Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /Pipitone Religion 3: Quarter 3 Exam Study Guidenote: if it’s highlighted, I was too lazy to answer it1. What caused corruption within in Catholic Church? How can we say that despite the corruption, the institution remained/remains holy?2. How did feudalism affect the Church? It increased the interaction between the ecclesiastical and secular leaders in rural parts of Europe. Also, it lead to Church leaders abusing their authority: bishops & abbots receiving extra income from royal benefices.3. What is feudalism? -a contract system between kings & land-owning vassals and wider population -involved exchange of labor, services, military service for military production4. Why was Cluny so monumental? greater emphasis on spiritual life of individual monk What made it so special? reinstated& lengthened the Divine Office; reduced amount of time spent in manual labor so more time could be devoted to prayer What is the privilegium? How did Cluny govern itself that made it unique? Why did Cluny end? What was important about the spirituality within Cluny? What did the reforms emphasize? a. Pope Benedict VIII b. William the Pious5. Otto I? He was a Saxon ruler who formed the Holy Roman Empire6. Otto & Pope Sylvester? They had an alliance. Benefits for each: - Otto: raised him to the level of Charlemagne, legal basis for bringing part of the old middle kingdom under his control - Pope: the Church received temporal protection; peace and stability is necessary for the Church’s mission7. Emperor Henry II and Queen St. Cunegond?8. The Lay Investiture Controversy? main question: who should appoint bishops, secular or religious leaders? a. William the Conqueror he headed the last successful invasion of England in 1066 b. Gregory VII the Reformer i. The DictatusPapae asserted that the Pope possessed special powers bestowed by God -to convene & ratify a council -to define tenets of the faith -to appoint, transfer, & remove bishops from office -to depose temporal rulers ii. Emperor Henry IV He denies the decree of Gregory VII and appoints bishops of Milan. After a showdown, Gregory VII gives Henry a hearing, hears his confession, absolves and then restores loyal throne. Within a year, Henry again challenges the Pope and installs Clement the III c. Concordat of Worms Brought about resolution: - Spiritual investiture left to the Church alone -Temporal investiture left to the civil authorities
Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /Pipitone d. The English Investure i. St. Thomas Becket ii. Henry II iii. Claremont Constitutions9. Frederick I?10. Frederick II and Innocent III? They duke it out. Frederick took throne at 17, and he promised to respect sovereignty of Papal states and try not the unify Germany and Italy. After Innocent III dies, Frederick goes back on his promise, tries to crush Papal States by invading and driving Pope Gregory IX from Rome. Many saw Freddy as the anti-christ. a. What was Innocent’s goal of his papacy? to control and maintain the balance of power throughout Europe11. St. Bernard of Clairvaux? first abbot of new Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux, France a. His prayer life hermit12. The Carthusians? a model priest and a civil servant a. The emphasis within the spiritual life severe mortification & perpetual silence13. St. Bruno?14. Cistercians? special emphasis on austerities, farming, simplicity of life a. What does the color of the white habit mean? poverty & simplicity15. The Crusades? 8 expansive military operations carried out by the Church in defense of the Holy Land; goal was to defend Christianity from Muslim expansion. a. Bl. Urban II He preached the First Crusade in 105 in central France to try to rouse support from Westerners to aid the Eastern Christians. b. Who fought in the Crusades?Christian people c. Why were the majority of the Crusades not successful? pg. 332, 333 Corruption & extremely unorganized d. How did St. Francis affect the Crusades? What was the point of including him in the book? St. Francis was a prime example of how peace was an overlooked option; e. Who are the Knights Templar?Knights whose specific mission was to protect pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem. i. What is apostasy?Rejection of believing in God f. How many Knights of Templar gave up their life to protect Christian pilgrims? 20,000 g. Knights Hospitalers Grew out of an already existing work of charity consisting of the care of sick pilgrims; made a major contribution in the defense of Jerusalem, and served as a medical corps to the Crusaders h. The Legacy of the Military Orders…what was their function? Were they successful? Instituted to ensure the protection of Christian pilgrims, Church and holy places in Holy lands. Yes, they were successful.16. The Inquisition a. Purpose Called in response to heretical activities that threatened civil order; the Albegensians. Were organized to defend both the state and Church. b. Mistreatment of people…the Jews i. Pope Innocent III spoke out against the behavior Pope Innocent III called for the Inquisition to protect people, society and Christianity
Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /Pipitone c. Albigensians i. Their beliefs Believed that two gods governed the universe: one spiritual and good, the other physical and evil. ii. Why are they contra family? Had evil practices, anti-Christians, violent, and promoted the following: abortion, homosexuality, and suicide iii. Why is that an assault on the Christian Church? d. Spanish Inquisition Reconquering of Spain by the Christians against the Muslims and the Jews i. Time Frame purpose Was used to promote and retain Spanish unity under a common Christian religion17. The University? a. The origin of the university b. The effects of the university The work of many academics would shed new light on the many mysteries of the Faith; helped lead Europe into a period of exceptional intellectual growth c. The influence of the Church on academics All students who went to universities could then leave the school and continue on to study more intensively for a doctorate degree in law, medicine, or theology.18. Scholasticism? With access to Aristotles works, universities fostered a new style of inquiry in philosophy known as Scholasticism, or “science of the schools”. a. The relationship between faith and reason St. Thomas explained that they do not need to be opposed to one another; utilizing Aristotle’s philosophy, he was able to discuss in a cogent way Christ’s dual nature as God and man as his presence in the Eucharist. b. The Papal Encylical, Fides et Ratio19. St. Thomas Aquinas (know this information like you would a special friend…I’d rather not)? Why is he referred to as the Angelic Doctor?St. Thomas used philosophy to shed light on the mysteries of the Christian doctrine, explaining theology in a philosophical context. a. Why is his work important? He combined the works of Aristotle and truths of Christianity20. Bl. Dun Scotus? a. Immaculate Conception21. St. Francis of Assisi? (know him like an old friend blahblahblah nonsense)His courage & peaceful attempts to try to calm the controversy over the Holy Lands should remind us of the power of peace. Through the personal holiness of St. Francis, the Sultan gratned St. Francis access to the Holy Lands22. St. Bonaventure? He made a new provision that allowed individual Franciscans to receive donations meant for the well-being of the order. The money would not be held by the Franciscans in common, as it was with other monastic orders. Rather, St. Bonaventure made it so that everything received by the Franciscans would be given to the Holy See,which would then see to the preservation of the order according to its own good will.23. St. Dominic? He set to convert the Albegensians back to the Church. a. What is the real name of the Dominicans? Order of Preachers b. What is the habit like? to live a life of poverty, without a staff and no money c. What is the legacy of the Dominican Orders? to life an ascetical life modeled after the life of Christ24. The Middle Ages and the Arts?With emphasis on Christ, the Light of the World, Christians began to look for a new style of architecture that could provide a space that held light, music and air in a suitable way.
Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /Pipitone a. What was the purpose of Medieval Church art? (pg. 384) To convey stories from the Gospels and depict the facial expressions to try and reveal the inner souls of the saints through subtle artistic representation25. What were/are the mendicant orders known for? These orders remained a constant reminder that, despite the potential glory of the human capacity to understand, ultimately, as John Paul II reminded, it is “training and spiritual life”, faith and love of God that leads to greater knowledge and understanding of Christ26. What is Dante’s major work? (pg. 384)Divine Comedy27. The Avignon Papacy? a. Pope Celestine V b. Boniface VII and Philip IV i. Why was Philip a pain? ii. How did “theologians” in Paris hurt the papacy and the Church rather than help it?28. St. Catherine of Siena?29. The Western Schism? a. The Causes, the effects, the outcomes b. The Council of Constance c. The Popes (know that chart Pipi drew & discussed)30. The decline of Scholastic Philosophy and Theology and the rise of heresy, i.e. John Wycliff and Jan Hus? a. Apologetics b. The Bible c. The Faith Alone Heresy d. Sola Scriptura Heresy31. Gallicanism?32. Black Death?33. The Eucharist?34. What are the conditions or essential characteristics that must be maintained for a council to be valid? (pg. 413)Must have three essential characteristics: 1.) It must be called by the pope 2.) It must be presided over by the pope or his legate 3.) Its dogmatic decrees are considered valid only if they are accepted and approved by the pope35. Avignon and Western Schism Packet36. Protestant Packet &Here’s More From Rach Camps/Clark• The order that helped the poor; means “to beg”:Mendicants• Father of canon law:Gregory the VII• Selling of divine offices:Simony• Ended lay investiture problem that plagued the church:Concordat of Worms• Collapse of this empire made feudalism more popular:Carolingian• Document that tried to get revenues from the church, Thomas Becket opposed it:Clermont Constitutions• Refused to hear confessions of Henry the IV:Gregory the VII• Political office of Thomas Becket:Chancelor of England• Appointing family members to positions:Nepotism
Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /Pipitone• Gregory the second said the powers from God rest in him in what document:DidactusPapae• Pope that tried to force kings to follow him:Boniface• At the council of Constance, the anti-pope forced to resign and the new real pope that was elected is:Martin the V• Antipopes:John the XXIII Alexander V and Benedict XIII• St. Catherine of Sienna encouraged these two Popes to go back to Rome:Gregory the XI and Urban VI• Pope that tried to work out peace with France:Benedict XI• Captured and beaten; died three days later:Boniface• Pope saw his papacy as the guard of Christendom:Innocent III• Religious order called “order of preachers”:Dominicans (OP)• Befriended salkin and converted him:St. Francis of Assisi• Catherine of Sienna:Dominican tertiaries• Archbishop of Bari, Italy; took name after angry mob:Urban VI• Reasons why Crusades failed:leaders obsessed with fame, defensive military campaigns• Exhumed body of dead pope and put him on trial:Pope Stephen VI• Inquisition:result of Albigensians• Studied and was a chairman of a university:Thomas Aquinas• Minister and general for Franciscans for 16 yrs:St. Boniventure• Answered directly to pope; one order:Cistercians• Religious order founded holy sites; took three vows:military orders• People received stigmata:Catherine of Sienna, and Francis of Assisi• Purpose of Spanish Inquisition:reunited Spain under one Christian religion• Group stormed and demanded a pope of their nationalityItaly• Satire novel written by DanteDante’s Inferno (divine Comedy)• Council called to end western schismCouncil of Constance• What town did Francis of Assisi call a wolf to stop attackingGubbioSt. Catherine of Siena had to work out peace deals in- FlorencePope returned to Rome after a long period of time in France
Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /Pipitone- Gregory XIPhilosophy in which man seeks out pleasure over all else-Hedinism2 types of Indulgences-Partial and PlenaryPerson who was picked as an anti-Pope by Pisa-Alexander VEarly heretic of Protestants-John WycliffCouncil that settled the Western Schism-ConstanceWhat council formally excommunicated Martin Luther?-Constance1st person to advocate predestination-John WycliffHalf the land in this empire was owned by the Church-BohemiaHuman achievements over God-humanismFocused on military instead of being Pope-Julius IISimony-Selling of Church officesNepotism-Family members elected to positionsBefore becoming an Augustinian monk, Luther was-a lawyerLuther was faculty at this university-WittenburghDecree that ended LayVestiture program-Concordat of WormsCollapse of this empire left unfavorable conditions for feudalism-CarolingianPractice of selling ecclesiastical offices/pardons-SimonyPerson know as father of Canon Law-St. Gregory VIIThought his vocation as empire was to revive Roman empire-Frederick IType of order known for helping poor, means “to beg”-MendicantsPolitical office of Thomas Becket-Chancellor of EnglandDegree set by Gregory VII-DidachePapaeThis person refused to hear confession of Henry IV-Gregory VIICouncil of Constance, French antipope lost support, this person elected as ultimate pope-Martin VSt. Catherine of Siena told these two pope’s to go back to Rome-Urban VI and Gregory XIThis Pope told Christian kingdoms to respect authority, papae pageantry-Boniface
Kristen Kummen3/20/12Theology 3 /PipitoneCaptured, slapped, held for 3 days-BonifaceResisted, found dead-Benedict XILed Church into Secular affairs-Innocent III“The order of preachers”-DominicansBefriended Sultan and converted him to true faith-St. Francis of AssisiArchbishop Barry-Urban VICouncil Pope’s authority is superior to Council’s-TrentExhumed body of previous pontiff, fingers chopped off of the body-Stephen VIInquisition began to-fight against AlbigensiansChairperson of Theology Dept-St. Thomas AquinasLimits to reason and logic, argued theres should be intuitive knowledge-Person was minister general of Franciscans, wrote biography of St. Francis of Asissi-St. BonaventureFrench movement, King Philip called to move against Boniface VIII-GallicanismHow many Crusades-8What year does Spanish Inquisition end?-1884Purpose for Crusades-protect holy lands, defensive warMartin Luther joined-AugustiniansLuther summoned to be at this meeting-Two valid sacraments to Luther-Eucharist and BaptismReligious group answered directly to Pope-ClooneyFounded order of Carthusians-BrunoPerson’s pontificate, desired to maintain balance throughout Europe-CatherineWrote the Sattire Novel-Dante, “Divine Comedy”Showed Aristotle’s thought was okay-St. Thomas Aquinas