management  Succession planning  Learning management  Compensation management 
    •      Some strategies in this direction could be: Aligning Business strategies with the HR strategies: Business HR is one function that is developing fast as part of the human resource department. The person is responsible for ensuring a smooth relationship between business and HR functions. They work with business heads to develop people strategies to support both short term and long term business objectives. Performance Planning and Evaluation: An integrated HR approach means that are uniform and standard procedures for employee performance evaluation and compensation, up and down the organization. Performance is linked to growth and the process adds value for employees to evaluate their work on their own. Indian digital disk giant Moser Baer employs such process. Strategic Manpower Planning: HR and Business function are interrelated. None can exist without the other. HR functions need to work in collaboration to assess current and future manpower requirements are plan for the same. They need to strategize on the approximate manpower requirements, the relevant skills and educational qualification, compensation and the like. This has to happen well in advance. Recruitment itself means a host of other activities like training and development, compensation, induction and orientation etc. Mapping your Talent: An ever increasing emphasis is being laid on identifying the top performing and talented employees to think of ways to develop, nurture and retain them. Further organizations also like to keep skill inventories for contingencies. As organizations realize the skills and abilities of individuals, they can then be more focused on devising means and strategies to attract, develop and retain these people.
    •  McKinsey conducted one research in this direction in the year 2006 and found out that the obstacles preventing talent management programs from delivering business value are too human
    •           The talent market is more than competitive presently than it was and could be in the next decades. In an economy that is knowledge driven the demand for highly skilled workers is on the rise incessantly. Though the demand may decline at times due to the changes economic cycle but in the longer run the rising trend will remain the same more or less. In a survey conducted by McKinsey in 2001, 72 % of the managers they interviewed were of the opinion that winning the war for talent is critical and only 3 % were confident that their actions would create a strong talent pool in the next 3 years. Apart from the talent constraint, it was also found out that people at executive ranks (in the age group of 35 - 40) will also decrease by 14 % in the next 15 years. This can be countered for a few more years by replacing these positions with older baby boomers, but it is not long before these older baby boomers retire and management ranks turn lean. It is also of interest to mention here that individual expectations of rewards (developmental, psychological and financial) have increased! These are challenges and the most disconcerting element is that not many organizations are prepared to face them. The Solution Organizations need to act, and act now! The following is the five point solution suggested by McKinsey Develop a talent mindset at all levels in the organization. Create a winning Employee Value Proposition. Recruit great talent continuously. Grow leaders Differentiate and affirm.
    •  Succession planning is a systematic process of identifying and developing talent for leadership positions in the future. According to SHRM survey of 2003 it was found out that 60% of the firms that they interviewed had no succession planning in place and contrastingly about 70% of the major corporations globally had a proper succession planning in place in the late 1970‟s. Similarly IPMA HR survey of 2004 found out that 63% of companies have no manpower planning at all which was commonplace in every organization till the late 1950‟s. So the question that arises is when did succession planning emerge as a problem? Who is responsible - is it because of some demographic changes or because of the apathy on the part of management?
    •      Strategic Value: The resource has to contribute substantially and add value in his/her area of expertise. Rare: Unique in terms of skills, knowledge and abilities in order to qualify as rare. Appropriable: The extent to which the resource is owned by the firm. Inimitable: Such that the resource cannot be replaced even after the competitors having spotted the same. Cannot be Substituted: This means that the resource cannot be substituted by the rival firms and that there is no match for the talent!
    • Typically the following steps are involved in performance management:  Commitment analysis.  Work analysis.  Defining performance standards. 
    •    In commitment analysis a job mission statement is made for each job or process which is a job definition in terms of product, scope and purpose. Here the key objectives are outlined and performance standards are set against the same. Work analysis follows next; this underlines the reporting structure and job description. Finally performance standards and expectations are set against each job or process keeping in view the efficiency and effectiveness both. Employee performance management is of key benefit to organizations in helping them realize effectively the strategic and operational goals. In organizational behavior lexicon, performance problem is a gap between desired and actual results and performance management seeks to address just the same problem. There the effort is called as performance improvement. The guidelines that determine whether or job is being carried out effectively is based upon factors like whether the work is planned and clear expectations are set, work performance is monitored, staff is trained and developed continuously for a certain job etc.
    •  Noted management author Peter Drucker said that the fastest growing industry would be training and development as a result of replacement of industrial workers with knowledge workers. In United States, for example, according to one estimate technology is de-skilling 75 % of the population. This is true for the developing nations and for those who are on the threshold of development. In Japan for example, with increasing number of women joining traditionally male jobs, training is required not only to impart necessary job skills but also for preparing them for the physically demanding jobs. They are trained in everything from sexual harassment policies to the necessary job skills.
    •       Donald Kirkpatrick, professor emeritus, university of Wisconsin began working on evaluating the effectiveness of training very early in his life. His early work on the same was published in the year 1959 in a journal of American Society of Training Directors. He laid out four levels for evaluation of any training. This model is arguably the most widespread for evaluation in use. It is simple, very flexible and complete. The four levels as described by Kirkpatrick are as follows: Reaction of the Trainee - thoughts and feelings of the participants about the training Learning - the increase in knowledge or understanding as a result of the training Behavior - extent of change in behavior, attitude or capability Results - the effect on the bottom line of the company as a result of the training. The fifth level which is the ROI has been recently added which is not but a part of the original model. The graphic description is as follows:
    •   The success of a training program is evaluated in terms of the end result or the increase in the work ability, skill or competency in the trainee. For any training program to be successful it is very essential to follow a certain process. The basic process as illustrated in the figure below consists of four stages which are assessment, development, delivery and evaluation.
    •   (training) development)  organization) learning
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    • 177
    •          Collins and Porras, Built to Last ( Successful Habits of Visionary Companies), 1997 Collins, Good to Great, 2001 Collins, Good to Great and the Social Sectors, 2006 Pfeffer, Competitive Advantage through People (Unleashing the Power of the Work Force), 1994 Becker, Huselid and Ulrich, The HR Scorecard, 2001 Ulrich and Brockbank, The HR Value Proposition, 2005 Huselid, Becker and Beatty, The Workforce Scorecard, 2005 Ulrich, Human Resource Champions, 1997 Human Resource Competency Studies, RBL Group and Michigan School of Business, 2002 and 2007 178
    • 1. Organisations and Culture    2. 3. 4. Leadership The strategic role of people Human Resource practitioners   5. Organisations are changing Higher education is no different Culture in Higher Education Institutions Expectations Competencies Human Resource practitioner credibility 179
    •  The Organisation of yesterday was: › Standardised and functionally based, with position based, top-down power structures, compliance and information scarcity. Focus was primarily on products  The Organisation of tomorrow is: › distributed, global, virtual and flexible with leadership directed towards specific outcomes via individually negotiated contributions which are expert-based, and rich in information. Focus is on markets and customers 181
    •  In fact it is particularly so in Higher Education where a dual culture of bureaucracy („order and rules‟) and collegiality (by it‟s nature „chaotic‟) exist side by side – the old and the new  The Academic enterprise is increasingly being required to be more competitive, effective and efficient, that is focussing on customers and markets, not „product‟ only  Academic institutions are increasingly being required to survive and perform in an increasingly competitive world on the one hand, on the other, the Academic enterprise has always been much like the organisation of tomorrow in the way it has worked 182
    • Positive  Freedom from organisational interference  Focus on individual excellence  Set out own agenda  Define own goals  Scope for individual creativity  Work with who you choose (inside or outside the institution)  „Steal‟ ideas and practices from anywhere  Resources follow „stars‟  Space exists to explore ideas without either sociability or solidarity getting in the way Negative  Selfish  No knowledge sharing (secretive)  Low individual identification with the organisation  Very fragile psychological contract between organisation and staff member  Difficult to manage meetings or any collective events  Bad-mouthing of colleagues may take place (excessive critique can degenerate into inaction)  All ideas get savaged 183
    •      Are introvert, reflective and self-contained Have a high autonomy drive and a strong desire for independence with no controls Have a strong sense of self Are analytical rather than intuitive Are self critical and criticize the ideas of others 184
    •      Investing in yourself and your human capital Focussing on outputs and knowing the reward system inside out Recruiting other very good people Never letting personal relationships get in the way of evaluation of ideas Managing yourself well because it gives you space 185
