six functional area)
•1. human resource planning , recruitment and
•2. human resource development
•3. compensation and benefit
•4. safety and health
•5. employee and labor relation
•6. human resource research
Shared Service Center)
The human resource
Beliefs and assumptions
Careful delineation of written contracts
Aim to go 'beyond
Importance of devising clear rules/mutuality 'Can-do' outlook;
- ---impatience with 'rule'
3. Guide to management action
4. Behaviour referent
Norms custom and practice
5 Managerial task vis a vis labour Monitoring
6. Nature of relations
8. Key relations
11. Speed of decision
12. Management role
13. Key managers
High (for example 'parity' an issue) Low (for example 'parity'
not an issue)
16. Prized management skills Negotiation
Separate, marginal task
Integrated, key task
Job evaluation (fixed grades) Performance related
20. Labour management Collective bargaining contracts Towards individual contracts21
.21.Thrust of relations with stewards Regularised through facilities
- and training
Marginalised (with exception of some
- bargaining for change model)
Human Resource management
Human Resource today
Human Resource tomorrow
Strategic Human Resource Management
What to do
How to do it
Why to do it
Job Analysis is a systematic exploration, study and recording the
responsibilities, duties, skills, accountabilities, work environment
and ability requirements of a specific job. It also involves
determining the relative importance of the duties, responsibilities
and physical and emotional skills for a given job. All these factors
identify what a job demands and what an employee must
possess to perform a job productively.
What Does Job Analysis Involve ?
The process of job analysis involves in-depth investigation in
order to control the output, i.e., get the job performed
successfully. The process helps in finding out what a particular
department requires and what a prospective worker needs to
deliver. It also helps in determining particulars about a job
including job title, job location, job summary, duties involved,
working conditions, possible hazards and machines, tools,
equipments and materials to be used by the existing or potential
However, the process is not limited to determination of these factors only. It also extends
to finding out the necessary human qualifications to perform the job. These include
establishing the levels of education, experience, judgment, training, initiative, leadership
skills, physical skills, communication skills, responsibility, accountability, emotional
characteristics and unusual sensory demands. These factors change according to the
type, seniority level, industry and risk involved in a particular job.
Importance of Job Analysis
The details collected by conducting job analysis play an important role in controlling
the output of the particular job. Determining the success of job depends on the
unbiased, proper and thorough job analysis. It also helps in recruiting the right people for
a particular job. The main purpose of conducting this whole process is to create and
establish a perfect fit between the job and the employee.
Job analysis also helps HR managers in deciding the compensation package and
additional perks and incentives for a particular job position. It effectively contributes in
assessing the training needs and performance of the existing employees. The process
forms the basis to design and establish the strategies and policies to fulfill organizational
goals and objectives.
However, analysis of a particular job does not guarantee that
the managers or organization would get the desired output.
Actually collecting and recording information for a specific job
involves several complications. If the job information is not
accurate and checked from time to time, an employee will not
be able to perform his duty well. Until and unless he is not aware
of what he is supposed to do or what is expected of him,
chances are that the time and energy spent on a particular job
analysis is a sheer wastage of human resources. Therefore,
proper care should be taken while conducting job analysis.
A thorough and unbiased investigation or study of a specific job
is good for both the managers and the employees. The
managers get to know whom to hire and why. They can fill a
place with the right person. On the other hand, existing or
potential employee gets to know what and how he is supposed
to perform the job and what is the desired output. Job analysis
creates a right fit between the job and the employee.
Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is
required to perform a particular job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of
experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a
job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place.
Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a
particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation
criteria and individual‟s output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is
measured and he or she is appraised accordingly.
Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and
development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual
output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also
helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipments to be used to conduct
training and methods of training.
Compensation Management: Of course, job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the
pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of
employees. After all, the pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and
responsibilities involved in a job. The process guides HR managers in deciding the worth
of an employee for a particular job opening.
Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the
human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning,
enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a
particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the
Identification of Job Analysis Purpose: Well any process is futile
until its purpose is not identified and defined. Therefore, the first
step in the process is to determine its need and desired output.
Spending human efforts, energy as well as money is useless until
HR managers don‟t know why data is to be collected and what
is to be done with it.
Who Will Conduct Job Analysis: The second most important step
in the process of job analysis is to decide who will conduct it.
Some companies prefer getting it done by their own HR
department while some hire job analysis consultants. Job analysis
consultants may prove to be extremely helpful as they offer
unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. They don‟t have any
personal likes and dislikes when it comes to analyze a job.
How to Conduct the Process: Deciding the way in which job analysis process needs to be conducted is
surely the next step. A planned approach about how to carry the whole process is required in order to
investigate a specific job.
Strategic Decision Making: Now is the time to make strategic decision. It‟s about deciding the extent
of employee involvement in the process, the level of details to be collected and recorded, sources
from where data is to be collected, data collection methods, the processing of information and
segregation of collected data.
Training of Job Analyst: Next is to train the job analyst about how to conduct the process and use the
selected methods for collection and recoding of job data.
Preparation of Job Analysis Process: Communicating it within the organization is the next step. HR
managers need to communicate the whole thing properly so that employees offer their full support to
the job analyst. The stage also involves preparation of documents, questionnaires, interviews and
Data Collection: Next is to collect job-related data including educational qualifications of employees,
skills and abilities required to perform the job, working conditions, job activities, reporting hierarchy,
required human traits, job activities, duties and Documentation, Verification and Review: Proper
documentation is done to verify the authenticity of collected data and then review it. This is the final
information that is used to describe a specific job.
Developing Job Description and Job Specification: Now is the time to segregate the collected data in
to useful information. Job Description describes the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job
while job specification is a statement of educational qualification, experience, personal traits and skills
required to perform the job.
Thus, the process of job analysis helps in identifying the worth of specific job, utilizing the human talent
in the best possible manner, eliminating unneeded jobs and setting realistic performance
responsibilities involved and employee behaviour.
What to Collect ?
Job Content: It contains information about various job
activities included in a specific job. It is a detailed account
of actions which an employee needs to perform during his
tenure. The following information needs to be collected by
a job analyst:
› Duties of an employee
› What actually an employee does
› Machines, tools and equipments to be used while performing a
› Additional tasks involved in a job
› Desired output level (What is expected of an employee?)
› Type of training required
The content depends upon the type of job in a particular division or department. For example, job
content of a factory-line worker would be entirely different from that of a marketing executive or HR
Job Context: Job context refers to the situation or condition under which an employee performs a
particular job. The information collection will include:
Whom to report
Who all will report to him or her
Physical and mental demands
Well like job content, data collected under this category are also subject to change according to the
type of job in a specific division or department.
Job Requirements: These include basic but specific requirements which make a candidate eligible for
a particular job. The collected data includes:
Knowledge or basic information required to perform a job successfully
Specific skills such as communication skills, IT skills, operational skills, motor skills, processing skills and so
Personal ability including aptitude, reasoning, manipulative abilities, handling sudden and unexpected
situations, problem-solving ability, mathematical abilities and so on
Educational Qualifications including degree, diploma, certification or license
Personal Characteristics such as ability to adapt to different environment, endurance, willingness, work
ethic, eagerness to learn and understand things, behaviour towards colleagues, subordinates and
seniors, sense of belongingness to the organization, etc
Most Common Methods of Job Analysis
Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and nonperformed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him
or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and
risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the
most difficult one. Why? Let‟s Discover.
