Diarrhea

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  • Nini johanna claderon Tatiana chaves moncayo Patrick daniel marizansen
  • There are three clinical types of diarrhoea: Acute watery diarrhoea It lasts several hours or days; the stool is loose and watery without blood and includes cholera. Acute bloody diarrhoea It also lasts for hours or a few days, the stool contains blood in it and also called dysentery. Persistent diarrhoea This is prolonged diarrhoea and lasts 14 days or longer.
  • May or may not be otherwise unwell Symptoms can range from a mild stomach upset for a day or two with slight diarrhoea, to severe watery diarrhoea for several days or longer. Blood or mucus can appear in the stools with some infections. Crampy pains in the abdomen are common. Pains may ease each time some diarrhoea is passed. Vomiting, high temperature (fever), aching limbs and headache may also develop.
  • Most common complication of diarrhoea in children is dehydration which can be fatal if not taken into account on time. Bacterial bowel infection may rarely cause septicaemia, meningitis and osteomyelitis Very rarely, Infection may also lead to bowel perforation, intussusception, appendicitis or liver abscess. Continued… The degree of dehydration is rated on a scale of three: No dehydration No signs or symptoms of dehydration Moderate dehydration: Thirst Restless or irritable behaviour Decreased skin elasticity Sunken eyes Severe dehydration: Symptoms become more severe Shock, with diminished consciousness, lack of urine output, cool, moist extremities, a rapid and feeble pulse, low or undetectable blood pressure, and pale skin
  • Diarrhea

    1. 1. DIARRHEA Nini Johanna Calderon Tatiana Chaves Moncayo Patrick Daniel Marizansen
    2. 2. Diarrhea a Public Health Concern Diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world after pneumonia among children under five globally. Globally, there are about two billion cases of diarrheal disease every year. Nearly one in five child deaths, about 1.5 million each year, is due to diarrhea. Today only 39 per cent of children with diarrhea in developing countries receive the recommended treatment, and limited trend data suggest that there has been little progress since 2000. DIARRHEA A PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN
    3. 3. Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having 3 or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more stools than is normal for that person. Diarrhea is usually a symptom of an infection in the intestinal tract, which can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. People of all ages can get diarrhea, but it is more common in children below five years of age. WHAT IS DIARRHEA?
    4. 4. TYPES OF DIARRHEA Acute watery diarrhea. Acute bloody diarrhea. Persistent diarrhea.
    5. 5. CAUSES OF DIARRHEA
    6. 6.  Viral Infections Rota virus Norovirus (Adults) Adenovirus types 40 and 41 Astroviruses  Parasitic Infections Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica 1. Organisms involved…  Bacterial Infections Escherichia coli Salmonellae Shigellae Campylobacter Vibrio cholera Clostridium difficile
    7. 7. 2. Sources of infection…  Poor Personal Hygiene  Improper Sanitation Contaminated  Water and Food  Systemic Infections Urinary tract infection Pneumonia Otitis media Meningitis Septicaemia
    8. 8. 3. Non infectious…  Malabsorption Cystic fibrosis, Coeliac disease  Food Intolerance or Allergy Lactose Intolerance, Cow's milk Protein Allergy  Drug induced- Antibiotics  Inflammation Ulcerative colitis Crohn's disease  Surgical Conditions Appendicitis Intussusception Partial bowel obstruction  Other rare conditions Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome Pseudomembranous colitis Toddler diarrhoea
    9. 9. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
    10. 10. A mild stomach (slight diarrhea or severe watery diarrhea) Blood or mucus. Crampy pains in the abdomen. Vomiting High temperature Headache.
    11. 11.  Bacterial bowel infection COMPLICATIONS  Dehydration  Infections
    12. 12.  Rehydration  Feeding Zinc Supplements  Consulting a Health worker if there are signs of Dehydration TREATMENT
    13. 13. Keep your hands clean Boiling water Wash fruits and vegetables Refrigerate and cover food Eat well-cooked foods PREVENTION
    14. 14.  Treatment Package Fluid replacement to prevent dehydration Zinc treatment  Prevention Package Rotavirus and measles vaccination Promotion of early and exclusive breastfeeding and vitamin A supplementation Promotion of hand washing with soap Improved drinking water supply quantity and quality including treatment and safe storage of household water Community-wide sanitation promotion PLAN TO DIARRHEA CONTROL AND PREVENTION

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