    •     Which are familiar with bureaucracy Which are increasingly required to become more competitive in a customer focussed environment Which have a „fragmented‟ culture where it is difficult to generate focussed collective effort Where individual academic staff members are primarily focussed on personal growth and development This has implications for leadership…. 186
    • A „great‟ organisation: delivers superior performance, makes a distinctive impact, achieves lasting endurance (Collins)  Social sector leaders increasingly look to business for leadership models and talent, yet I suspect we will find more true leadership in the social sectors than the business sector‟ (Collins)  Level 5 leadership „Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will‟ (Collins)  13 Behaviours of High Trust Leaders (Covey)  True leadership only exists if people follow when they have the freedom not to……. 188
    •       Is a tough role… Means continually reminding members of their obligations to the collective Means enforcing these obligations through a formal control system Means encouraging acceptable levels of sociability Means encouraging institutional as well as individual learning Means encouraging collective as well as individual creativity 189
    • ‘In those rare cases when individual creativity is critical, the fragmented (culture) is also appropriate. But even academic institutions should beware. The individualist model of organisation may not be sustainable as organisations (universities) face new competitive threats from emerging sources of knowledge and information exchange…’ 190
    • 192
    • Workforce Success: The Impact of Workforce Strategy on Business Strategy Execution • HR success is about driving workforce success. • HR success is measured by the impact of HR on workforce success. Financial Success Customer Success Operational Success HR Success Leadership and Workforce Behaviours Workforce Competencies Workforce Mind-set and culture Workforce Success • Creating value with the workforce is HR Management Systems HR Practices HR Workforce Competencies about managing and measuring relationships. • Workforce success is about driving business success. • Ideally, workforce success is measured by the impact of your workforce strategy
    • Human Resource Competency Study 2002 Model 197
    • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The ability to anticipate the institutions‟ future needs given the institutional environment and competitive strategy. The ability to articulate the institution‟s strategic intent and to translate it into appropriate people systems. The ability to analyze the institution‟s resource processes and design work systems in support of these processes. The ability to demonstrate the value added to the institutions‟ outputs by the people systems. The ability to diagnose and prepare appropriate organizational interventions – the consulting role 198
    • 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. The ability to provide feedback and guidance to subordinates. The ability to provide leadership for the attainment of individual and group goals. The ability to transfer knowledge and capabilities to line managers and senior management. The ability to work as a team member. To act as a role model in the process of aligning people systems with the institutional mission. To possess narrow, functional HR expertise (e.g. compensation, employee relations etc.). 199
    • Personal credibility 2. Management of change processes 3. Management of culture 4. Delivery of HR practices (basics) 5. Knowledge of the organisation and it‟s delivery system 1. 200
    • Human Resource Competency Study - model - 2007 This model suggests that HR professionals must master competencies dealing both with people and business. Following one of these two paths independent of the other leads to failure. HR professionals who emphasize the people side at the exclusion of the business side may be well liked and popular, but they will not succeed, because their work does not further business goals. HR professionals who focus on the business side without sensitivity to the human element will also not succeed because, although the business may prosper in the short term, people will not sustain the success in the longer term. 201
    • Systems and processes › Operational Executor: Executing the operational aspects of managing people and the organization, ensuring credibility through flawless execution › Business Ally: Contributing to the success of the business by knowing the social context in which the business operates, how the business makes money and how the parts of the business work together for business success 202
    • Relationships › Credible Activist: Credible (respected, admired, listened to) and active (offers a point of view, takes a position, challenges assumptions). “HR with an attitude.” HR professionals who are credible but not activists are admired but do not have much impact. Those who are activists but not credible may have ideas but will not be listened to. 203
    •      Strategic Contribution: managing culture, facilitating "fast change,” strategic decision making and creating “market-driven connectivity” together account for 43% of HR‟s total impact on business performance Personal Credibility: credible to their HR counterparts and their business line managers and having effective relationships with key people both inside and outside the business. Also a need to promise and deliver results and establish a reliable track record and have effective written and verbal communication skills. HR Delivery: Delivery of both traditional and operational HR in respect of People and Organisation Development, Structure and HR Measurement, Staffing, Performance Management and Reward. Business Knowledge: Be a key player in the organization understanding the business and industry including applied understanding of the organisation‟s value chain and value proposition HR Technology : Be able to leverage technology for HR practices and use e-HR/web-based channels to deliver value. 204
    • 1. Personal resilience 2. Emotional „intelligence‟ 3. Soft skills and knowledge 4. Ethics (personal integrity) 5. Understanding „one-down power‟ 206
    •  Being grounded and connected, regarding one‟s life as having purpose, meaning and direction  Understanding and accepting self, being selfaware and being realistically optimistic about one‟s own capabilities and limits Successful coping with adversity results in enhanced resilience, which in turn enables better coping with future adversity 207
    •  Managing and choosing thoughts (positive and negative); feelings (emotional impulses); and attitude (a positive outlook)  Giving and accepting support  Having an action focus (persistent, yet flexible) 208
    •  Managing and choosing thoughts (positive and negative); feelings (emotional impulses); and attitude (a positive outlook)  Giving and accepting support  Having an action focus (persistent, yet flexible) 209
    • the need for personal feedback and experiential development of HR practitioners  lessons learned from experience have a lasting impact on how a person manages and leads.  developmental experiences fall into four areas*  › Challenging Assignments 42% › Significant other people 22% › Hardships 20% › Other events 16% *Center for Creative Leadership Benchmarks, Greensboro, North Carolina 210
    •  A credible HR practitioner is: › In the organisational system but able to constructively observe and influence the system › Accept that praise for success should be directed at the client manager – any direct praise to the HR person is a bonus › Not standing outside the system and being critical: „the University must/should etc…………‟ › Standing alongside the client line manager, even when the HR practitioner‟s advice has been rejected, and assisting him/her to deal with the „crisis‟ which has arisen 211
    •   What is Employee Relations ? Every individual shares a certain relationship with his colleagues at the workplace. The relationship is either warm, so-so or bad. The relationship can be between any one in the organization - between co workers, between an employee and his superior, between two members in the management and so on. It is important that the employees share a healthy relationship with each other to deliver their best performances.
    •   Employee relations refer to the relationship shared among the employees in an organization. The employees must be comfortable with each other for a healthy environment at work. It is the prime duty of the superiors and team leaders to discourage conflicts in the team and encourage a healthy relationship among employees. Life is really short and it is important that one enjoys each and every moment of it. Remember in an organization you are paid for your hard work and not for cribbing or fighting with each other. Don‟t assume that the person sitting next to you is your enemy or will do any harm to you. Who says you can‟t make friends at work, in fact one can make the best of friends in the office. There is so much more to life than fighting with each other. Observation says that a healthy relation among the employees goes a long way in motivating the employees and increasing their confidence and morale. One starts enjoying his office and does not take his work as a burden. He feels charged and fresh the whole day and takes each day at work as a new challenge. If you have a good relation with your team members you feel going to office daily. Go out with your team members for a get together once in a while or have your lunch together. These activities help in strengthening the bond among the employees and improve the relations among them.
    •    An employee must try his level best to adjust with each other and compromise to his best extent possible. If you do not agree to any of your fellow worker‟s ideas, there are several other ways to convince him. Sit with him and probably discuss with him where he is going wrong and needs a correction. This way he would definitely look up to you for your advice and guidance in future. He would trust you and would definitely come to your help whenever you need him. One should never spoil his relations with his colleagues because you never know when you need the other person. Avoid using foul words or derogatory sentences against anyone. Don‟t depend on lose talk in office as it spoils the ambience of the place and also the relation among the employees. Blame games are a strict no no in office. One needs to enter his office with a positive frame of mind and should not unnecessarily make issues out of small things. It is natural that every human being can not think the way you think, or behave the way you behave. If you also behave in the similar way the other person is behaving, there is hardly any difference between you and him. Counsel the other person and correct him wherever he is wrong. It is of utmost importance that employees behave with each other in a cultured way, respect each other and learn to trust each other. An individual however hardworking he is, cannot do wonders alone. It is essential that all the employees share a cordial relation with each other, understand each other‟s needs and expectations and work together to accomplish the goals and targets of the organization.