It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things. Different people think
different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal
biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper
training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process.
This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and
Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behaviour of
an employee in different situations. The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially
used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviours that
result in performance.
Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their
own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing
their job and insecurities and fears about their careers.
This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and
responsibilities involved in it. It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest
and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully
decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of
responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group.
Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled
from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal
biasness. A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees.
Job Analysis Tools
O*Net Model: The beauty of this model is that it helps managers or job analysts in listing job-related data for a
very large number of jobs simultaneously. It helps in collecting and recording basic and initial data including
educational requirements, physical requirements and mental and emotional requirements to some extent. It
also links the level of compensation and benefits, perks and advantages to be offered to a prospective
candidate for a specific job.
FJA Model: FJA stands for Functional Job Analysis and helps in collecting and recording job-related data to a
deeper extent. It is used to develop task-related statements. Developed by Sidney Fine and his colleagues, the
technique helps in determining the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job. This workoriented technique works on the basis of relatedness of job-data where complexity of work is determined on a
scale of various scores given to a particular job. The lower scores represent greater difficulty.
PAQ Model: PAQ represents Position Analysis Questionnaire. This well-known and commonly used technique is
used to analyze a job by getting the questionnaires filled by job incumbents and their superiors. Designed by a
trained and experienced job analyst, the process involves interviewing the subject matter experts and
employees and evaluating the questionnaires on those bases.
F-JAS Model: Representing Fleishman Job Analysis System, it is a basic and generic approach to discover
common elements in different jobs including verbal abilities, reasoning abilities, idea generation, quantitative
abilities, attentiveness, spatial abilities, visual and other sensory abilities, manipulative abilities, reaction time,
speed analysis, flexibility, emotional characteristics, physical strength, perceptual abilities, communication skills,
memory, endurance, balance, coordination and movement control abilities.
Competency Model: This model talks about the competencies of employees in terms of knowledge, skills,
abilities, behaviors, expertise and performance. It also helps in understanding what a prospective candidate
requires at the time of entry in an organization at a particular designation in a given work environment and
schedule. The model also includes some basic elements such as qualifications, experience, education, training,
certifications, licenses, legal requirements and willingness of a candidate.
Job Scan: This technique defines the personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model. However, it does
not discuss the individual competencies such as intellect, experience or physical and emotional characteristics
Lack of Management Support: The biggest problem arises when a job analyst does not get proper
support from the management. The top management needs to communicate it to the middle level
managers and employees to enhance the output or productivity of the process. In case of improper
communication, employees may take it in a wrong sense and start looking out for other available
options. They may have a notion that this is being carried out to fire them or take any action against
them. In order to avoid such circumstances, top management must effectively communicate the right
message to their incumbents.
Lack of Co-operation from Employees: If we talk about collecting authentic and accurate job-data, it
is almost impossible to get real and genuine data without the support of employees. If they are not
ready to co-operate, it is a sheer wastage of time, money and human effort to conduct job analysis
process. The need is to take the workers in confidence and communicating that it is being done to
solve their problems only.
Inability to Identify the Need of Job Analysis: If the objectives and needs of job analysis process are not
properly identified, the whole exercise of investigation and carrying out research is futile. Managers
must decide in advance why this process is being carried out, what its objectives are and what is to be
done with the collected and recorded data.
Biasness of Job Analyst: A balanced and unbiased approach is a necessity while carrying out the
process of job analysis. To get real and genuine data, a job analyst must be impartial in his or her
approach. If it can‟t be avoided, it is better to outsource the process or hire a professional job analyst.
Using Single Data Source: A job analyst needs to consider more than one sources of data in order to
collect true information. Collecting data from a single source may result in inaccuracy and it therefore,
defeats the whole purpose of conducting the job analysis process.
Provides First Hand Job-Related Information: The job analysis process provides with valuable job-related
data that helps managers and job analyst the duties and responsibilities of a particular job, risks and
hazards involved in it, skills and abilities required to perform the job and other related info.
Helps in Creating Right Job-Employee Fit: This is one of the most crucial management activities. Filling
the right person in a right job vacancy is a test of skills, understanding and competencies of HR
managers. Job Analysis helps them understand what type of employee will be suitable to deliver a
specific job successfully.
Helps in Establishing Effective Hiring Practices: Who is to be filled where and when? Who to target and
how for a specific job opening? Job analysis process gives answers to all these questions and helps
managers in creating, establishing and maintaining effective hiring practices.
Guides through Performance Evaluation and Appraisal Processes: Job Analysis helps managers
evaluating the performance of employees by comparing the standard or desired output with
delivered or actual output. On these bases, they appraise their performances. The process helps in
deciding whom to promote and when. It also guides managers in understanding the skill gaps so that
right person can be fit at that particular place in order to get desired output.
Helps in Analyzing Training & Development Needs: The process of job analysis gives answer to following
Who to impart training
When to impart training
What should be the content of training
What should be the type of training: behavioral or technical
Who will conduct training
Helps in Deciding Compensation Package for a Specific Job: A genuine and unbiased process of job
analysis helps managers in determining the appropriate compensation package and benefits and
allowances for a particular job. This is done on the basis of responsibilities and hazards involved in a
Time Consuming: The biggest disadvantage of Job Analysis process is that it is very time
consuming. It is a major limitation especially when jobs change frequently.
Involves Personal Biasness: If the observer or job analyst is an employee of the same
organization, the process may involve his or her personal likes and dislikes. This is a major
hindrance in collecting genuine and accurate data.
Source of Data is Extremely Small: Because of small sample size, the source of collecting
data is extremely small. Therefore, information collected from few individuals needs to
Involves Lots of Human Efforts: The process involves lots of human efforts. As every job
carries different information and there is no set pattern, customized information is to be
collected for different jobs. The process needs to be conducted separately for
collecting and recording job-related data.
Job Analyst May Not Possess Appropriate Skills: If job analyst is not aware of the
objective of job analysis process or does not possess appropriate skills to conduct the
process, it is a sheer wastage of company‟s resources. He or she needs to be trained in
order to get authentic data.
Mental Abilities Can not be Directly Observed: Last but not the least, mental abilities
such as intellect, emotional characteristics, knowledge, aptitude, psychic and
endurance are intangible things that can not be observed or measured directly. People
act differently in different situations. Therefore, general standards can not be set for
How to Establish Effective Hiring Strategies ?
Identifying KRAs: Job Analysis process helps in identifying Key Result Areas/ Key
Responsibilities Areas (KRAs) such as knowledge, technical, communication and
personal skills, mental, aptitude, physical and emotional abilities to perform a particular
task. Different jobs have different requirements. Therefore, the process needs to be
performed every time when there is a requirement to fill the job opening. This is a basis
for developing questionnaires, devising interview questions and setting selection test
papers. The information in the form of scores or grades can then be used for hiring
Setting Selection Standards: Job Analysis also helps managers in setting certain
standards for selection process in terms of educational qualifications, work experience,
expertise, special skill sets, unusual sensory abilities, specific career track, certifications
and licenses and other legal requirements. This helps in identifying the basic
requirements that make a candidate eligible for a particular post.
