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How to Become a Butterfly Farmer


Learn if you have what it takes to become a butterfly farmer!

Learn if you have what it takes to become a butterfly farmer!

Published in Education , Sports , Self Improvement
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  • 1. So, you think you want to be a butterfly f f farmer? (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 2. Do you have what it takes? A love of butterflies A love of butterflies Good customer relations skills Time (lots of it!) ( ) Patience Perseverance Flexibility Start‐up money Willingness to learn g Realistic expectations (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 3. You need to have a love for f butterflies fi You will be handling butterflies, pupae, caterpillars and eggs. Butterfly farming is a “hands‐on” profession. You must be willing to be a real farmer in every aspect since you will be actively involved in every part of a butterfly’s lifestage. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 4. You need to have good customer relations skills i i Do you like working with people? To be successful in your business, you y g p p y y will deal with many different types of people. You should possess the personality to be accommodating, pleasant and ethical. You need to be able to deal with several situations at one time. Your phone skills will sell your product. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 5. You need to devote much time to your business i Butterfly farming is very labor intensive! You must be available 7 y g y days/week during your season. All four life stages need care at all times and you are responsible for their survival. This cannot be emphasized enough. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 6. You need patience You will need to be patient with your customers, answering their questions time and again, over and over. You will acquire patience as you raise your butterflies, since Mother Nature cannot be manipulated to suit your needs. You will need to have patience until your business becomes financially secure, as you cannot expect t b t t to become rich overnight. i h i ht (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 7. You will need perseverance You must be willing to keep trying…trying to improve your skills, trying to produce top‐quality butterflies, trying to make your business the best it can be. You will wear many hats. You are the butcher, the baker and the candlestick maker. It is up to YOU to persevere in the face of calamities unpleasant customers butterfly diseases bad calamities, customers, diseases, weather, missed shipments, and any number of obstacles that a butterfly farmer will encounter. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 8. You need to be flexible Your schedule is determined by the needs of your stock. Caterpillars need to be fed on a regular basis. Their containers need cleaning constantly. Adult butterflies need to be exercised and fed on a schedule. You are the one who will see to it that this happens. pp Are you disciplined enough to own your own business? Can you adjust to irregular hours? Are you able to devote many hours to the many aspects of butterfly farming? (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 9. You need start-up money start up How much? The amount depends on the size business you want to start with. It is recommended that you start with a small business. In other words, don’t quit your day job right away. Taking into account supplies, plants, stock, website expenses, course f fees, advertising, marketing, computer and office‐related d ii k i d ffi l d expenses, the amount can be estimated from between several hundred dollars to many thousands of dollars. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 10. You need to be willing to learn You should learn everything you can about raising butterflies. Reading books, books searching the internet taking courses experimenting observing internet, courses, experimenting, observing, asking questions, and being inquisitive are a few ways to learn about it. Butterfly farming is an exciting business and there is a wealth of p information out there! Association For Butterflies offers courses to help you:‐butterflies‐course/ (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 11. You need to have realistic expectations When first starting out, you should set realistic goals for your new business. Don’t business Don t expect to get rich and retire within 3 years! Don’t Don t expect to gain fame as a world-famous butterfly farmer! Don’t expect to become the biggest butterfly farmer in the U.S. during your first year! DO expect to grow your business and gain much personal satisfaction from helping people experience the joy of a butterfly release. DO expect that you will make mistakes, but that y you will be able to correct them. DO expect to have many p p p y people willing to help you and know that you can take advantage of their expertise. The Association For Butterflies is a great way to start! (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 12. Necessities >Supplies for raising caterpillars >Host plants and/or diet to feed caterpillars >Host plants and/or diet to feed caterpillars >Containers for caterpillars >Eggs, caterpillars, pupae and/or butterflies to begin gg , p ,p p / g (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 13. Helpful tools for raising caterpillars i Good quality magnifying glass Number 2 soft paintbrush Tweezers with flat edges (forceps) Tweezers with flat edges (forceps) Misting bottle (for later use with pupae) An area to raise them Misting bottle Containers C i 5 oz. clear cups   Caterpillar  Caterpillar “castles” (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 14. Since newly‐hatched caterpillars are very tiny, you will probably need a magnifying glass  to see them (unless you have X‐ray vision) . A paintbrush is helpful when you need to move your caterpillars from one container to  another.  