Problem Statement- SEL development affects academic performance.- The learning environment affects students’ motivation in the classroom. (chosen) Hypothesis Creating a condusive learning environment positively influences the students’ motivation to learn effectively.
Theories we would like to implement Maslow’s hierarchy of needsBraun’s Ecological Marcia’s Self Concept Erikson’s Stage 4 and 5 Skinner’s Development
Identity Diffusion Marcia’sIdentity Foreclosure Identity Status Theory Identity Moratorium Identity Achievement
Identity ForeclosureConforms to parents expectations Commitments are being handed down under pressure Commitments are accepted without Does not do well in questions academics and peer relationships
Counseling sessionswith parents and child • mandatory • periodic
Erikson Development Stages… According to Erikson’s developmental stages, our lifespan will be divided into eight different stages. Ego identity is defined as “the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction.” (Cherry, 2011)
Stage 4: Industry versus InferiorityThe major question is “How can I be good?”According to Erikson’s theory, “children who are encouraged andcommended by parents and teachers develop a feeling ofcompetence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or noencouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt theirability to be successful”
Stage 5: Identity vs Confusion The major question is “Who Am I? “as they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, teens may begin to feel confused or insecure about themselves and how they fit in to society”
Bronfenbrenner in his Ecological Systems Theory proposed:• a child’s development exhibits the imprints of the various environmental systems in the child’s life (Ryan, 2001).• a child’s development or motivation to learn can be affected by changes and interactions of the environmental changes in his life.
The five environmental systems that he identifiedare namely:• Microsystem: immediate interactions with family, teachers, peers and others.• Mesosystem: interactions between the various microsystems. For example, relations between family and school or parent teacher interactions.• Exosystem: Experiences in environments which the child does not have an active role in influencing. For example, the political or judicial system of a country.• Macrosystem: Culture under which students and teachers live in.• Chronosystem: The time and era a child is born in. For example, internet age or war time etc.
• Change should start from his various microsystems• WHY?1. these are interactions that have a direct effect on Jeremy.2. Change can be initiated and controlled by the teacher.• For example,1. his teacher could find likeminded people for Jeremy to befriend, to improve his social circle.2. Groups could be predetermined so no one will be left out3. His teachers could be more encouraging and talk to him personally to work out his problems.4. His parents could be advised to spend more time with him and understand him better
B.F. Skinner• Advocates operant behavior and conditioning• Positive and Negative Reinforcements• Consistency and Immediacy
Targeted Situation (1)(Ms Low walked towards Jeremy as she shouted)Ms Low: (Standing in front of Jeremy, pointing a finger athim) “What is wrong with you? You don’t even know yourresponsibilities as a student, is it? Maybe you should goback to primary school!”(The rest of the class stared at Jeremy. He was deeplyembarrassed.)Ms Low: The rest of the class don’t give me any problems.You are the only one! I get complaints from every subjectteacher that you don’t pay attention in class! Why can’tyou be like others? Why?”
Applying this to Jeremy’s situation Using positive reinforcements Recognition/ acknowledgement 1. Encouragement 2. Praise/ Compliments 3. Rewards
Targeted Situation (2) Caleb: “Hey, you dumb or what? Can contribute or not?” Jeremy: “I think the answer for this is ‘nitrogen’.” Caleb: “How can it be? You stupid or what? This one has six blanks and ‘nitrogen’ is made up of eight letters lor!” (Mr Tan overheard the conversation and interjected) Mr Tan: “You might want to consider relooking at the properties of the gas.”
Applying this to Jeremy’s situationUsing negative reinforcementsTaking immediate action to rectifyundesirable behavior
Goals• To create a positive climate for conducive learning• Classroom management by establishing rules and consistently enforcing them
Situation #1• Jeremy does not have friends in school• Frequently taunted and openly laughed at by his fellow peers• Does not have anyone that he can turn to for help
Practical #1• The teacher should take immediate action in correcting and stopping the taunting• The teacher should attempt to help Jeremy find new friends• The teacher should meet Jeremy outside of the school curriculum time to find out more.
Situation #2• Jeremy appears to be struggling with his school work• He falls asleep frequently in class• The teacher is enraged and sends him out of the class while threatening to bring him to the discipline master
Practical #2• Public affirmation, private rebuke• Meet up sessions with Jeremy outside the normal school curriculum time to understand his life better• The teacher needs to develop a personal and unique way of teaching and relating to each and everyone of her students