Identifying KSAs: The process also helps managers in determining Key Success Areas or
Key Performance Areas. These are performance measurement tools that are used by
companies around the world to measure those aspects that determine success of a job
such as organizational goals, individual goals and the actions required to achieve these
goals. This is about comparing the actual results delivered by an individual with pre-set
success factors and analyzing the performance. Once through, the whole process may
require few changes if achieved results are around the set standards. They may require
a complete change if there is a huge gap between the expected and delivered results.
Therefore, a thorough and unbiased job analysis process can help organizations source
right candidates, hire the most suitable individual and set appropriate selection
Human Resource Management is the most critical function of
any organization as it deals with the most complicated problems
- the people problems, especially when the organizations are
operating in highly competitive and uncertain environments.
Strategic HRM lays emphasis on developing and implementing
policies and strategies in order to get the desired output.
Therefore, job analysis and strategic HRM are inter-related. In
fact, we can say, establishing a person-job-environment fit is the
basic function of SHRM.
Job analysis demonstrates who can fit at a particular place and
why. The process promotes the alignment of other HR processes
and functions. Additionally, it supports the organizational
strategy to deal with talent crisis and market competition. The
process of job analysis involves collecting job-related information
and assembling it together to design a corporate strategy that
helps HR managers in determining whom to target and how to
fill a particular job vacancy.
it also creates linkages between other HR verticals including recruitment and
selection, training needs analysis, performance evaluation and appraisal,
entry and exit of talent and many more. Strategic Human Resource
Management endeavors to connect all these HR functions with
organizational goals, work quality, organizational culture, annual turnover
and profit and tapping resources for future organizational needs.
SHRM is basically concerned with the strength, weakness, opportunities and
threats of an organization. The identification of organization‟s competencies
and flaws is extremely crucial for its success. It provides a clear vision to
managers to source, recruit and retain people, develop their skills and
competency, address their issues and concerns, motivate people to
produce desired output and ensure future planning.
Inter-relationship between Job Analysis and SHRM
Job Analysis, being an integral part of strategic planning, provides a detailed
analysis of tasks and responsibilities, risks and hazards, functions and duties,
tools and equipments to be used and the expected output. The main
objective of conducting the process is to understand who to fit at a
particular place to get the work done. Whereas, the fundamental aim of
Strategic Human Resource Management is to determine how to exploit
Job Analysis deals in determining the training needs analysis of
employees to get the desired output whereas SHRM decides
upon the training content, when and how to train the
employees to increase the output to achieve higher business
profits. To successfully plan the future strategies of a company,
the process of job analysis serves as the basis. If information
collected during the process is genuine, managers can make
effective strategies and policies in advance and can remain
pro-active to deal with unforeseen situations.
The main aim of conducting job analysis process is to determine
the things affecting human behavior in an organization. The idea
is to find out if they are competent enough to perform the
assigned job successfully or they need to be placed somewhere
else. Strategic Human Resource Management is all about
making strategies and policies to place right person at the right
place and at the right time to get the maximum out of an
employee. In other way, it is concerned about optimal utilization
of human resources.
Job Analysis and Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM is a management approach that concentrates on teamwork, integrity,
continuous improvement and continuous assessment jobs and their worth. On the other
hand, job analysis deals in investigating each job separately and collecting the jobrelated information. Usually, the process is conducted in an organization once in a while
especially when HR department has to source candidates for a particular job. TQM is a
new approach and is almost inconsistent with traditional management approaches
and processes. Job Analysis is no exception.
Points of Inconsistency between Job Analysis and TQM
The concept of Total Quality Management stresses on continuous improvement of
management processes as well as employees. For example, if employee joins an
organization at a certain level, according to TQM, he or she should not confine
themselves to their basic jobs only. Instead they should consider other options and try to
learn more and more in order to explore other areas of operations. Whereas, job
analysis process is conducted to determine what an employee is supposed to do and
how specific duties and activities need to be performed.
Total Quality Management approach focuses on an all-round development of
employees and expects them to do everything while on job in order to attain higher
levels of quality. It also concentrates on their continuous improvement personally as well
as professionally. While job analysis defines specific duties and responsibilities of an
employee and each one of them is supposed to do only what is assigned to them. The
concept is just opposite to TQM approach.
The job description and job specification talk about employee‟s job title, job summary,
job duties, job responsibilities, educational qualifications and working conditions. While it
does not discuss about maintaining quality in operations, treating waste and scraps
properly and quality of services delivered. It simply gives brief details about what an
TQM does not confine employees only to a particular job. The concept
leaves scope for additional duties along with the basic job duties.
Whereas, it is not true in case of job analysis. It simply measures the worth
of a job and determines the duties involved in it. Employees are not
encouraged to explore other areas of operations. Instead they are
supposed to perform only the assigned job.
Relevance of Job Analysis
Job Analysis is not consistent with TQM. They do not go hand in hand as
they focus on entirely different theories and operate on different models.
But it does not mean that job analysis has lost its relevance in today‟s
world. It has its own importance and is still required to be carried out as
this gives basic information related to specific jobs and helps managers
in decision making process.
It assists in various other management processes including recruitment
and selection, job evaluation, performance evaluation and appraisal
and training and development need analysis. It also regulates the entry
of talent in an organization and helps in sourcing and attracting a pool
of talent to work with the organization.
Talent Management, as the name itself suggests is managing
the ability, competency and power of employees within an
Talent Management in organizations is not just limited to
attracting the best people from the industry but it is a
continuous process that involves sourcing, hiring, developing,
retaining and promoting them while meeting the
organization‟s requirements simultaneously. For instance, if an
organization wants the best talent of its competitor to work
with it, it needs to attract that person and offer him
something that is far beyond his imagination to come and
join and then stick to the organization. Only hiring him does
not solve the purpose but getting the things done from him is
the main task. Therefore, it can be said that talent
management is a full-fledged process that not only controls
the entry of an employee but also his or her exit.
Right Person in the right Job: Through a proper ascertainment of people skills and
strengths, people decisions gain a strategic agenda. The skill or competency mapping
allows you to take stock of skill inventories lying with the organization. This is especially
important both from the perspective of the organization as well as the employee
because the right person is deployed in the right position and employee productivity is
increased. Also since there is a better alignment between an individual‟s interests and his
job profile the job satisfaction is increased.
Retaining the top talent: Despite changes in the global economy, attrition remains a
major concern of organizations. Retaining top talent is important to leadership and
growth in the marketplace. Organisations that fail to retain their top talent are at the risk
of losing out to competitors. The focus is now on charting employee retention programs
and strategies to recruit, develop, retain and engage quality people. Employee growth
in a career has to be taken care of, while succession planning is being performed those
who are on the radar need to be kept in loop so that they know their performance is
Better Hiring: The quality of an organization is the quality of workforce it possesses. The
best way to have talent at the top is have talent at the bottom. No wonder then talent
management programs and trainings, hiring assessments have become an integral
aspect of HR processes nowadays.
Understanding Employees Better: Employee assessments give deep insights to the
management about their employees. Their development needs, career aspirations,
strengths and weaknesses, abilities, likes and dislikes. It is easier therefore to determine
what motivates whom and this helps a lot Job enrichment process.
Better professional development decisions: When an organization gets to know who its
high potential is, it becomes easier to invest in their professional development. Since
development calls for investment decisions towards learning, training and development
of the individual either for growth, succession planning, performance management etc,
an organization remains bothered where to make this investment and talent
management just make this easier for them.