You avoid touching them with your fingers and you can sterilize the paintbrush  easily. You can use forceps to also move larger caterpillars.  These are inexpensive and can be  purchased at an insect supply company. A good‐quality misting bottle is handy when you are working with the pupa (or chrysalis)  stage. Pupae need misting with water to keep them hydrated.  You need a designated space to raise caterpillars that can be easily disinfected.   It can be  Y d d i d i ill h b il di i f d I b a room, a closet, a tabletop, or someplace that is out of the way of normal everyday  activities.   It is recommended that you purchase several “Caterpillar Castles” to raise caterpillars.   These containers are portable, can be disinfected and are long‐lasting.   They provide  adequate airflow.  You can also go to a Dollar Store and buy a similar container.  If you are  raising Painted Ladies, you will not need these containers, only plastic cups.   raising Painted Ladies you will not need these containers only plastic cups (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 15. You will spend the majority of your time with the caterpillar stage  of the butterfly’s lifecycle.  Many species are in the caterpillar (or  larvae) stage for about 3 weeks.  You must not be squeamish  larvae) stage for about 3 weeks You must not be squeamish about handling them, you will need to be careful, you will need to   learn when not to touch them and how to move them.  You will  need to learn how to feed them, either with their “host” plants or  dt l h t f d th ith ith th i “h t” l t with a special diet that can be ordered from a reputable source.    Each species behaves differently and you must learn the specifics  prior to raising them.  The AFB offers courses on how to raise  healthy butterflies.  Take advantage of them! Painted Lady caterpillar  molting on its host plant  thistle (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 16. It is recommended that you start raising Painted Ladies when  you first begin.  Painted Ladies are hardy, pretty, and easy to  raise.  They can be raised in Solo cups or an equivalent.  Of  course, you may try raising Monarchs or other species.  To do so,  y you will need to learn the distinct characteristics of the  species…how they behave, what they eat, peculiarities specific  to the species, etc.    Painted Lady  adult (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 17. Once your caterpillars have become pupae and then have  emerged as adult butterflies, you will need an area in which to  keep the adults.  They need light, airflow, hydration (misting) and  food.  They need to be able to exercise their wings.  A  “Caterpillar Castle” is good for this purpose.  The butterflies can  Caterpillar Castle is good for this purpose. The butterflies can be removed easily but cannot escape from the castle. The fine  mesh will deter predators. Larger ones are available for  purchase; castles even come in sizes that allow a person to walk  purchase; castles even come in sizes that allow a person to walk into it!  Some farmers  have used an outdoor tent for a flight  area.  A tent mimics a natural environment and can be sited in an  area that is convenient for you.   (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 18. “Host” plants are plants that caterpillars eat.  Every species of  butterfly caterpillar is plant‐specific.  Some only eat one type of  plant.  Some eat several different plants.  Depending on the  plant Some eat several different plants Depending on the species you plan to raise you will need to become very familiar  with these plants and how to grow them.  Caterpillars in the last  stages (instars) eat A LOT and you need to have a good quantity  ( ) d d h d of host plants to feed them. Monarch caterpillar  Monarch caterpillar eating milkweed (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 19. “Nectar” plants are flowering plants from which adult butterflies  drink nectar.  Many flowers are nectar‐rich, which attract  butterflies.  A butterfly farmer can also feed adult butterflies  butterflies A butterfly farmer can also feed adult butterflies fermenting fruit, a sugar water solution, prepared nectar,  Gatorade, or other nutritional tidbits. Gulf Fritillary nectaring  on pentas (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 20. An area is needed to grow your host plants.  This can be a  g y p greenhouse, your back yard, in pots in a screened porch or other  suitable place.  You have more control over the quality of the  plants if they are grown  inside. Plants are always subject to plants if they are grown “inside ”  Plants are always subject to  problems, whether it is poor soil, undesirable insects,  unpredictable weather, or gardener neglect; whether they are  raised indoors or outdoors.  Depending on where you live, the  d d d d h l h plants will need protection from winter weather.  The health of  y your caterpillars depends on the health of your plants! p p y p Common Milkweed in  Common Milkweed in bloom  (Host plant for  Monarchs) (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 21. You will need to acquire knowledge of how to grow healthy plants to feed your  caterpillars.   Working knowledge of which plants grow best in your soil, climate, and  p g g p g y , , conditions will yield better plants than those that do not adapt well.  Native plants are  better than non‐natives.  Native plants have the advantage of requiring less work on  your part, less watering (thereby saving on your water bills), are less susceptible to  pests and thrive in your conditions.  You should be able to assess your situation so that  pests and thrive in your conditions You should be able to assess your situation so that you will make fewer mistakes growing your plants.  