    •     Every individual at the workplace shares a certain relationship with his fellow workers. Human beings are not machines who can start working just at the push of a mere button. They need people to talk to, discuss ideas with each other and share their happiness and sorrows. An individual cannot work on his own, he needs people around. If the organization is all empty, you will not feel like sitting there and working. An isolated environment de-motivates an individual and spreads negativity around. It is essential that people are comfortable with each other and work together as a single unit towards a common goal. It is important that employees share a healthy relation with each other at the work place. Let us find out why employee relations are important in an organization: There are several issues on which an individual cannot take decisions alone. He needs the guidance and advice of others as well. Sometimes we might miss out on important points, but our fellow workers may come out with a brilliant idea which would help us to achieve our targets at a much faster rate. Before implementing any plan, the pros and cons must be evaluated on an open forum where every employee has the right to express his opinions freely. On your own, you will never come to know where you are going wrong, you need people who can act as critic and correct you wherever you are wrong. If you do not enjoy a good relation with others no one will ever come to help you. Work becomes easy if it is shared among all. A healthy relation with your fellow workers would ease the work load on you and in turn increases your productivity. One cannot do everything on his own. Responsibilities must be divided among team members to accomplish the assigned tasks within the stipulated time frame. If you have a good rapport with your colleagues, he will always be eager to assist you in your assignments making your work easier.
    •      The organization becomes a happy place to work if the employees work together as a family. An individual tends to lose focus and concentration if his mind is always clouded with unnecessary tensions and stress. It has been observed that if people talk and discuss things with each other, tensions automatically evaporate and one feels better. Learn to trust others, you will feel relaxed. One doesn‟t feel like going to office if he is not in talking terms with the person sitting next to him. An individual spends around 8-9 hours in a day at his workplace and practically it is not possible that one works non stop without a break. You should have people with whom you can share your lunch, discuss movies or go out for a stroll once in a while. If you fight with everyone, no one will speak to you and you will be left all alone. It is important to respect others to expect the same from them. An individual feels motivated in the company of others whom he can trust and fall back on whenever needed. One feels secure and confident and thus delivers his best. It is okay if you share your secrets with your colleagues but you should know where to draw the line. A sense of trust is important. Healthy employee relations also discourage conflicts and fights among individuals. People tend to adjust more and stop finding faults in each other. Individuals don‟t waste their time in meaningless conflicts and disputes, rather concentrate on their work and strive hard to perform better. They start treating each other as friends and try their level best to compromise and make everyone happy. A healthy employee relation reduces the problem of absenteeism at the work place. Individuals are more serious towards their work and feel like coming to office daily. They do not take frequent leaves and start enjoying their work. Employees stop complaining against each other and give their best It is wise to share a warm relation with your fellow workers, because you never know when you need them. You may need them any time. They would come to your help only when you are nice to them. You might need leaves for some personal reasons; you must have a trusted colleague who can handle the work on your behalf. Moreover healthy employee relations also spread positivity around.
    •      For the organization to perform better it is important that the employees are comfortable with each other, share a good rapport and work in close coordination towards a common objective. People feel responsible and motivated to do good work and enjoy their work rather than taking it as a burden. It is important that the management promotes healthy employee relations at workplace to extract the best out of each individual. Competition is essential but it should not promote negativity or any kind of enmity among the employees. Let us go through some steps and strategies for a healthy employee relationship in the organization. Involve your team members: They should feel important and indispensable for the organization. An individual must be assigned responsibilities according to their interests and responsibilities. Don‟t impose work on them. Let them willingly accept challenges. They must enjoy whatever they do otherwise they would end up fighting with their superiors and fellow workers. Encourage individuals to share their work with each other: This way people tend to talk with each other more, discuss things among themselves and thus the comfort level increases. Let them work together and take decisions on their own. A team leader should intervene only in extreme cases of conflicts and severe misunderstandings.
    •    Assign them targets and ask all your team members to contribute equally and achieve the target within the desired time frame. Motivate them to work in groups. This way employees have no other choice than to trust their fellow workers and take each other‟s help as well. An employee must have the liberty to express his ideas and all of them should sit together to decide on something which would be beneficial to all. One should try his level best that all the employees must have their lunch together at the same time. Half an hour to forty five minutes must be dedicated to lunch and one should not discuss work during lunch time. There are other topics as well. Discuss movies, sports, shopping or any other thing under the sun. There will be no harm if the employees go out together once in a while for get togethers, picnics or shopping. Ask them to bring their family members as well. Encourage effective communication among the team members. It has been observed that poor communication leads to confusions and misunderstandings. The communication has to be precise and relevant. One should not play with words and be very specific about his expectations from his fellow workers as well as the organization. If you are not very happy with your colleague‟s proposal, don‟t keep things to yourself. Voice your opinion and do express your displeasure. It will definitely prevent a conflict among employees later and improve the relations among them. Be straightforward. Don‟t pretend things just to please your boss. If you find anything unacceptable, discuss with your superior but in a polite way.
    •      Written modes of communication must be promoted among the employees for better transparency. Verbal communication is not as reliable as written communication. The agendas, minutes of the meeting, important issues must be circulated among all through emails. Make sure that all the related employees are in the loop. Don‟t communicate individually with any of the employees as the other one might feel neglected and left out. Morning meeting is another effective way to improve the relation among the employees. Let everyone come together on a common platform and discuss whatever issues they have. The meetings must not be too formal. Allow the team members to bring their cups of coffee. Start your day with a positive mind. Greet everyone with a warm smile. Exchange greetings and compliments. If any of your team member is not in a pleasant mood, do take the initiative and ask what is wrong with him. Try your level best to provide him a solution. Organize birthday parties, Christmas parties, New Year parties etc. at the workplace. These small initiatives actually go a long way in strengthening the bond among the employees. Ask all of them to decorate the office, their work stations and make all the necessary arrangements themselves. You will actually be surprised to find out that everyone would be ready with some thing or the other. Employees would actually take the initiative and organize things on their own. Let them enjoy with each other and have fun. Praise the individual if he has done something exceptionally well. Reward him suitably. The names of the top performers must be displayed on the notice boards for others to draw inspiration from them. Encourage everyone to perform well to live up to the expectations of the superiors as well as the management. A healthy relation among employees promotes a positive ambience at the work place and employees feel happy and satisfied at work. They look forward to going to office daily and also work hard to realize their team‟s as well as organization‟s goals.
    •      Employees are the major assets of an organization. It is essential that the employees perform together as a collective unit and contribute equally towards the realization of a common goal. No task can be accomplished if the individuals are engaged in constant conflicts and misunderstandings. It has been observed that targets are achieved at a much faster rate if the employees work together and share a warm relationship with each other. Employees must be comfortable with each other to deliver their best and enjoy their work. What is employee relationship management ? Employee relationship management refers to managing the relation between the various employees in an organization. The relationship can be between employee and the employer as well as between employees at the same level. What is Management ? Management is nothing but a technique which brings people together on a common platform and guides them so that they achieve their desired targets without fighting with each other. In a layman‟s language, management is nothing but managing things effectively so that tasks are accomplished without any hassles and confusions. Management is required everywhere.