Before we discuss the financial benefits of talent
management the following may be of our interest and
worth a thought:
Most of the organizations are short sighted, when it comes
to people management.
People management may not go well with pure
Organizations and industries are growing at a fast pace,
faster than the rate at which talent is produced.
There is dearth of talented and skilled professionals both at
the top as well as bottom.
Due to cut throat competition and a consequent lack of
talented professionals the attrition rates have increased
across all industries, especially so in services industry.
Poaching has become common place; employee
retention has become the Achilles heel of corporations.
Less attrition means lesser expenditure on hiring: BPO‟s and start ups, for example where
the attrition rate is the highest remain occupied in searching for people every now and
then. Now this incurs financial losses to the organization. An organization not only pays
an employee for his/her work but also spends a considerable amount on their training
and development. There is transfer of skill and expertise and when the same employee
leaves after a brief stint with the organization, it costs the latter.
The problem gets even worse when such a scenario occurs at the top level. An
unoccupied executive position can cost an organization dearly. The solution - a proper
talent management in place can solve this problem. The following facts become worth
New employees cost the company 30-60 % more than the existing employee in terms of
There is an additional cost incurred on training and developing the new individual.
The process of recruitments itself costs an organization in a big way, right from
advertising a post, to attracting talent and finally short listing and hiring someone for the
job. Often there is a compromise in hiring when the need is urgent.
Organizations clearly need to look inside for solutions and design and develop better
employee retention, rewards and recognition strategy. Performance management
needs to be taken care of.
Principle 1 - Avoid Mismatch Costs
In planning for future manpower requirements, most of the HR
professionals prepare a deep bench of candidates or manpower
inventory. Many of the people who remain in this bracket start
searching for other options and move when they are not raised to a
certain position and profile. In such a scenario it is better to keep the
bench strength low and hire from outside from time to time to fill
gaps. This in no way means only to hire from outside, which leads to
a skill deficit and affects the organizational culture.
Principle 2 - Reduce the Risk of Being Wrong
In manpower anticipations for future an organization can ill afford to
be wrong. It‟s hard to forecast talent demands for future business
needs because of the uncertainty involved. It is therefore very
important to attune the career plans with the business plans. A 5
year career plan looks ridiculous along with a 2 year business plan.
Further, long term development and succession plans may end up
as a futile exercise if the organization lacks a firm retention strategy.
Principle 3 - Recoup Talent Investments
Developing talent internally pays in the longer run. The best way to
recover investments made in talent management is to reduce
upfront costs by finding alternative and cheaper talent delivery
options. Organizations also require a rethink on their talent retention
strategy to improve employee retention.
Principle 4 - Balancing Employee Interests
How much authority should the employees‟ haves over their own
development? There are different models that have been adopted
by various corporations globally. There is „the chess master model‟,
but the flipside in this is that talented employees search for options.
Organizations can also make use of the internal mobility programs
which are a regular feature of almost all the top organizations.
These principles are just broader guidelines; their application varies
across industries and organizational cultures.
Understanding the Requirement: It is the preparatory stage and plays a crucial role in
success of the whole process. The main objective is to determine the requirement of
talent. The main activities of this stage are developing job description and job
Sourcing the Talent: This is the second stage of talent management process that involves
targeting the best talent of the industry. Searching for people according to the
requirement is the main activity.
Attracting the Talent: it is important to attract the talented people to work with you as
the whole process revolves around this only. After all the main aim of talent
management process is to hire the best people from the industry.
Recruiting the Talent: The actual process of hiring starts from here. This is the stage when
people are invited to join the organization.
Selecting the Talent: This involves meeting with different people having same or different
qualifications and skill sets as mentioned in job description. Candidates who qualify this
round are invited to join the organization.
Training and Development: After recruiting the best people, they are trained and
developed to get the desired output.
Retention: Certainly, it is the sole purpose of talent management process. Hiring them
does not serve the purpose completely. Retention depends on various factors such as
pay package, job specification, challenges involved in a job, designation, personal
development of an employee, recognition, culture and the fit between job and talent.
Promotion: No one can work in an organization at the same designation with same job
responsibilities. Job enrichment plays an important role.
Competency Mapping: Assessing employees‟ skills, development, ability and
competency is the next step. If required, also focus on behaviour, attitude, knowledge
and future possibilities of improvement. It gives you a brief idea if the person is fir for
Performance Appraisal: Measuring the actual performance of an employee is
necessary to identify his or her true potential. It is to check whether the person can be
loaded with extra responsibilities or not.
Career Planning: If the individual can handle the work pressure and extra responsibilities
well, the management needs to plan his or her career so that he or she feels rewarded.
It is good to recognize their efforts to retain them for a longer period of time.
Succession Planning: Succession planning is all about who will replace whom in near
future. The employee who has given his best to the organization and has been serving it
for a very long time definitely deserves to hold the top position. Management needs to
plan about when and how succession will take place.
Exit: The process ends when an individual gets retired or is no more a part of the
Talent Management process is very complex and is therefore, very difficult to handle.
Positive Aspects of Talent Management Consulting
Primarily organizations outsource their talent management because of
underlying assumptions like - the management will be effective, efficient and
result oriented, HR people will be spared of unnecessary engagement,
employees can be focused in their respective domains and the like.
The following are some of the benefits or positive aspects of talent
Talent management consulting firms employ proven talent selection, career
planning and development, people orientation and retention tools after
strategizing with the top management. This is contrary to the common inhose organizational practice which is very unsystematic and does not make
use of any tools.
They are focused unlike in-house talent management team that has other
things to take care of.
Negative Aspects of Talent Management Consulting
The negative views are based on the fact that since it‟s the employee data
and the employees themselves that the talent management consulting
deals with, there is a potential risk of the information getting leaked. However
the negative aspects of talent management consulting are summarized as
Talent management consulting/outsourcing demands access to your critical
organizational/people data. There is a potential risk of any consulting firm
gaining insights into organizational functioning.
Since organizations do not have a great belief upon the effectiveness of the
practice they do not want to spend much on the same. There is a big cost
attached to the outsourcing thing.
It faces the following opportunities and challenges:
Training and Developing talent
Developing Leadership talent
Creating talented ethical culture
The recent economic downturn saw job cuts globally. Those who were most important
to organizations in their understanding were retained, other were sacked. Similarly huge
shuffles happened at the top leadership positions. They were seen as crisis managers
unlike those who were deemed responsible for throwing organizations into troubled
waters. It is the jurisdiction of talent management to get such people on onboard, who
are enterprising but ensure that an organization does not suffer for the same.
Training and Developing Talent
The downturn also opened the eyes of organizations to newer models of employment part time or temporary workers. This is a new challenge to talent management, training
and developing people who work on a contractual or project basis. What‟s more big a
challenge is increasing the stake of these people in their work.
While organizations focus on reducing employee overheads and sacking those who are
unessential in the shorter run, it also spreads a wave of de motivation among those who
are retained. An uncertainty about the firing axe looms in their mind. It is essential to
maintain a psychological contract with employees those who have been fired as well
as those who have been retained. Investing on people development in crisis is the best
thing an organization can do to retain its top talent.