Concentrate on those plants that  do well in your area.  Each climate zone produces plants that will attract adult  butterflies and feed native butterfly caterpillars.  If you live in North Dakota, you  probably will not be able to attract or raise Zebra Longwings, which is a southern  species!  A good garden book appropriate for your area is invaluable.   (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 22. Where do I get my start-up stock? If you live in northern climates, you may wish to wait until spring to begin raising caterpillars. You CAN raise them indoors in the wintertime b t th i i t ill Y i th i d i th i t ti but they cannot be released when the temperatures are below 60-65 degrees. In the spring, you can wait until a female butterfly lays eggs on her host plant gg y purchase eggs, larvae, p p or adult gg pupae and then collect the eggs. Or you can p butterflies from another butterfly farmer. Generally, those who live in southern states begin their season earlier in the year. You should decide which stage you want to begin raising and that will depend on whether you have enough host plant material to feed the caterpillars Caterpillars eat A caterpillars. LOT! They eat more than you would ever expect. You are responsible for them so you need to make sure you have enough food to feed them for this part of their lifecycle. Nothing is worse than running short of their food plant and you having to drive around looking for more plants! This step is very important! Red Admiral caterpillar on  its host plant, nettle (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 23. Butterfly life stages ~ egg Painted lady                                    Swallowtail (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 24. Caterpillar (larva) p ( ) Black Swallowtail                                     Giant Swallowtail Long‐tailed Skipper                                            Monarch (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 25. Chrysalis ( Ch li (pupa) ) Black Swallowtail Painted Lady Variegated Fritillary (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 26. What if I don’t have enough butterflies to b tt fli t fill my orders? d ? At times, you may find that you are running short of the number of  At times, you may find that you are running short of the number of butterflies you need to complete an order from a customer.  This may  be due to many factors, but don’t panic!  It is always possible that you  may be able to purchase butterflies from another butterfly farmer at  wholesale prices.  If you have become a member of Association For  Butterflies, you are automatically added to an emailing list and you  can post your request there.  If there is any excess stock available,  butterfly farmers are usually willing to sell any extras.  Some farmers  will even “drop ship” them for you.  “Drop ship” means they will send  the butterflies to your customer directly.  You will agree on the price  with your supplier.   ith li (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 27. You will be successful if you are diligent You not only need knowledge of plants, caterpillars and butterflies, you will  y g p , p ,y need to be organized to conduct your business.  You will need a place to keep  files, a computer, a printer, written material, a calendar, business cards,  financial information and many other incidentals that help keep your butterfly  business operating efficiently.   (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 28. Keep an up-to-date calendar up to date You need to keep track of your orders and shipping schedule.  A desk calendar  p y pp g or one on your computer will help organize this.  Don’t rely on your memory!   A written record is essential.  Your written records in a  journal also keep track  of what life stages your butterflies are in.  If problems arise with your stock,  you may be able to trace when your stock became non‐viable and where you  obtained it.     (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 29. Keep track of your income and expenses p There are many ways of doing this and you will need to find what works best  for you and your business.  You can open a business account at a bank for  f d b i Y b i t t b kf your checking account.  You can open a Paypal account online to accept  orders.  You can use your own personal checking account, but it is  recommended that you keep personal accounts and business accounts  recommended that you keep personal accounts and business accounts separate.  Search your area for the best bank that is business‐friendly.   Whichever way you decide to manage your income and expenses, you will  HAVE to be diligent in keeping accurate records.  Pay your bills on time.  If you  g p g yy y purchase stock from other butterfly farmers, they appreciate it if you pay  their invoices promptly! (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 30. Credit cards You may decide that it will be convenient for your customers to pay for their  orders with credit/debit cards.  You will therefore need a  terminal that orders with credit/debit cards. You will therefore need a “terminal” that  accepts card payments.  A terminal may be obtained through your bank, from  a discount club, or from another source.  It requires a telephone line (which  can also be your primary line) and a small printer to print out receipts.  Many  y p y p p p y customers want to pay with their cards, so this may be a worthwhile  investment.  There are charges associated with this service, so check around  for the best deal.    (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 31. Computer and Printer p A computer and printer are necessities if you want to run an efficient  p p y business.  The computer allows you to communicate with your customers and  other butterfly farmers, take advantage of online discussion groups, find  information, etc.  