    •     Employee relationship management is an art which effectively monitors and manages the relation between individuals either of the same team or from different teams. Employee relationship management activity helps in strengthening the bond among the employees and ensures that each one is contented and enjoys a healthy relation with each other. Employee relationship management includes various activities undertaken by the superiors or the management to develop a healthy relation among the employees and extract the best out of each team member. Let us go through certain activities which are imperative for a healthy employee relationship management: Transparency in communication is of utmost importance for a healthy employee relationship management. A single point of contact must be assigned who should be made responsible for handling queries of all the team members and escalating it to the seniors. Confusions are bound to arise if all of them would walk up to their superiors with their problems. Let the team members decide their SPOC. In such cases employees actually know who to get in touch with in case of a query and in the absence of their superiors. The hierarchy should not be too complicated and every employee should be accessible to each other. Important information must be passed on in the presence of all, where everyone has the liberty to express his opinions freely. Important information can also be put on the notice boards for everyone to read and get a common picture. If any one has performed exceptionally well, do display his name on the bulletin board. Let everyone read it and get inspired to perform better next time. Encourage morning meetings where individuals can come together and know each other well. Exchanging information through emails is also an important way to improve the relation among the employees as everyone knows what is being communicated to the other individual.
    •    Encourage group activities at the workplace. Motivate individuals to work together probably in a group so that the comfort level increases. The more they talk, the more they get to know each other. Give them a target, a deadline and ask them to take each other‟s help and reach to a conclusion. They would definitely come closer this way and start trusting each other more. An individual spends the maximum time at his workplace and one should treat his team members as a part of one‟s extended family. It is important to celebrate festivals at organization, the same way we do at our homes. Celebrate each other‟s birthday and do ask for treats. Such informal get togeters go a long way in improving the relation among the employees. Individuals come together, enjoy together and come to know lot many things which actually they don‟t bother to find out during the normal working hours. Families must also be invited for a better bonding. The team leaders must ask their team members to take their lunch together so that they discuss other things apart from their daily work. Assign challenging work to your team members so that they feel motivated to deliver their level best. Do not assign something which they do not find interesting. The responsibilities must be divided equally among the team members and no employee should be overburdened. Every employee should be aware of his key responsibility areas to avoid confusions. No way should the work get monotonous.
    •     The concept of workstations and cubicles must be promoted rather than closed cabins. People sitting in closed cabins tend to get cut off from rest of the employees in the organization and are generally lost in their own sweet world. They would enter their cabins in the morning and come out in the evening and thus sometimes even don‟t get the opportunity to exchange greetings with their fellow workers. People sitting in workstations tend to talk to each other more often even in between work and thus relationship improves. One can even walk up to the other‟s desk to have a brief chit chat in order to take a small break and feel relaxed. Employees sitting together discuss many things and even share their secrets, thus the trust increases. It is commonly observed that if any of your colleagues sitting next to you is on leave for some days, you start missing him. The employees must be motivated to avoid politics and blame games at work. Such activities are considered highly unproductive and spoil the relationship among the employees. Backbiting is a strict no no at the workplace. Avoid getting into unnecessary controversies and useless criticism at work. Respect your team members as well as your superiors. It is important that one trusts his management rather than unnecessarily cribbing and finding faults. Avoid conflicts and try to adjust with each other. It is okay to be friends with your colleagues but don‟t have unrealistic expectations from anyone. Last but not the least the superiors or the team leaders must not act pricy and try to dominate their team members. The “Hitler approach” does not work now a days. No one should be afraid of his boss, instead treat him as his well-wisher and mentor who is always there to support him. The employees must be able to fall back on their team leader anytime. The team leader must understand the needs and expectations of his employees and should not be too harsh to them. If they want a leave for a genuine reason, do grant them. Don‟t be after their life if you find them chatting with their family or friends over the phone once in a while or log on to any social networking site. These things are natural but make sure the work does not suffer. Partialities must be avoided for a better employee relationship. Treat everyone as one and every individual must respect each other‟s privacy. There is a limit to everything and thus over indulgence in each other‟s work, too much of a friendly nature should be avoided.
    •  For a better employee relationship management, it is important that employees have a positive frame of mind and don‟t always consider their colleagues as their enemies. Don‟t always assume that your fellow team member would say something against you in front of your boss. Avoid disputes, misunderstandings, instead work together, enjoy together and make the organization a better place to work.
    • A healthy employee relationship ensures a positive environment at work and also helps the employees to achieve their targets at a much faster rate. People are more focussed, can concentrate better in their assignments and hence the output increases. Employees are not engaged in constant fights, are eager to help each other and do not take work as a burden. They enjoy each and every moment at work and do not take leaves often.  Communication is not only important in our daily lives but also plays a crucial role at workplace. It is one of the most important factors which either improves or spoils the relationship among employees.  The communication has to be transparent and precise for a warm relationship among employees. Clarity in thoughts is important. Don‟t assume that the other person will come to know on his own what is going on in your mind. The thoughts must be converted sensibly into relevant words such that the other person is able to understand you well. 
    •      The employees must be very clear about what is being expected from them. Their key responsibility areas, roles and responsibilities must be communicated to them in the desired form for them to perform their level best. Don‟t play with words. Be straightforward and precise in what you expect from your team members. Don‟t blame them later. Haphazard thoughts and abstract ideas only lead to confusions and spoil the relationship among the employees. Let us go through the below example: Janet was working as a key accounts manager with a leading advertising firm. First she wanted Ted to prepare a report on marketing and sales strategies undertaken by her organization, then she wanted him to prepare a report on the branding techniques and finally she asked him to also include the promotion strategies. She herself was not very clear about her expectations. Poor Ted was so confused that he submitted an incomplete report to Janet. She was not at all happy with Ted‟s performance and always side-lined him in future. In the above example, Janet was not very clear about the content of the report and also confused Ted. One needs to express his ideas clearly for the other person to understand it correctly. Poor communication in this case spoiled the relation between Janet and Ted who were once good friends. Had Janet told Ted to prepare an exhaustive report on Marketing, sales, branding as well as the promotion techniques undertaken by the organization, things would been crystal clear and Ted would not have made any mistakes. One should be first very clear about his needs, expectations and then only communicate it to the other person.
    •    Don‟t change statements quite often. Be firm. One should not tamper any data or manipulate truth. You would never gain anything out of it. Be honest and pass on information in its desired form. If your boss has asked you to download some information to your fellow team members, please do pass it on as it is. Don‟t try to add or delete words as it would earn you a bad name. No one would trust you in future or come to your help whenever required. Remember honesty always pays in the long run. Think twice before you speak. Avoid using foul words against anyone at the workplace as it spoils the ambience of the office and leads to several disputes among individuals. Don‟t say anything which would hurt anyone. Avoid lose talks. It is okay to enjoy at work but one should never cross his limit. If you do not agree to anyone‟s ideas, it is better to discuss things with him rather being rude or harsh. Whatever you communicate has to be crisp, relevant and should make sense. Don‟t utter non sense at work. Be a little professional in your approach. Important information should be passed on in the presence of each and every employee for better clarity. Every employee should have the liberty to express his views and ideas. Don‟t expect you would clear your doubts later on, ask questions then and there. No one would feel bad, rather appreciate your interest and attentiveness but do not jump in between. Do wait for your turn to speak. Don‟t meet anyone separately as the other person might feel neglected or left out resulting in major displeasure and conflict among the team members. Do take care of your pitch and tone. It should not be too loud.
    •    Depend more on written modes of communication as they are more reliable as compared to verbal communication. An individual might back out if the information is passed on to him verbally as there are no records, but it never happens in written modes of communication. Prefer passing on information through Emails. All the related team members must be marked a carbon copy so that everyone knows what is being communicated to his fellow member. One should master the art of writing emails. Remember an email is nothing but a mirror image of one‟s thoughts. Make sure that your mail is self-explanatory and everyone is clear about your ideas and opinions. An employee needs to be constantly motivated to avoid a dip in his performance. If someone has performed exceptionally well, do not hesitate to praise him. Words like “Well done”,“Bravo”,“Great Performance” go a long way in making the individual happy. If you are satisfied with your team member‟s performance, do communicate your feelings to him. Communicate effectively with your fellow team members and you would never have a problem with anyone. People would respect you and work would be fun for you.