Developing Leadership Talent
Leadership in action means an ability to take out of crisis situation, extract certainty out
of uncertainty, set goals and driving change to ensure that the momentum is not lost.
Identifying people from within the organization who should be invested upon is a critical
talent management challenge.
Creating Talented Ethical Culture
Setting standards for ethical behavior, increasing transparency, reducing complexities
and developing a culture of reward and appreciation are still more challenges and
opportunities for talent management.
(Since an opportunity is the other face of challenge and vice versa, the words chall
Talent management is now looked upon as a critical HR activity; the discipline is
evolving every day. Let‟s analyze some trends in the same.
Talent War: (
Finding and retaining the best talent is the most difficult aspect of HR management. HR
survey consultancies are one in their view that organizations globally are facing a
dearth of talented employees and it‟s often more difficult to retain them. Further
research has also shown that there is clear link between talent issues and overall
Technology and Talent Management:
Technology is increasingly getting introduced into people development. Online
employee portals have become common place in organizations to offer easy access to
employees to various benefits and schemes. In addition employees can also manage
their careers through these portals and it also helps organizations understand their
Promoting Talent Internally:
An individual is
hired, when there is a fit between his abilities or skills and the requirements of the
organization. The next step is enabling learning and development of the same so that
he/she stays with the organization. This is employee retention. An enabled or
empowered means an empowered organization.
It is also of interest to organizations to know their skills inventories and then develop the
right individual for succession planning internally.
Population Worries Globally:
World populations are either young or aging. For example, stats have it
that by 2050 60% of Europe‟s working population will be over 60! On the
other hand a country like India can boast of a young population in the
coming and present times. Population demographics are thus a
disturbing factor for people managers. Still more researches have
predicted that demographic changes in United States will lead to
shortage of 10 million workers in the near future!
Talent Management to rescue HR:
HR has been compelled to focus on
qualitative aspects equally and even more than quantitative aspects
like the head count etc. Through talent management more effort is now
being laid on designing and maintaining employee scorecards and
employee surveys for ensuring that talent is nurtured and grown
Increase in Employer of Choice Initiatives:
An organization‟s perceived
value as an employer as helps improve its brand value in the eyes of its
consumer. Most importantly it helps it attract the right talent.
Myth 1 - Paying higher compared to Rival Firms will stop the Employee from Leaving:
Offering more compensations than rivals or above industry standard will prevent
employees from leaving and will also attract the best talent.
Reality: Paying higher than rival firms may help to a certain extent in retaining your
employees. It may also help you poach certain employees from your rivals but in the
long run, money fails to motivate people. Money is a hygiene factor; its absence may
be a de-motivating factor but presence surely cannot be motivating for long.
Solution: It is the day to day work, organizational culture and career progression that
motivates people more on a daily basis. Analyze each employee on what motivates
whom and try to align their career interests with their growth in the organization.
Myth 2 - Rewards and Incentives only Motivate People: The first myth that we discuss
here is that its rewards and incentives only that motivates people to give their hundred
percent and work more productively. Consequently it‟s the rewards and incentives that
is at the focus of HR people.
Reality: It is the attributes and the culture of the organization that is most likely to
motivate people to work better and be happy with their jobs. Leadership and job
empowerment are other factors that contribute to that happiness of employees.
Solution: Work on making the organization a better place in terms of enriching the
culture, improving senior junior relationships and of course laying due emphasis on how
the employees are being compensated.
Myth 3 - Employee Engagement is Useless: In industries where the attrition rate is low
there is a common feeling prevalent that employee engagement programs are of no
benefit. Further there is also a feeling that employee engagement helps only the
employees and not the organization.
Reality: There is no direct connection between levels of attrition and employee
engagement. In fact employees who are engaged well are more productive and take
ownership of their work. Since organizations about people, well engagement not only
improves employee performance but also organizational or corporate performance.
According to one recent research engaged employees perform 22 percent better,
have lesser rates of absenteeism, and produce greater customer satisfactions.
Solution: Customize engagement strategy for each employee and show the connection
between employees work commitment and organizational success. Improvise key
drivers such as manager‟s expertise and future career opportunities and development.
Myth 4 - Low Growth Periods do not require Employee Engagement: Organizations
typically believe that low growth is an industry wise phenomenon and does not demand
employee engagement. Employees are naturally left with lesser options to switch jobs.
Reality: In absence of employee engagement the organizations stands at the risk of
losing projects in hand. Continued absence of employee engagement may in fact demotivate an employee to contribute his best.
Solution: Employee engagement is critically required to retain and polish talent that is
essential for future growth and opportunities.
talent management system solutions
typically take care of the following:
Some strategies in this direction could be:
Aligning Business strategies with the HR strategies: Business HR is one function that is
developing fast as part of the human resource department. The person is responsible for
ensuring a smooth relationship between business and HR functions. They work with
business heads to develop people strategies to support both short term and long term
Performance Planning and Evaluation: An integrated HR approach means that are
uniform and standard procedures for employee performance evaluation and
compensation, up and down the organization. Performance is linked to growth and the
process adds value for employees to evaluate their work on their own. Indian digital disk
giant Moser Baer employs such process.
Strategic Manpower Planning: HR and Business function are interrelated. None can exist
without the other. HR functions need to work in collaboration to assess current and
future manpower requirements are plan for the same. They need to strategize on the
approximate manpower requirements, the relevant skills and educational qualification,
compensation and the like. This has to happen well in advance. Recruitment itself
means a host of other activities like training and development, compensation, induction
and orientation etc.
Mapping your Talent: An ever increasing emphasis is being laid on identifying the top
performing and talented employees to think of ways to develop, nurture and retain
them. Further organizations also like to keep skill inventories for contingencies. As
organizations realize the skills and abilities of individuals, they can then be more focused
on devising means and strategies to attract, develop and retain these people.
McKinsey conducted one research in
this direction in the year 2006 and found
out that the obstacles preventing talent
management programs from delivering
business value are too human
The talent market is more than competitive presently than it was and could
be in the next decades. In an economy that is knowledge driven the
demand for highly skilled workers is on the rise incessantly. Though the
demand may decline at times due to the changes economic cycle but in
the longer run the rising trend will remain the same more or less. In a survey
conducted by McKinsey in 2001, 72 % of the managers they interviewed
were of the opinion that winning the war for talent is critical and only 3 %
were confident that their actions would create a strong talent pool in the
next 3 years.
Apart from the talent constraint, it was also found out that people at
executive ranks (in the age group of 35 - 40) will also decrease by 14 % in the
next 15 years. This can be countered for a few more years by replacing these
positions with older baby boomers, but it is not long before these older baby
boomers retire and management ranks turn lean.
It is also of interest to mention here that individual expectations of rewards
(developmental, psychological and financial) have increased! These are
challenges and the most disconcerting element is that not many
organizations are prepared to face them.
Organizations need to act, and act now! The following is the five point
solution suggested by McKinsey
Develop a talent mindset at all levels in the organization.
Create a winning Employee Value Proposition.
Recruit great talent continuously.
Differentiate and affirm.
Succession planning is a systematic process of
identifying and developing talent for leadership
positions in the future. According to SHRM survey of
2003 it was found out that 60% of the firms that they
interviewed had no succession planning in place and
contrastingly about 70% of the major corporations
globally had a proper succession planning in place in
the late 1970‟s. Similarly IPMA HR survey of 2004 found
out that 63% of companies have no manpower
planning at all which was commonplace in every
organization till the late 1950‟s. So the question that
arises is when did succession planning emerge as a
problem? Who is responsible - is it because of some
demographic changes or because of the apathy on
the part of management?