Your printer is also a valuable tool, enabling you to print  invoices and labels, instructions on how to care for live butterflies, etc.  These  two items are probably the most important to the success of your butterfly  business.  It is not necessary to have the fastest and latest models; you will be  able to do as much with the equipment you already have.  An internet  bl d h h h l d h connection is a must, too.  Your email address is important as it allows people  to find you.  You should also consider having a website……….. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 32. Your Website You can operate your butterfly business without a website, but having one will  open up a whole new world of possibilities.  You will be able to advertise your  h l ld f ibiliti Y ill b bl t d ti butterflies to the world!  It is possible for a person with good computer skills to  construct their own site.  You may also wish to hire someone with the knowledge  to construct one for you.  Begin with a simple one, with only several pages:  to construct one for you Begin with a simple one with only several pages: (1)  a home page explaining your business with pertinent contact information, (2)  a page showcasing what you are selling and how much you charge (3)  a page explaining your policies and guarantees (4)  a page for ordering butterflies (5)  any other info you think customers need to know. www isellthebestbutterflies com (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 33. Business Cards Any good businessperson knows that an important tool in advertising his/her  Any good businessperson knows that an important tool in advertising his/her business is an attractive business card.  You can make your own on your  printer, you can order some online which will look more professional, or you  can go to your local copy shop and have them made for you.  VistaPrint has  g y py p y good deals and you may want to check them out online.   Carry them with  you at all times.  Include them in your orders.  Tack them up on bulletin  boards.  Send them to your friends and relatives, potential customers and  other business people. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 34. Other Options You may decide you need additional help in setting up your business.  There  are many free services available in most communities or online.  SCORE is an  experienced group of retired executives that provides counseling and  workshops to help people get started.  They will help you develop a business  plan.  Take advantage of people’s expertise and learn all you can.  This will  help make your task easier.    (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 35. Your B i Y Business N Name Choose your new business name very carefully.  Make sure it reflects what you  will be selling.   Consider applying for an EIN (Employee Identification Number)  which identifies business entities.  You can apply online.  It is a free service  through the IRS (   Register your business name with your state.   You want to investigate the state tax laws to see if you need to charge tax on  your sales and how to report it.  Later, you may want to think about  trademarking your business name to prevent unscrupulous people from stealing  t d ki b i t t l l f t li it.  This would cause you innumerable headaches!  A trademark can be obtained  through the U.S. Patent Office.  Again, a group such as SCORE can help you. “Beautiful Butterflies by Beulah”   (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 36. Shipping Account If you intend to ship your butterflies out of state and/or in your state, you  should consider one of the well known shipping services and open an  should consider one of the well‐known shipping services and open an account.   Butterflies and the other life stages are mostly shipped overnight.   UPS and FedEx are mainly used by butterfly farmers, which can cost less.  The  USPS is rarely used. You can save money by printing your own shipping labels  rather than having a local mailing center do it for you.  You will need to  investigate the best service.  Think about how far it is to drive to the pickup  location.  You can also pay to have the carrier pick up your packages.   You will  need to learn how to best pack your livestock.  The best place to learn is to  take an online course through the Association For Butterflies!  Courses are  offered periodically and you can sign up at        (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 37. Packing and Shipping It is very important that your precious livestock is packed and shipped in the  most efficient and safe manner before it leaves your hands.  You must not be  squeamish about handling butterflies, eggs, caterpillars, or pupae.  Learn the  correct way to pack butterflies in envelopes by picking them up by their  t t k b tt fli i l b i ki th b th i “shoulders” with wings closed above their bodies.  You may make your own  envelopes from paper or purchase glassines that will ensure the butterflies  are secure in transit.  Butterflies are NEVER sent to a customer loose in a  are secure in transit Butterflies are NEVER sent to a customer loose in a container!    (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 38. Packing Materials You will need to invest in ice packs and styrofoam coolers.  Coolers can be  pre‐formed or consist of a cardboard box with pre‐cut styrofoam sides that fit  together.  Make it easy on yourself  by choosing one of these styles rather  than cutting the styrofoam yourself.  The coolers and ice packs can be  purchased in quantities online, where you will get a discount.  Buy the  smallest coolers you can in which the butterflies will comfortably fit.  You can  also check with local veterinarians for small boxes they want to recycle.   