    •    A healthy employee relationship leads to an increased level of satisfaction among the employees and in turn an increased productivity. Workplace becomes a much happier place and employees tend to concentrate more on work rather than unproductive things. Motivation plays an important role in a healthy employee relationship. A motivated employee works better and at a much faster rate as compared to others. Motivating the employee would in turn benefit the organization only. You need to charge your cell phone after sometime for it to operate well, similarly a human being needs to be motivated from time to time to avoid a dip in his performance and for him to remain loyal towards the management. Motivation acts as a catalyst for organization‟s success and helps the individuals to remain productive and deliver better results everytime.
    •   Simple words like “Well done”, “Bravo”, “Great”, “Wow” can actually work wonders and go a long way in motivating an individual. If any employee has done exceptionally well, do appreciate him. Give him a pat on his back. The employees feel contended at work and thus share a warm relationship with their superiors. They do not badmouth anyone in the office or speak ill of their organization. Higher motivation rate results in more satisfied employees. Every organization invests time and money to groom an individual and make him a corporate material. It is absolutely an organization‟s loss if it is not able to retain its employees. A motivated employee would stick to an organization for a longer duration and enjoy a healthy relationship with his colleagues and fellow workers. He would not be engaged in disputes and instead work hard to achieve his targets and in a way benefitting the organization. A token of appreciation is a must. Cash prize, gift vouchers and shopping coupons help in motivating the employees to a great extent. Every individual tries hard to win the prize money and does not get time to fight or criticize others. They do not lose focus and instead take each other‟s help to accomplish their tasks within the stipulated time frame. They get a motive to work.
    •     The employees must be motivated not to spread negativity around. They should be encouraged not to make issues out of small things and do not bring their personal tensions to work. They should be made to realize the importance of team work at the workplace and healthy relation with colleagues. No one should forget their purpose of coming to the organization. Motivate employees to work in a group rather than working alone. They must realize that working in a group means a better exchange of ideas and thoughts to come to an unique idea fruitful for them as well as the organization. Employees should be motivated to help each other and treat their team members as a part of their extended family. Individuals should complement each other at work but one should not forget his limit. Too much of a friendly nature again leads to problems and unrealistic expectations. Award ceremonies must be organized at the workplace every month or after every three months to acknowledge the top performers. Call them on the dais and honour them. Display their names on the company‟s main notice board so that every employee gets to know about it. Give the top performers badges for them to flaunt and do this activity in the presence of all. Don‟t do it separately as the other employee might get hurt and start fighting with his team members. These kinds of activities slightly give an upper edge to the employees who have worked hard and performed well. Others also feel inspired to perform better next time. Job rotations and promotions are also an important way to motivate the employees. The management must ensure that each one is happy with their work and monotony does not creep in to the team. When an individual does not enjoy his work, he would always look for excuses to fight with his colleagues and spoil the environment. He would be indulged in lose talks and always blame others for his non performance leading to an unhealthy relation among employees
    • The performance of an individual is largely dependent on the relation he shares with his colleagues. It is really important that individuals are friendly with their colleagues so that they can discuss several issues with each other and come to a conclusion best suited to all. No individual can perform alone. Tasks are accomplished at a much faster rate when the work load is shared among all and each one contributes in his best possible way. Nothing productive has ever come out of conflicts and disputes. They in turn lead to major rifts among employees and create stress at the workplace. Why to unnecessarily spoil relations with people? You never know when you might need the other person.  Attitude plays an important role in improving the relationship among the individuals. Nothing is possible unless and until an individual has a positive attitude towards life. You might have excellent communication skills, might be an intelligent worker, but if you don‟t have a positive attitude; you would definitely fail to create an impression of yours. People would be reluctant to speak to you and you would be left all alone. 
    •       An individual should never ever have a negative attitude at workplace. It is dangerous. Your organization pays you and in turn expects quality work from you, so why unnecessarily crib over things. It is always better to accept things with a smiling face. If your boss assigns you some task, it means that he finds you capable enough to handle the assignment. Consider yourself fortunate and the chosen one. Don‟t make faces as your superior might feel bad and eventually lose his trust on you. Clear all your doubts with the person, who has delegated you the responsibility, rather than criticising and making fun in front of others who are not involved. Don‟t always find faults in others. No two individuals are alike. The other person might not be as intelligent or as educated as you are, try your level best to adjust with him. Adjustment does not mean accepting any wrong things, rather it is compromising sometimes. Sam and Sara were team members and sat at adjacent workstations. Sam had a habit of constantly chatting over the phone with his friends and family, which sometimes irritated Sara. Case - 1 Sara always thought that Sam did it intentionally to disturb her. She fought with Sam terribly and now has strained relationship with her team member. Case - 2 Sara spoke to Sam about her displeasure, convinced him and requested him to either speak a little low or go outside for attending calls. Now a days Sara and Sam are best of friends and together they contribute effectively to their team‟s targets. Case 2 is any day a far better option.
    •         One should not be too rigid or adamant. Be a little more flexible. Don‟t always assume that the other person is wrong and only you are correct. You may be wrong sometimes. Listen to what the other person has to say and then only come to a conclusion. Don‟t take any decisions with a blocked mind. An individual should not make issues out of small things. It is always better to forget things. Ignore things as long as they are not affecting your team‟s performance. Don‟t take things to heart. The more you become negative for your colleagues, the more you fight with them and in turn spoil your relationship. One should be forgiving. If your boss is angry with you over something, do take the initiative and say a sorry to him. A simple “Sorry” can actually do wonders. If you do not have the courage to talk to him, send him a sms. Saying sorry will not lower your self-esteem, instead it would strengthen the bond between you and your superior. One should never backstab anyone just for the sake of a mere promotion or some money. It is unethical. Human relationships are more important and should be valued. Don‟t carry your ego to work. Everyone is equal at workplace. Respect one and all as everyone is an employee just like you. Don‟t treat anyone as untouchables. One should always keep his personal life separate from his professional affairs. Don‟t drag your personal tensions to work. Try to keep a balance between the two. You cannot afford to ill-treat your colleague just because you had a fight with your spouse the previous night. Your fellow team members have nothing to do with it. Learn to enjoy life. One should always look at the brighter side of life. Treat your colleagues as your friends. Give them time and try to mingle with them as much as you can. Go out together for shopping or for a movie once in a while. You will feel attached to them. The trust factor and the comfort level increases. Remember there is always some light at the end of a dark tunnel. Never lose hope in life. Stay positive, be good to others and enjoy a healthy relation with one and all.
    •    t is rightly said that the success and failure of an organization is directly proportional to the relationship shared among the employees. The employees must share a cordial relation otherwise they would always end up fighting with each other. Nothing is possible without trust. You need to trust people to expect the best out of them. Trust only comes when you are comfortable with the other person. An individual can‟t always take decisions alone. Employees together can discuss things among themselves, come out with innovative ideas and accomplish the tasks at a much faster rate. A human resource professional plays a key role in binding the employees together. He/she must undertake certain activities which help in strengthening the bond among the employees and bring them closer. The individual taking care of the HR activities plays a key role in involving all the employees into something productive which would give them an opportunity to know each other well. Individuals are so engrossed in their daily routine work that they hardly get time to interact with each other. Many of them don‟t even know the full names of the person sitting next to their workstations. The human resource department must ensure that several group activities are being organized at the workplace to bring all employees on a common platform.
    •    Research says that if the employees are satisfied with their job responsibilities, they tend to remain happy and avoid conflicts with each other. Individuals develop a feeling of trust and loyalty towards their organization and don‟t waste their time and energy in unproductive tasks. Organize various activities like potlucks and small get togethers at the workplace. Ask each one to bring some dish according to his taste and convenience. Let the employees enjoy together. Employees tend to discuss lot many things apart from routine work in these kinds of informal get togethers. One day probably the last day of the month should be earmarked with the sole objective of celebrating birthdays falling in the particular month. For example all those born in the month of May should celebrate their birthdays together on the last day of the month i.e. 31st May which will help a great deal for them to remain charged for next one year. The HR should send a formal mail inviting all. Let everyone enjoy and have fun. Divide individuals into groups and ask each group to do something. One group can probably be responsible for the decoration of the venue; the other group can take care of the cake as well as other eatables and so on. The HR person should ideally support each group to ensure that no one faces any difficulty in getting things organized.