Strategic Value: The resource has to contribute
substantially and add value in his/her area of
Rare: Unique in terms of skills, knowledge and
abilities in order to qualify as rare.
Appropriable: The extent to which the resource
is owned by the firm.
Inimitable: Such that the resource cannot be
replaced even after the competitors having
spotted the same.
Cannot be Substituted: This means that the
resource cannot be substituted by the rival
firms and that there is no match for the talent!
Typically the following steps are involved
in performance management:
Defining performance standards.
In commitment analysis a job mission statement is made for each job or
process which is a job definition in terms of product, scope and purpose.
Here the key objectives are outlined and performance standards are set
against the same.
Work analysis follows next; this underlines the reporting structure and job
description. Finally performance standards and expectations are set
against each job or process keeping in view the efficiency and
Employee performance management is of key benefit to organizations
in helping them realize effectively the strategic and operational goals. In
organizational behavior lexicon, performance problem is a gap
between desired and actual results and performance management
seeks to address just the same problem. There the effort is called as
performance improvement. The guidelines that determine whether or
job is being carried out effectively is based upon factors like whether the
work is planned and clear expectations are set, work performance is
monitored, staff is trained and developed continuously for a certain job
Noted management author Peter Drucker said that
the fastest growing industry would be training and
development as a result of replacement of industrial
workers with knowledge workers. In United States, for
example, according to one estimate technology is
de-skilling 75 % of the population. This is true for the
developing nations and for those who are on the
threshold of development. In Japan for example,
with increasing number of women joining traditionally
male jobs, training is required not only to impart
necessary job skills but also for preparing them for the
physically demanding jobs. They are trained in
everything from sexual harassment policies to the
necessary job skills.
Donald Kirkpatrick, professor emeritus, university of Wisconsin
began working on evaluating the effectiveness of training very
early in his life. His early work on the same was published in the
year 1959 in a journal of American Society of Training Directors.
He laid out four levels for evaluation of any training. This model is
arguably the most widespread for evaluation in use. It is simple,
very flexible and complete. The four levels as described by
Kirkpatrick are as follows:
Reaction of the Trainee - thoughts and feelings of the
participants about the training
Learning - the increase in knowledge or understanding as a
result of the training
Behavior - extent of change in behavior, attitude or capability
Results - the effect on the bottom line of the company as a
result of the training.
The fifth level which is the ROI has been recently added which is
not but a part of the original model. The graphic description is as
The success of a training program is evaluated in
terms of the end result or the increase in the work
ability, skill or competency in the trainee. For any
training program to be successful it is very essential
to follow a certain process.
The basic process as illustrated in the figure below
consists of four stages which are assessment,
development, delivery and evaluation.
Collins and Porras, Built to Last ( Successful Habits of
Visionary Companies), 1997
Collins, Good to Great, 2001
Collins, Good to Great and the Social Sectors, 2006
Pfeffer, Competitive Advantage through People
(Unleashing the Power of the Work Force), 1994
Becker, Huselid and Ulrich, The HR Scorecard, 2001
Ulrich and Brockbank, The HR Value Proposition, 2005
Huselid, Becker and Beatty, The Workforce Scorecard,
Ulrich, Human Resource Champions, 1997
Human Resource Competency Studies, RBL Group and
Michigan School of Business, 2002 and 2007
Organisations and Culture
The strategic role of people
Human Resource practitioners
Organisations are changing
Higher education is no different
Culture in Higher Education Institutions
Human Resource practitioner credibility
The Organisation of yesterday was:
› Standardised and functionally based, with position
based, top-down power structures, compliance and
information scarcity. Focus was primarily on products
The Organisation of tomorrow is:
› distributed, global, virtual and flexible with leadership
directed towards specific outcomes via individually
negotiated contributions which are expert-based,
and rich in information. Focus is on markets and
In fact it is particularly so in Higher Education where a dual
culture of bureaucracy („order and rules‟) and collegiality
(by it‟s nature „chaotic‟) exist side by side – the old and
The Academic enterprise is increasingly being required to
be more competitive, effective and efficient, that is
focussing on customers and markets, not „product‟ only
Academic institutions are increasingly being required to
survive and perform in an increasingly competitive world
on the one hand, on the other, the Academic enterprise
has always been much like the organisation of tomorrow
in the way it has worked
Freedom from organisational
Focus on individual excellence
Set out own agenda
Define own goals
Scope for individual creativity
Work with who you choose (inside or
outside the institution)
„Steal‟ ideas and practices from
Resources follow „stars‟
Space exists to explore ideas
without either sociability or solidarity
getting in the way
No knowledge sharing (secretive)
Low individual identification with
Very fragile psychological contract
between organisation and staff
Difficult to manage meetings or
any collective events
Bad-mouthing of colleagues may
take place (excessive critique can
degenerate into inaction)
All ideas get savaged
Are introvert, reflective and self-contained
Have a high autonomy drive and a strong
desire for independence with no controls
Have a strong sense of self
Are analytical rather than intuitive
Are self critical and criticize the ideas of others
Investing in yourself and your human capital
Focussing on outputs and knowing the reward
system inside out
Recruiting other very good people
Never letting personal relationships get in the
way of evaluation of ideas
Managing yourself well because it gives you
Which are familiar with bureaucracy
Which are increasingly required to become more
competitive in a customer focussed environment
Which have a „fragmented‟ culture where it is
difficult to generate focussed collective effort
Where individual academic staff members are
primarily focussed on personal growth and
This has implications for leadership….
A „great‟ organisation: delivers superior performance, makes a
distinctive impact, achieves lasting endurance (Collins)
Social sector leaders increasingly look to business for leadership
models and talent, yet I suspect we will find more true leadership
in the social sectors than the business sector‟ (Collins)
Level 5 leadership „Builds enduring greatness through a
paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will‟
13 Behaviours of High Trust Leaders (Covey)
True leadership only exists if people follow when they have the
freedom not to…….
Is a tough role…
Means continually reminding members of their
obligations to the collective
Means enforcing these obligations through a
formal control system
Means encouraging acceptable levels of
Means encouraging institutional as well as
Means encouraging collective as well as
‘In those rare cases when individual
creativity is critical, the fragmented
(culture) is also appropriate. But even
academic institutions should beware.
The individualist model of organisation
may not be sustainable as organisations
(universities) face new competitive
threats from emerging sources of
knowledge and information
Workforce Success: The Impact of Workforce Strategy on
Business Strategy Execution
• HR success is about driving
• HR success is measured by
the impact of HR on workforce success.
• Creating value with the workforce is
HR Management Systems
HR Workforce Competencies
about managing and measuring
• Workforce success is about driving
• Ideally, workforce success is
by the impact of your workforce
Human Resource Competency Study
The ability to anticipate the institutions‟ future needs
given the institutional environment and competitive
The ability to articulate the institution‟s strategic intent
and to translate it into appropriate people systems.
The ability to analyze the institution‟s resource processes
and design work systems in support of these processes.
The ability to demonstrate the value added to the
institutions‟ outputs by the people systems.
