The human brain by Tasvir A R Chowdhury


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  • Prepared by Tasvir A R Chowdhury
  • The human brain by Tasvir A R Chowdhury

    1. 1. The Human Master Watermark Image:
    2. 2. Part I:Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, and Cortical Regions of the Brain
    3. 3. Objectives:• Students will be able to describe the general structure of the Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex.• Students will be able to identify the Cerebrum, theLobes of the Brain, the Cerebral Cortex, and its majorregions/divisions.• Students will be able to describe the primary functionsof the Lobes and the Cortical Regions of the Brain.
    4. 4. Cerebrum -The largest division of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes. CerebrumCerebrum Cerebellum
    5. 5. Cerebral Cortex - The outermost layer ofgray matter making up the superficialaspect of the cerebrum. Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex
    6. 6. Cerebral Features:• Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.• Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri – Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe• Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing largeregions/lobes of the brain – Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres – Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum – Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes
    7. 7. Gyri (ridge) Sulci (groove )Fissure(deepgroove)
    8. 8. SpecificSulci/Fissures: Central Sulcus Longitudinal Fissure Sylvian/Latera l Fissure Transverse Fissure
    9. 9. Lobes of the Brain (4) • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal 8.tif.jpg* Note: Occasionally, the Insula is considered the fifth lobe. It islocated deep to the Temporal Lobe.
    10. 10. Lobes of the Brain - Frontal• The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull.• It plays an integral role in the followingfunctions/actions: - Memory Formation - Emotions - Decision Making/Reasoning - Personality Investigation (Phineas Gage) (Investigation: Phineas Gage) Modified from:
    11. 11. Frontal Lobe - Cortical Regions• Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus) – Cortical siteinvolved with controlling movements of the body.• Broca’s Area – Controls facial neurons, speech, andlanguage comprehension. Located on Left Frontal Lobe.– Broca’s Aphasia – Results in the ability to comprehendspeech, but the decreased motor ability (or inability) to speakand form words.• Orbitofrontal Cortex – Site of Frontal Lobotomies * Desired Effects: * Possible Side Effects: - Diminished Rage - Epilepsy - Decreased - Poor Emotional Responses Aggression - Perseveration (Uncontrolled, - Poor Emotional repetitive actions, gestures, or Responses words)• Olfactory Bulb - Cranial Nerve I, Responsible for sensation ofSmell
    12. 12. Investigation (Phineas Gage) Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory Bulb RegionsModified from:
    13. 13. Lobes of the Brain - Parietal Lobe• The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull.• It plays a major role in the followingfunctions/actions: - Senses and integrates sensation(s) - Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception - Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other) Modified from:
    14. 14. Parietal Lobe - Cortical Regions• Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information.• Somatosensory Association Cortex - Assistswith the integration and interpretation ofsensations relative to body position and orientationin space. May assist with visuo-motor coordination.• Primary Gustatory Cortex – Primary siteinvolved with the interpretation of the sensation ofTaste.
    15. 15. PrimarySomatosensoryCortex/PostcentralGyrusSomatosensoryAssociation CortexPrimaryGustatoryCortex Modified from: Regions
    16. 16. Lobes of the Brain – Occipital Lobe• The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull.• Its primary function is theprocessing, integration,interpretation, etc. of VISIONand visual stimuli. Modified from: 8.tif.jpg
    17. 17. Occipital Lobe – Cortical Regions• Primary Visual Cortex – This is the primary area of the brain responsible for sight -recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc.• Visual Association Area – Interpretsinformation acquired through the primaryvisual cortex.
    18. 18. PrimaryVisual CortexVisualAssociationArea Modified from: Regions
    19. 19. Lobes of the Brain – Temporal Lobe• The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull. • They play an integral role in the following functions: - Hearing - Organization/Comprehensio n of language - Information Retrieval (Memory and Memory Formation) Modified from: 8.tif.jpg
    20. 20. Temporal Lobe – Cortical• Regions Primary Auditory Cortex – Responsible for hearing• Primary Olfactory Cortex – Interprets thesense of smell once it reaches the cortex via theolfactory bulbs. (Not visible on the superficial cortex)• Wernicke’s Area – Language comprehension.Located on the Left Temporal Lobe. - Wernicke’s Aphasia – Languagecomprehension is inhibited. Words and sentences arenot clearly understood, and sentence formation maybe inhibited or non-sensical.
    21. 21. PrimaryAuditoryCortexWernike’s AreaPrimaryOlfactory Cortex(Deep)Conducted from OlfactoryBulb Modified from: Regions
    22. 22. • Arcuate Fasciculus - A white matter tract that connects Broca’sArea and Wernicke’s Area through the Temporal, Parietal and FrontalLobes. Allows for coordinated, comprehensible speech. Damagemay result in:- Conduction Aphasia - Where auditory comprehension and speecharticulation are preserved, but people find it difficult to repeat heardspeech. Modified from: 8.tif.jpg
    23. 23. Click the Region to see itsNameKorbinian Broadmann - Learn about the man who divided the Cerebral Cortex into 52 distinct regions: Modified from:
    24. 24. Lobes and Structures of the A. Brain G. B. F.C. E. D.