    • t is the responsibility of the human resources team to organize various events like sports day, annual day, green day etc. The employees must be encouraged to participate in these kinds of extra curricular activities. Employees are able to relax this way and take a break from their routine work. Problems crop up when the work tends to become monotonous. Employees should enjoy coming to office, rather than treating work as a burden.  The HR in coordination with the team leaders must display the names of the top performers every month on the company‟s noticeboard.Send a congratulations mail as well. The human resource professional along with the supervisor can even hand over a small trophy as a token of appreciation to the top performers. Do this activity in the presence of all. The one who has performed well starts trusting his management more and strives hard to win many more trophies in the future. Everyone is aware about each other‟s performance and gets inspired as well. 
    •    While making the organization‟s policies, the human resource department must fix a common time for lunch for all the employees. Assign half an hour for the same and make sure that no one during the lunch time is seen working at their workstations. Everyone should come together at the office canteen and take lunch together. When people sit together, half of their problems disappear on their own. Employees share their sorrows, displeasures and various other problems with their colleagues and this way come closer to each other. People develop better bonding this way. When a new employee joins an organization, make sure he receives a warm welcome by all. The induction program should be conducted at the auditorium or the conference room so that everyone can be invited. Ask the new joinee to introduce himself well. Let others know that a new member has stepped into their family to help them in their assignments. The HR along with the line managers must communicate the key responsibility areas clearly to the employees to extract the best out of them and avoid dissatisfactions later.
    • A healthy employee relationship is essential for the employees to find their work interesting and perform their level best. It is important for everyone to understand that one goes to his organization to work and conflicts must be avoided as it is nothing but a mere waste of time. Employees must be comfortable with each other and work in unison towards a common goal. An individual cannot remain tightlipped and work for infinite hours, he needs people around to talk to and discuss his ideas.  One must have friends at the workplace whom he can trust well and share his secrets without the fear of them getting leaked. This way the employees feel motivated and enjoy going to office daily. They do not take frequent leaves and strive hard to live up to the expectations of the management. For an organization to perform well, it is important that the employees are friendly with each other and avoid criticism, backstabbing at work, a strong reason to spoil the relationship among the employees. 
    •     The team leader or the manager plays an important role in promoting healthy relation at workplace: It is essential that the supervisor assigns challenging tasks to his team member as per his specialization and interest. The individual should have interest in the work; otherwise he would treat it as a burden and unnecessarily crib about things. It is important that the team leader understands his team members well. Try to find out their interests and what all they expect from the organization. While developing their KRAs it is always better if the team leader calls everyone and invites suggestions from them. Let them decide what best they can perform. This way the employees would never blame each other or their superior later as they themselves have decided on the roles and responsibilities. Encourage them to willingly accept the challenge. They would strive hard for a better output without fighting and finding faults in each other. A team leader should be a role model to his team members. He should treat each and every individual as one and avoid partialities at work. Do not give anyone a special treatment just because he drops your son to school every day or says a yes to whatever you say. Appreciate if someone has done exceptionally well but do make sure to correct him if he is wrong somewhere. The team leader should not be rude or harsh to anyone. There is a correct way for everything and one should not insult any team member. It is strictly unethical. Sit with him and make him realize his mistakes. He would definitely look up to you in future. The superior must not act pricy and should always be accessible to his employees. The individuals must have the liberty to walk up to their immediate bosses in case of a doubt and clear things. The hierarchy should not be too complicated as it leads to confusions and disputes among employees.
    •      The manager must ensure that all important communication takes place on an open forum for everyone to get a common picture. Problems arise when communication is done on a one to one basis. Call everyone together so that all the members are clear as to what is expected out of them and what their colleagues are up to. Communication should be transparent for an effective employee relation. Any employee should not feel neglected or left out. If the team leader wants to pass on any information to his team members, he must send a mail keeping all the related members in the loop. As a team leader it is one‟s prime responsibility to encourage healthy competition at work. Competition is mandatory for an individual‟s growth but it should not turn friends to foes. Motivate them constantly to perform better than the other but make sure there are no useless gossips in your team. If you find any of your team members criticizing or making fun of anyone, stop him immediately. Do not provoke any individual to fight, instead intervene and try to resolve the conflict as soon as possible. Make sure all your team members take their lunch together and you are also a part of it. Don‟t discuss work that time. Let them enjoy. Encourage everyone to talk to each other and participate in discussions. Do take the initiative to ask about their families or personal lives as well. They would feel attached to you. If you find any two of your team members not getting along well with each other, make sure both of them work together on the same assignment. They would not be left with any choice than to talk to each other and discuss things. Make them sit together on adjacent workstations so that the comfort level increases. The team leader should be neutral to his team members and make sure they enjoy a healthy relationship with him as well as their fellow team members for a better output. A team leader should try his level best to bring his team members closer and bind them together.
    •     What is Employee Engagement ? Employee engagement refers to a condition where the employees are fully engrossed in their work and are emotionally attached to their organization. One can‟t achieve anything unless and until one is serious about it. An employee must be dedicated towards his work and should take it as a challenge. Work should never get monotonous as it would then be a burden for the individual. Problems arise when individuals have nothing creative to do and sit idle the whole day. They start interfering in each other‟s work and tend to become negative for the organization. They start finding reasons to fight with their fellow workers and crib about almost everything. The employees must be assigned challenging assignments as per their interests and expectations so that they devote their maximum time to work rather than loitering and gossiping around. The team leaders or the managers must ensure to review their team member‟s performance on a weekly basis to find out whether they are enjoying their work or not? An employee must not treat his organization as a mere source of earning money only. An organization is a place where employees go to upgrade their skills and learn something new every day. One must respect and love his job to expect the same. Never talk ill of your organization in front of anyone.
    •         Effective ways to enhance Employee Engagement The team leader should understand his members well. Do not assign anything which the employee would not find interesting. Effective communication enhances employee engagement. Make sure there is transparency in communication at all levels and everyone is aware of what is happening around him. The management must constantly motivate his employees. Cash prizes, trophies, gift vouchers, certificates are an effective way to motivate the employees and keep them engaged in their work. Give them a target and ask them to achieve that within a particular time frame to earn handsome incentives or lucrative prizes. This way, the employees would not waste their time and spend their maximum time working and aiming for the rewards. The team leader or the manager must be in constant dialogue with his team members. He should know what his team members are up to. Performance monitoring is important. The team members should be answerable to their immediate bosses. Be friendly with your team. Don‟t ask them to stay back late unnecessarily. They are likely to commit more mistakes and eventually lose interest in work. Let them go back home on time and enjoy their personal lives as well. Rejuvenation is essential for an individual to remain happy and stress free. More than a strict boss, be a mentor to them and stand by them always. Encourage your team members to think out of the box. Ask them do their work in a little different way than they normally do. The employees must put on their thinking caps at workplace and accomplish the task in the most innovative way. Such activities help the employees to develop a sense of trust and loyalty towards the management and stick to the organization for a longer period of time. They consider the organization‟s goals as their goals and thus try to achieve them at any cost. The employees learn to take ownership of their work and do every possible thing which satisfies them as well as the organization.
    •     Employee engagement refers to a situation where the employees are engaged in their work and hardly get any time to gossip or spread rumours. It has been observed that an employee engaged in work tends to avoid fighting with others and thus enjoys a warm relationship with his colleagues. Most of the time he is busy with his work and stays away from nasty politics or interfering in each other‟s tasks. Both the two terms have a direct relationship with each other. In the real sense, employee engagement is directly proportional to employee relationship. More the employees are engrossed in their work; the better the relation among them. Let us understand the relation between the two with an example: Michael was heading the marketing and the branding team of a leading firm. He had four team members reporting to him. Michael being a responsible team leader ensured all his team members were assigned challenging tasks for them to enjoy their work. The team members were always on the toes to do something creative everytime. Michael took his lunch with his team members in the company‟s cafeteria and made sure to spend some together every weekend. His team members never fought with each other, instead enjoyed their work, discussed things among themselves and came out with innovative ideas satisfying all. Most of the time they were seen glued to their workstations and hardly had any time for lose talks, gossips, blame games or criticism.