The ability to diagnose and prepare appropriate
organizational interventions – the consulting role
The ability to provide feedback and guidance
The ability to provide leadership for the
attainment of individual and group goals.
The ability to transfer knowledge and
capabilities to line managers and senior
The ability to work as a team member.
To act as a role model in the process of aligning
people systems with the institutional mission.
To possess narrow, functional HR expertise (e.g.
compensation, employee relations etc.).
2. Management of change processes
3. Management of culture
4. Delivery of HR practices (basics)
5. Knowledge of the organisation and it‟s
Human Resource Competency Study - model - 2007
This model suggests that HR professionals must master competencies dealing both with people and
business. Following one of these two paths independent of the other leads to failure. HR professionals
who emphasize the people side at the exclusion of the business side may be well liked and popular, but
they will not succeed, because their work does not further business goals. HR professionals who focus
on the business side without sensitivity to the human element will also not succeed because, although
the business may prosper in the short term, people will not sustain the success in the longer term.
Systems and processes
› Operational Executor: Executing the operational
aspects of managing people and the organization,
ensuring credibility through flawless execution
› Business Ally: Contributing to the success of the
business by knowing the social context in which the
business operates, how the business makes money
and how the parts of the business work together for
› Credible Activist: Credible (respected, admired,
listened to) and active (offers a point of view, takes a
position, challenges assumptions). “HR with an
HR professionals who are credible but not activists
are admired but do not have much impact. Those
who are activists but not credible may have ideas
but will not be listened to.
Strategic Contribution: managing culture, facilitating "fast change,”
strategic decision making and creating “market-driven connectivity”
together account for 43% of HR‟s total impact on business performance
Personal Credibility: credible to their HR counterparts and their business
line managers and having effective relationships with key people both
inside and outside the business. Also a need to promise and deliver
results and establish a reliable track record and have effective written
and verbal communication skills.
HR Delivery: Delivery of both traditional and operational HR in respect of
People and Organisation Development, Structure and HR Measurement,
Staffing, Performance Management and Reward.
Business Knowledge: Be a key player in the organization understanding
the business and industry including applied understanding of the
organisation‟s value chain and value proposition
HR Technology : Be able to leverage technology for HR practices and
use e-HR/web-based channels to deliver value.
Being grounded and connected, regarding
one‟s life as having purpose, meaning and
Understanding and accepting self, being selfaware and being realistically optimistic about
one‟s own capabilities and limits
Successful coping with adversity results in enhanced resilience,
which in turn enables better coping with future adversity
Managing and choosing thoughts (positive
and negative); feelings (emotional
impulses); and attitude (a positive outlook)
Giving and accepting support
Having an action focus (persistent, yet
Managing and choosing thoughts (positive
and negative); feelings (emotional
impulses); and attitude (a positive outlook)
Giving and accepting support
Having an action focus (persistent, yet
the need for personal feedback and experiential development
of HR practitioners
lessons learned from experience have a lasting impact on how a
person manages and leads.
developmental experiences fall into four areas*
› Challenging Assignments
› Significant other people
› Other events
*Center for Creative Leadership Benchmarks, Greensboro, North Carolina
A credible HR practitioner is:
› In the organisational system but able to
constructively observe and influence the system
› Accept that praise for success should be directed at
the client manager – any direct praise to the HR
person is a bonus
› Not standing outside the system and being critical:
„the University must/should etc…………‟
› Standing alongside the client line manager, even
when the HR practitioner‟s advice has been
rejected, and assisting him/her to deal with the „crisis‟
which has arisen
What is Employee Relations ?
Every individual shares a certain relationship
with his colleagues at the workplace. The
relationship is either warm, so-so or bad. The
relationship can be between any one in the
organization - between co workers,
between an employee and his superior,
between two members in the
management and so on. It is important that
the employees share a healthy relationship
with each other to deliver their best
Employee relations refer to the relationship shared among the
employees in an organization. The employees must be comfortable with
each other for a healthy environment at work. It is the prime duty of the
superiors and team leaders to discourage conflicts in the team and
encourage a healthy relationship among employees.
Life is really short and it is important that one enjoys each and every
moment of it. Remember in an organization you are paid for your hard
work and not for cribbing or fighting with each other. Don‟t assume that
the person sitting next to you is your enemy or will do any harm to you.
Who says you can‟t make friends at work, in fact one can make the best
of friends in the office. There is so much more to life than fighting with
each other. Observation says that a healthy relation among the
employees goes a long way in motivating the employees and
increasing their confidence and morale. One starts enjoying his office
and does not take his work as a burden. He feels charged and fresh the
whole day and takes each day at work as a new challenge. If you have
a good relation with your team members you feel going to office daily.
Go out with your team members for a get together once in a while or
have your lunch together. These activities help in strengthening the
bond among the employees and improve the relations among them.
An employee must try his level best to adjust with each other and compromise to his
best extent possible. If you do not agree to any of your fellow worker‟s ideas, there are
several other ways to convince him. Sit with him and probably discuss with him where he
is going wrong and needs a correction. This way he would definitely look up to you for
your advice and guidance in future. He would trust you and would definitely come to
your help whenever you need him. One should never spoil his relations with his
colleagues because you never know when you need the other person. Avoid using foul
words or derogatory sentences against anyone. Don‟t depend on lose talk in office as it
spoils the ambience of the place and also the relation among the employees. Blame
games are a strict no no in office.
One needs to enter his office with a positive frame of mind and should not unnecessarily
make issues out of small things. It is natural that every human being can not think the
way you think, or behave the way you behave. If you also behave in the similar way the
other person is behaving, there is hardly any difference between you and him. Counsel
the other person and correct him wherever he is wrong.
It is of utmost importance that employees behave with each other in a cultured way,
respect each other and learn to trust each other. An individual however hardworking he
is, cannot do wonders alone. It is essential that all the employees share a cordial relation
with each other, understand each other‟s needs and expectations and work together
to accomplish the goals and targets of the organization.
Every individual at the workplace shares a certain relationship with his fellow workers.
Human beings are not machines who can start working just at the push of a mere
button. They need people to talk to, discuss ideas with each other and share their
happiness and sorrows. An individual cannot work on his own, he needs people around.
If the organization is all empty, you will not feel like sitting there and working. An isolated
environment de-motivates an individual and spreads negativity around. It is essential
that people are comfortable with each other and work together as a single unit
towards a common goal.
It is important that employees share a healthy relation with each other at the work
place. Let us find out why employee relations are important in an organization:
There are several issues on which an individual cannot take decisions alone. He needs
the guidance and advice of others as well. Sometimes we might miss out on important
points, but our fellow workers may come out with a brilliant idea which would help us to
achieve our targets at a much faster rate. Before implementing any plan, the pros and
cons must be evaluated on an open forum where every employee has the right to
express his opinions freely. On your own, you will never come to know where you are
going wrong, you need people who can act as critic and correct you wherever you are
wrong. If you do not enjoy a good relation with others no one will ever come to help
Work becomes easy if it is shared among all. A healthy relation with your fellow workers
would ease the work load on you and in turn increases your productivity. One cannot
do everything on his own. Responsibilities must be divided among team members to
accomplish the assigned tasks within the stipulated time frame. If you have a good
rapport with your colleagues, he will always be eager to assist you in your assignments
making your work easier.