also check ith local eterinarians for small bo es the ant to rec cle Again, your customers will pay for shipping charges and the larger and heavier  the package, the more you will need to charge, possibly  resulting in fewer  butterflies they will buy.   butterflies they will buy Recommended size of the styrofoam container is 8x8x8 and fits into a cardboard box of the same dimensions (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 39. Shipping Permits Butterfly farmers are regulated by the USDA  Animal and Plant Health  Butterfly farmers are regulated by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) .  All shipments across state lines require a permit.   A permit is required for every state to which you ship and the permits are  free.  Shipments within a state do not require a permit.  Many of your  customers will be from out of state and to comply with regulations and avoid  extremely high penalties, you will need to apply for your permits as soon as  possible.  There are nine species that can be shipped, but not all can be sent  to every state and not all can be raised in every state.  The butterflies need to  be indigenous to the state where they are raised and the state where they  will be sent.  You can apply online for PPQ526 permits.  It takes up to three  months for them to be processed so it is imperative to begin working on them  th f th t b d it i i ti t b i ki th soon. Permits are issued for 3 years and then they need to be renewed.   (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 40. Nine permitted species that can be shipped across state lines Monarch Mourning  Cloak (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 41. Networking helps your business How will you spread the word that you are in the butterfly business?  Explore  many options and choose a couple that will help the most.  A few examples include: FACEBOOK LinkedIn Twitter Emailing lists that discuss butterflies Blogs Social media is important to your marketing strategy and continues to  Social media is important to your marketing strategy and continues to become more so.  Use keywords on your pages and in your promotional info.   Decide how often you will post messages to your “fans.” Analyze the results  from your efforts. If you don t have experience with social media, seek help  from your efforts If you don’t have experience with social media seek help and research the various venues yourself.  Think about whether you can  afford to place ads via Google and/or Facebook.  You want your website to  move up in the rankings and there are ways you can make this happen.   Join  p g y y pp Association For Butterflies!     (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 42. Advertising your business You are in business to make money!  You will make money if people know you  y y p p y are selling butterflies.  It is your job to promote your business in any legal way  you can so you can stay in business.  Investigate marketing and advertising  courses in your community.  Check out courses offered by the Association For  Butterflies.  Use your computer to take classes via the internet.  Look around  at other businesses to see how they are advertising their wares.  At times,  you may want to donate butterflies to a good cause for more exposure.   Advertising is a large part of making your business successful and you will  Ad ti i i l t f ki b i f l d ill become the expert, knowing what works and what doesn’t.   Magnetic car sign Virginia’s state insect license tag li (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 43. Continuing Education Your quest for knowledge about butterflies will be ongoing.  You will NEVER know  everything there is to know about butterflies.  But you must be open to new ideas and  learn everything you can, continuously.  Join butterfly associations.  Many states have  organizations devoted to learning about native butterflies.  Visit other butterfly  farmers, if possible.  Hands‐on learning is very worthwhile.  Participate in butterfly  farmers if possible Hands‐on learning is very worthwhile Participate in butterfly conventions and if you can, intern at a butterfly farm.  Visit butterfly exhibits.  Buy  butterfly books and read them.  Put your computer to good use and search, search,  search for butterfly‐related topics.  Take courses to increase your knowledge of  butterflies.  Become a Master Gardener or Master Naturalist through your Cooperative  Extension office, if you can.  Take part in Association For Butterflies courses.  These will  be some of the best classes you’ll invest in.  Think of your tuition as an investment in  your business.  At some point you will be teaching others about butterflies.  Your  your business. At some point you will be teaching others about butterflies. Your instruction will help your customers have the best release possible.   Be an  ambassador for the butterfly release industry, promoting positive  images. (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 44. Summary Traits needed to become a butterfly farmer Supplies l Raising caterpillars Host and nectar plants Plants and stock Plants and stock Life Stages Business essentials Shipping and permits Shipping and permits Promotion and education Slides  1‐11 Slides  12‐14 ld Slides  15‐17 Slides  18‐20 Slides  21‐22 Slides 21 22 Slides  23‐25 Slides  26‐35 Slides  36 40 Slides 36‐40 Slides  41‐43 (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012        
  • 45. We hope this presentation will help you decide whether butterfly farming is  for you.  The world of butterflies is a rewarding one in many ways.  If you do  become a butterfly farmer, know that there are many people willing to share  their expertise to help make your job a bit easier.   h h l k b b This presentation is the property of Association For Butterflies.  p p p y Copying is prohibited.   (c) Association for Butterflies; Research, Conservation, Farming, and Gardening 2012