    •       An employee sitting idle the whole day at workplace creates problems. It is rightly said that “an empty mind is a devil‟s workshop”. People with no productive work to do actually look for excuses to argue and even provoke others to fight. They are involved in all kinds of destructive work and pose a threat to the decorum and peace of the organization. An employee who finds his work interesting would never bother whether his colleague is chatting over the phone or dating someone. He would be more concerned with his work and strive hard to complete it within the desired time frame. He would utilize his time in completing his assignments to submit it further rather than peeping into his colleague‟s computer or finding faults in others. An employee who is satisfied with his job profile would always think in the favour of the company and would stay away from doing anything which would bring a bad name to his team as well as his organization. He would prefer working rather than wasting his precious time in unproductive tasks. Engaged and satisfied employees always try their level best to work hard and justify their salary. An employee who is serious about his work would definitely complete it at a much faster rate as compared to non serious workers. Chances of mistakes in their work would also be less and but natural they would earn appreciation from their superiors or team leaders. Their work would be liked by all and hence they would definitely enjoy a healthy relationship with their superiors and fellow workers. Employees would be able to complete their assignments on time and thus impressing the management. The team leader should ensure that the key responsibility areas of the team members match with their interests and specialization. It is essential that the employees don‟t treat their work as a burden and look forward to going to office daily. In such cases employees enter the office with a positive frame of mind and are more adjusting and compromising with each other. They readily help each other and enjoy a healthy relationship with their fellow team members. An employee must concentrate on his work rather than fighting with others and spoiling his relationship with his fellow workers.
    •      For an organization to perform well, it is essential that the employees share a warm and a healthy relationship among themselves. They must be comfortable with each other for them to enjoy their work and deliver their level best. Disputes and disagreements only lead to stress and nothing productive comes out of it. Let us go through some handy tips for a professional for a healthy employee relationship: The first and the foremost mantra for a healthy employee relationship is effective communication. A professional must communicate effectively by carefully putting his thoughts into relevant words to avoid confusions and better understanding at the workplace. One should never play with words or speak something which might make the other person feel awkward or out of place. One‟s communication has to be crisp and precise to create an impression. There should be transparency in speech at all levels for a healthy relationship. Pass on the information as it is.Never manipulate the truth. Communication is an art.No individual is born with effective communication skills; it comes in due course of time with practice. Professionals must depend more on written modes of communication than verbal as it is more reliable and one can‟t back out later. An email is nothing but a reflection of one‟s thoughts and should be self explanatory for the others to respond accordingly. Take care of the style and font of the mail. One needs to be very careful about the subject line as the other person opens the mail only when the subject line is impressive and relevant. The mail should be marked to all the employees who should be a part of the communication with a cc to the team leader for him to be aware of what is happening in his team. Don‟t send mails separately to individuals as it might create a confusion and eventually a friction among employees. One should never adopt a casual attitude at work. Be professional in your approach. Learn to be disciplined. A professional must abide by the policies of the organization for better relations and peace at work. An individual should not take frequent leaves to ensure timely submission of work. Don‟t unnecessarily ask for favours from your team members. For a better relationship with the fellow workers, one should not interfere in each other‟s work. No one would appreciate if you peep into your colleague‟s computer screen or open something not meant for you. One should be more concerned with his own work rather than bothering about others. Your organization pays you for your hard work so one should not waste his time in criticizing or making fun of others. How would you feel if someone unnecessarily pulls you into a controversy? You would never feel like talking to him. Avoid playing blame game at work. Learn to own your responsibilities else you would be left all alone in the office. Backstabbing should be avoided as it is considered highly unprofessional and spoils the relationship
    •      Don‟t walk into meetings empty handed. Carry a notepad along with you to jot down the important points for future reference. An individual can‟t remember each and everything thus it is always advisable to write down somewhere to avoid forgetting things later and earn the criticism of others. Develop the habit of carrying a planner to mark the important dates. The agenda and the minutes of the meeting must be circulated among all so that everyone gets a common picture and nobody feels neglected. It is essential to maintain the decorum of the office. Remember you are not sitting at your home where you can shout on anyone. Be polite to everyone irrespective of his designation and level in the hierarchy. Never use foul words or abusive language against anyone as it lead to severe disputes among employees. If you do not agree to someone, it is better to sit with him and discuss rather than arguing and spoiling your relationship. A professional must avoid gossiping and spreading unnecessary rumours at work. Employees must help each other at work for a better relationship. One should avoid being jealous and selfish at work. If someone has done well, do appreciate him. Lend a sympathetic ear to your fellow workers if they are in trouble. Be a little more adjusting. Things can‟t always be the same as you want, compromise sometimes to your best extent possible. Don‟t just rush to your desk and start working the moment you step into your office. Greet others with a warm smile. Take your lunch with your team members and do go out once in a while to increase the comfort level. Celebrate festivals at the workplace where each and every employee can come together and enjoy. Don‟t forget to wish your colleague on his birthday. Bring a nice gift for him as well. One should intervene immediately in case of conflicts and arguments. Don‟t tend to ignore things. One needs to be loyal towards his organization to be in the good books of the management as well as to grow professionally. Never misguide anyone. If you are not aware of something, it is better to stay out of it than misleading the other person. Last but not the least one should always have a positive attitude at work. Try to be friendly with your colleagues and don‟t always find faults in them. Don‟t assume that your colleagues would always harm you. One should always look at the positive side of the things to avoid stress and maintain a cordial relationship with everyone at work.
    •      Avoid partiality at work. Don‟t treat someone well just because he stays near your place or brings lunch for you daily. Everyone must be treated as one. If someone has done something wrong, it is the duty of the team leader to correct him irrespective of the relations he shares with him. Favouritism must not be promoted at the workplace. Every individual should be assigned work as per their interest and capability. The work should be equally divided among all. Don‟t impose your decisions on your team members. Let them decide on their own what is correct for them and what is not. The employees must avoid lose talks and blame games at work. They actually don‟t help. Learn to own your mistakes and find out ways to correct them. It is absolutely natural to commit mistakes. Every human being does, so no need to panic and pass on the blame to others. It severely spoils the relationship among the employees. One should not spread unnecessary rumours about any of his colleagues. If you come to know something about anyone, it is better to discuss with him in private rather than publicising the whole story. Just think what would you gain out of it? An individual must never break his colleague‟s trust. If your team member has shared one of his secrets with you, please keep it to yourself only. If the person sitting next to you has expressed his displeasure over anything, don‟t disclose it in front of your boss or others. Avoid nasty politics at workplace. If you can‟t help anyone it is better to stay out of it rather than giving wrong suggestions Avoid communicating with employees individually. Meetings must not always be conducted one to one. Call all of them together and address them on an open forum. Let each and every one express their concerns. Emails must be sent with all the participants in loop and suggestions must be invited from their side. The communication has to be transparent for a better employee relationship.
    •        Avoid criticism at work. Never make fun of anyone. Pointing mistakes is important but make sure you do not insult the other person. Sit with him. and make him realize his mistakes. Don‟t be rude or harsh to anyone. Don‟t have separate lunch timings for the employees. Gone are the days when managers and supervisors used to sit in their closed cabins and special peons were assigned to them. The concept has changed now a days and everyone is one working for a common goal. The team leader‟s position will not be tarnished if he takes his lunch with his team members. Don‟t always discuss work at your office. If it is your colleague‟s birthday, do make it a point to wish him in the morning. He will feel happy. Too much of interference in each other‟s work is bad and can lead to adverse effects. Don‟t unnecessarily peep into each other‟s computer screens. One must respect each other‟s privacy. It is important to do work together but don‟t ask too many questions or tend to irritate others. Don‟t always try to find out what the other person is up to. Never ever read anyone else‟s notes or open any courier or envelope not meant for you. If your colleague has asked you to send a mail from his system on his behalf, make sure you don‟t read any of his personal mails. One should be a little positive for better employee relations. Don‟t always assume that the other person is wrong. Avoid unnecessary cribbing at workplace. If you are not well, it is better to stay at home rather than going to work and spoiling everyone else‟s mood. Try to look at life from a larger perspective. Finding faults in others must be avoided for a better relation. Avoid being selfish at work. Try to help others. Don‟t ignore things just because it is not related to you. Understand the other individual‟s problem and try your level best to sort it out. Every individual needs a break and if your team member asks for a leave do allow him but make sure your work does not suffer. This way your team members would respect you and discuss issues more freely in the future. Efforts must be taken to avoid conflicts at work so that employees come closer to each other, work together and does not lose their focus. They must be cordial with each other for a warm and a healthy ambience at workplace.