The organization becomes a happy place to work if the employees work together as a family. An
individual tends to lose focus and concentration if his mind is always clouded with unnecessary
tensions and stress. It has been observed that if people talk and discuss things with each other,
tensions automatically evaporate and one feels better. Learn to trust others, you will feel relaxed. One
doesn‟t feel like going to office if he is not in talking terms with the person sitting next to him. An
individual spends around 8-9 hours in a day at his workplace and practically it is not possible that one
works non stop without a break. You should have people with whom you can share your lunch, discuss
movies or go out for a stroll once in a while. If you fight with everyone, no one will speak to you and
you will be left all alone. It is important to respect others to expect the same from them.
An individual feels motivated in the company of others whom he can trust and fall back on whenever
needed. One feels secure and confident and thus delivers his best. It is okay if you share your secrets
with your colleagues but you should know where to draw the line. A sense of trust is important.
Healthy employee relations also discourage conflicts and fights among individuals. People tend to
adjust more and stop finding faults in each other. Individuals don‟t waste their time in meaningless
conflicts and disputes, rather concentrate on their work and strive hard to perform better. They start
treating each other as friends and try their level best to compromise and make everyone happy.
A healthy employee relation reduces the problem of absenteeism at the work place. Individuals are
more serious towards their work and feel like coming to office daily. They do not take frequent leaves
and start enjoying their work. Employees stop complaining against each other and give their best
It is wise to share a warm relation with your fellow workers, because you never know when you need
them. You may need them any time. They would come to your help only when you are nice to them.
You might need leaves for some personal reasons; you must have a trusted colleague who can
handle the work on your behalf. Moreover healthy employee relations also spread positivity around.
For the organization to perform better it is important that the employees are
comfortable with each other, share a good rapport and work in close coordination
towards a common objective. People feel responsible and motivated to do good work
and enjoy their work rather than taking it as a burden.
It is important that the management promotes healthy employee relations at workplace
to extract the best out of each individual. Competition is essential but it should not
promote negativity or any kind of enmity among the employees.
Let us go through some steps and strategies for a healthy employee relationship in the
Involve your team members: They should feel important and indispensable for the
organization. An individual must be assigned responsibilities according to their interests
and responsibilities. Don‟t impose work on them. Let them willingly accept challenges.
They must enjoy whatever they do otherwise they would end up fighting with their
superiors and fellow workers.
Encourage individuals to share their work with each other: This way people tend to talk
with each other more, discuss things among themselves and thus the comfort level
increases. Let them work together and take decisions on their own. A team leader
should intervene only in extreme cases of conflicts and severe misunderstandings.
Assign them targets and ask all your team members to contribute equally and achieve
the target within the desired time frame. Motivate them to work in groups. This way
employees have no other choice than to trust their fellow workers and take each other‟s
help as well. An employee must have the liberty to express his ideas and all of them
should sit together to decide on something which would be beneficial to all.
One should try his level best that all the employees must have their lunch together at the
same time. Half an hour to forty five minutes must be dedicated to lunch and one
should not discuss work during lunch time. There are other topics as well. Discuss movies,
sports, shopping or any other thing under the sun. There will be no harm if the employees
go out together once in a while for get togethers, picnics or shopping. Ask them to bring
their family members as well.
Encourage effective communication among the team members. It has been observed
that poor communication leads to confusions and misunderstandings. The
communication has to be precise and relevant. One should not play with words and be
very specific about his expectations from his fellow workers as well as the organization. If
you are not very happy with your colleague‟s proposal, don‟t keep things to yourself.
Voice your opinion and do express your displeasure. It will definitely prevent a conflict
among employees later and improve the relations among them. Be straightforward.
Don‟t pretend things just to please your boss. If you find anything unacceptable, discuss
with your superior but in a polite way.
Written modes of communication must be promoted among the employees for better transparency.
Verbal communication is not as reliable as written communication. The agendas, minutes of the
meeting, important issues must be circulated among all through emails. Make sure that all the related
employees are in the loop. Don‟t communicate individually with any of the employees as the other
one might feel neglected and left out.
Morning meeting is another effective way to improve the relation among the employees. Let everyone
come together on a common platform and discuss whatever issues they have. The meetings must not
be too formal. Allow the team members to bring their cups of coffee. Start your day with a positive
mind. Greet everyone with a warm smile. Exchange greetings and compliments. If any of your team
member is not in a pleasant mood, do take the initiative and ask what is wrong with him. Try your level
best to provide him a solution.
Organize birthday parties, Christmas parties, New Year parties etc. at the workplace. These small
initiatives actually go a long way in strengthening the bond among the employees. Ask all of them to
decorate the office, their work stations and make all the necessary arrangements themselves. You will
actually be surprised to find out that everyone would be ready with some thing or the other.
Employees would actually take the initiative and organize things on their own. Let them enjoy with
each other and have fun.
Praise the individual if he has done something exceptionally well. Reward him suitably. The names of
the top performers must be displayed on the notice boards for others to draw inspiration from them.
Encourage everyone to perform well to live up to the expectations of the superiors as well as the
A healthy relation among employees promotes a positive ambience at the work place and
employees feel happy and satisfied at work. They look forward to going to office daily and also work
hard to realize their team‟s as well as organization‟s goals.
Employees are the major assets of an organization. It is essential that the
employees perform together as a collective unit and contribute equally
towards the realization of a common goal. No task can be
accomplished if the individuals are engaged in constant conflicts and
misunderstandings. It has been observed that targets are achieved at a
much faster rate if the employees work together and share a warm
relationship with each other. Employees must be comfortable with each
other to deliver their best and enjoy their work.
What is employee relationship management ?
Employee relationship management refers to managing the relation
between the various employees in an organization. The relationship can
be between employee and the employer as well as between
employees at the same level.
What is Management ?
Management is nothing but a technique which brings people together
on a common platform and guides them so that they achieve their
desired targets without fighting with each other. In a layman‟s
language, management is nothing but managing things effectively so
that tasks are accomplished without any hassles and confusions.
Management is required everywhere.
Employee relationship management is an art which effectively monitors and manages
the relation between individuals either of the same team or from different teams.
Employee relationship management activity helps in strengthening the bond among the
employees and ensures that each one is contented and enjoys a healthy relation with
Employee relationship management includes various activities undertaken by the
superiors or the management to develop a healthy relation among the employees and
extract the best out of each team member.
Let us go through certain activities which are imperative for a healthy employee
Transparency in communication is of utmost importance for a healthy employee
relationship management. A single point of contact must be assigned who should be
made responsible for handling queries of all the team members and escalating it to the
seniors. Confusions are bound to arise if all of them would walk up to their superiors with
their problems. Let the team members decide their SPOC. In such cases employees
actually know who to get in touch with in case of a query and in the absence of their
superiors. The hierarchy should not be too complicated and every employee should be
accessible to each other. Important information must be passed on in the presence of
all, where everyone has the liberty to express his opinions freely. Important information
can also be put on the notice boards for everyone to read and get a common picture.
If any one has performed exceptionally well, do display his name on the bulletin board.
Let everyone read it and get inspired to perform better next time. Encourage morning
meetings where individuals can come together and know each other well. Exchanging
information through emails is also an important way to improve the relation among the
employees as everyone knows what is being communicated to the other individual.