    25. 25. Lobes and Structures of the BrainA. Central SulcusB. Frontal LobeC. Sylvian/LateralFissure A. (groove) G.D. Temporal Lobe B.E. Transverse F.FissureF. Occipital LobeG. Parietal Lobe C. (groove) D. E. (groove)
    26. 26. A. K.Cortical J.Regions B. I. H. G.C. D. E. F.
    27. 27. A. Primary Motor Cortex/ Precentral GyrusB. Broca’s AreaC. Orbitofrontal Cortex CorticalD. Primary Olfactory Cortex (Deep) RegionsE. Primary Auditory Cortex K. A. J.F. Wernike’s AreaG. Primary Visual Cortex I.H. Visual B. H.Association AreaI. Primary Gustatory Cortex G.J. Somatosensory C.Association CortexK. Primary D.Somatosensory Cortex/ E. F.Postcentral Gyrus
    28. 28. Copyright: Gary LarsonQ: Assuming this comical situation was factuallyaccurate, what Cortical Region of the brain wouldthese doctors be stimulating?
    29. 29. A: Primary Motor Cortex* This graphic representation of the regions of the Primary Motor Cortexand Primary Sensory Cortex is one example of a HOMUNCULUS: Homunculus
    30. 30. * Note: Homunculus literally means “little person,” and may refer to one whose body shapeis governed by the cortical area devoted to that body region.Q: What do you notice about the proportions depicted in the aforementioned A: They are not depicted in the same scale homunculus? representative of the human body.Q: What is meant by depicting these bodyparts in such outrageous proportions? A: These outrageous proportions depict the cortical area devoted to each structure. - Ex: Your hands require many intricate movements and sensations to function properly. This requires a great deal of cortical surface area to control these detailed actions. Your back is quite the opposite, requiring limited cortical area to carry out its actions Back-Hom.
    31. 31. Further InvestigationPhineas Gage: Phineas Gage was a railroad worker in the 19th centuryliving in Cavendish, Vermont. One of his jobs was to set off explosive chargesin large rock in order to break them into smaller pieces. On one of theseinstances, the detonation occurred prior to his expectations, resulting in a 42inch long, 1.2 inch wide, metal rod to be blown right up through his skull andout the top. The rod entered his skull below his left cheek bone and exitedafter passing through the anterior frontal lobe of his brain. Frontal
    32. 32. Remarkably, Gage never lost consciousness, or quickly regained it (there is still some debate), suffered little to no pain, and was awake and alert when he reached a doctor approximately 45 minutes later. He had a normal pulse and normal vision, and following a short period of rest, returned to work several days later. However, he was not unaffected by this accident. more about Phineas Gage: Frontal
    33. 33. Q: Recalling what you have just learned regarding the frontal lobe,what possible problems or abnormalities may Gage have presentedwith subsequent to this type of injury (remember the precise location ofthe rod through his brain)?A: Gage’s personality, reasoning, and capacity to understand andfollow social norms had been diminished or destroyed. He illustratedlittle to no interest in hobbies or other involvements that at one timehe cared for greatly. ‘After the accident, Gage became a nasty, vulgar,irresponsible vagrant. His former employer, who regarded him as "themost efficient and capable foreman in their employ previous to hisinjury," refused to rehire him because he was so different.’Q: It is suggested that Gage’s injury inspired the development of whatat one time was a widely used medical procedure. What might thisprocedure be, and how does it relate to Gage’s injury?A: The frontal lobotomy. This has been used with the intention todiminish aggression and rage in mental patients, but generally resultsin drastic personality changes, and an inability to relate socially. Thisprocedure is largely frowned upon today, with the development ofneurological drugs as treatments. Frontal
    34. 34. ResourcesImages:•••• viaTWD.gif•• Larson, Gary. The Far Side.Phineas Gage:•••• http://science- 1.html
    35. 35. Suggested Supplementary Materials:1. Skeleton Outline for note-taking.2. Multiple Diagrams of the Human Brain. * Students will label features/lobes * Students will color-code cortical regions3. Worksheets (matching, short answer, etc.), centered around the functions of the lobes and regions of the cerebrum.4. A more in depth article on Phineas Gage. Read and discuss as a class - time permitting.Suggested Assessments:1. Class/individual questioning throughout (especially at the conclusion of) the presentation.2. Homework worksheets - discussed or collected in class.3. Students will take a test on the nervous system in which they will be responsible for the structures, lobes, regions, functions, etc.
    36. 36. Massachusetts State Biology StandardsBroad Concept: There is a relationship between structureand function in organ systems of humans. 4.1 Explain how major organ systems in humans (e.g., kidney, muscle, lung) have functional units (e.g., nephron, sarcome, alveoli) with specific anatomy that perform the function of that organ system. 4.2 Describe how the function of individual systems within humans are integrated to maintain a homeostatic balance in the body.* Note: This PowerPoint has been developed for Juniorsand Seniors enrolled in Anatomy and Physiology Courses.Thus, the detail of the concepts and information containedherein is far greater than required by the state Biologystandards listed above.
    37. 37. National Standards:THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS:• Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them.• Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organisms own species and others, as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be innate or learned. The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Animals often live in unpredictable environments, and so their behavior must be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty and change. Plants also respond to stimuli.• Like other aspects of an organisms biology, behaviors have evolved through natural selection. Behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles.• Behavioral biology has implications for humans, as it provides links to psychology, sociology, and anthropology.