    •      An individual must share a warm relationship with his fellow workers to remain happy and satisfied at work. Don‟t fight with your colleagues and spoil the decorum of the office. You need people around to talk to, discuss several issues, evaluate the pros and cons of your ideas and finally come to a solution which would be fruitful to you as well as others. An individual must have certain qualities for a better relationship with his fellow workers: One needs to be sensible enough to understand that every organization has a set of policies and it is mandatory for everyone to abide by the rules and regulations. One can‟t go against the policies no matter whether he likes them or not. One can‟t get all the comforts at his office just like home. You can‟t be too fussy at work. If your organization is paying you; they would also expect work from you. At work you cannot always take leaves whenever you like. There would be times when you wish to be with your friends, but if your organization needs you, you have to be there at any cost. Excuses don‟t work in such a scenario. Professional commitments are far more important than personal pleasures. Don‟t give your management an opportunity to raise a finger against you. Stay positive and motivated. Nothing works better than self motivation. Look for reasons to stay motivated. Remember happiness lies within you. Enter your office with a smiling face. Don‟t work out of any compulsion. If your job is getting stagnant, it is always better to move on. Don‟t stick to it and crib. One must understand that every organization would have some or the other problem, you can‟t leave all of them. You need to adjust somewhere so why not in your present company? Be a little adjusting and try to be friendly with your team members. Don‟t spread rumours or pull anyone into controversies. Avoid pretending to be good in front of your boss. Such a habit might earn you a bad name in your team and your fellow workers might ignore you when you need them. Your work speaks and nothing apart from that really matters. Don‟t try to play politics against anyone just for a promotion or mere appreciation from your boss. One should never manipulate truth and pass on the information as it is. Never backstab anyone. Honesty always pays in the long run.
    •    Let us go through the challenges to an effective employee relationship and ways to overcome them: Not all teams can afford to have members of the same sex only. Female employees are also likely to be there in the team and might not be too comfortable with their male counterparts. A male employee trying to be friendly with his female team member just to increase the comfort level between them might not be appreciated by her. She might think otherwise and lose her trust on him. A feeling of insecurity would crop up and thus spoiling the relationship between them. One needs to be very careful while dealing with team members of the opposite sex. Think before you speak and do take care of your limits. Too much of interference and a friendly nature might not work well. During informal get togethers make sure one does not speak anything which might embarrass the females. Avoid too much boozing or smoking at parties where female team members are also invited. They would feel awkward and would never be able to talk to you or discuss things. The female employees must also understand the corporate culture and should not overreact unnecessarily. It is absolutely normal to go out for meetings with your boss who is a male. It is really difficult to meet the expectations of each and every employee. Employees should not expect monetary benefits which exceed the company‟s budget. The moment the management refuses to offer the desired incentives or perks to the employees they become negative and tend to spread rumours around. They badmouth their superiors, lose interest in work and hence their relationship suffers. To avoid such a situation, it is essential for the employees to have realistic expectations. Don‟t ask for something which you yourself know is not possible and might disturb the budget of the organization. The team leader from the very beginning must prepare an incentive plan after discussing with his team members. The incentive plan must be same for everyone.
    •       It is human tendency to support someone who speaks well about you or favours you always. Jerry‟s music academy was near Patrick‟s apartment. Jerry went with Patrick almost daily and no doubts always supported him at the workplace. Patrick was the one who had the liberty to take frequent leaves. Jerry never ever said anything to him which was not at all acceptable to the other team members. One should never be partial at the workplace. Everyone is working to earn his bread and butter just like you. No one is special in the organization. If anyone is working hard, the company is also paying him well. It is always better to avoid taking unnecessary favours from anyone. Don‟t ask your subordinates to pick your son from school, go for a grocery shopping or book your movie tickets. The moment you ask for favours, the other individual starts taking undue advantages. You can never change the thought process of any employee. One can never get into anyone‟s head to find out what he is thinking. You might speak something in a casual way but the other person might misunderstand it and make an issue out of it. One might say something in a light mood but the other person might take it seriously and start arguing. It is always better to be crisp and precise at workplace Avoid lose talks at work and don‟t discuss things not related to your work. The superior might not always be accessible to his team members. A team leader might have to go for an urgent meeting when his team member walks up to him with a query. In such a scenario the employee should not feel neglected or ignored. It is the team leader‟s duty to get back to his team members once he is free. Be realistic. Don‟t ask any employee to attend his office on his birthday or marriage anniversary. One should never ask any employee to stay back late at office when he knows the other person has a party to attend. Understand other‟s problems well. The team member should also not ask for leaves when he is aware of the work pressure. Remember life is all about adjustments. Don‟t always have a negative approach towards life. Learn to compromise sometimes and make the organization a happy place to work.
    • Let us go through the after effects of a poor employee relationship:  One must enjoy whatever he does to deliver his best. Lack of interest and focus result in errors and delay in the task. Employees involved in constant disputes tend to spread negativity around and spoil the ambience of the organization. One doesn‟t feel like going to office and eventually his work suffers. He starts treating work as a burden. One feels suffocated at places where individuals sitting on adjacent workstations do not talk to each other. Your happiness, sorrows, tensions need to be shared with others. Imagine a situation where you are constantly fighting with your siblings at home. Would you ever feel comfortable ? - The answer is no. In the same way if one is involved in constant arguments with his fellow workers, he would never feel like stepping into the office. One needs to have friends at work for him to stay motivated in the organization. No individual can work for 8-9 hours at a stretch. He needs a break and people around for him to relax. 
    •    In the current scenario only those organizations can survive where work is done in an innovative way. Creativity and innovation comes through discussion. Employees must sit together on an open forum where every employee has the liberty to express his ideas. Every employee comes out with a unique idea which can be evaluated thoroughly to come out with something that has never been thought or implemented before. Employees together can contribute their level best in coming out with something beneficial to them as well as the organization. One needs to have trusted colleagues at work who can guide him and correct him if he is wrong anywhere. If one is spending the maximum part of his time in the office, it is but natural to share some or the other secrets with the team members. If you fight with others, you can‟t rely on anyone and things would be really difficult for you. One has to pretend always and can‟t speak his heart out. Employees not very satisfied and pleased with their work and management tend to change their jobs frequently. They find it difficult to adjust in such circumstances where one is at loggerheads with the other employee and thus fail to perform. Employee retention becomes a major problem when employees do not share a warm relationship with others as well as the management. An organization invests so much of its time in training the new joinees so that they come at par with the other existing employees and it‟s really sad when the employees leave midway.
    •     If employees have strained relationship with each other, everyone works in his own sweet way and coordination becomes a concern. Employees are reluctant to share their workload and are thus always overburdened and unhappy. They fail to accomplish tasks within the desired time frame and hence the organization suffers. Employees are busy pulling each other‟s legs and thus waste all their time which should be ideally used in productive work. The output of the employees in such situations is actually a big zero. Nobody likes to carry tensions back home. Disputes always lead to stress at work and people feel restless even at home. One can‟t enjoy anywhere and is sad always. Individuals take frequent leaves from work leading to disciplinary problems at workplace. Nobody bothers to follow the rules and regulations of the organization and the office is a complete mess. Organizations fail to make profits and as a result come to a situation where they need to be shut down. Employees must be comfortable with each other for them to give their hundred percent at work and stay motivated.