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Spartacus and the slave war
 

Spartacus and the slave war

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Guerras entre Roma y Espartaco

Guerras entre Roma y Espartaco

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    Spartacus and the slave war Spartacus and the slave war Document Transcript

    • SPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against Rome
    • ABOUT THE AUTHOR AND ILLUSTRATORD R N I C FIELDS started his career as a biochemist before joining the RoyalMarines. Having left the military, he went back to university and completed aBA and PhD in Ancient History at the University of Newcastle. He was AssistantDirector at the British School at Athens, Greece, and then a lecturer in AncientHistory at the University of Edinburgh. Nic is now a freelance author andresearcher based in south-west France.STEVE N O O N was born in Kent, UK, and attended art college in Cornwall.He has had a life-long passion for illustration, and since 1985 has workedas a professional artist. Steve has provided award-winning illustrations forrenowned publishers Dorling Kindersley, where his interest in historicalillustration began.
    • CAMPAIGN • 206SPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against Rome
    • First published in 2009 by Osprey Publishing ARTISTS N O T EMidland House, West Way, Botley, Oxford 0X2 OPH, UK443 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016, USA Readers may care to note that the original paintings from which theE-mail: info@ospreypublishing.com colour plates in this book were prepared are available for private sale. The Publishers retain all reproduction copyright whatsoever. All enquiries should be addressed to:© 2009 Osprey Publishing Limited Steve Noon, 50 Colchester Avenue, Penylan, Cardiff CF23 9BP, UK The Publishers regret that they can enter into no correspondence uponAll rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private this matter.study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form THE WOODLAND TRUSTor by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical, Osprey Publishing are supporting the Woodland Trust, the UKs leadingphotocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission woodland conservation charity, by funding the dedication of trees.of the copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to the Publishers.ISBN: 978 1 84603 353 7e-book ISBN: 978 1 84908 081 1Editorial by Ilios Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK (www.iliospublishing.com)Design: The Black SpotIndex by Fineline Editorial ServicesOriginated by PPS Grasmere LtdCartography: Bounford.comBirds-eye view artworks: The Black Spot09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. FOR A CATALOGUE OF ALL BOOKS PUBLISHED BY OSPREY MILITARY AND AVIATION PLEASE CONTACT: Osprey Direct, c/o Random House Distribution Center, 400 Hahn Road, Westminster, MD 21157 Email: uscustomerservice@ospreypublishing.com Osprey Direct, The Book Service Ltd, Distribution Centre, Colchester Road, Frating Green, Colchester, Essex, C07 7DW E-mail: customerservice@ospreypublishing.com www.ospreypublishing.com
    • CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 5The origins of the revolt . The First Slave War (135-132 BC) . The Second Slave War (104-100 BC)CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR EVENTS 146-60 B C 11ROMAN SOCIAL ORDER 14The slave system . Piracy and the slave trade - Gladiators - men of the sword . Oscan speakersOPPOSING COMMANDERS 27Spartacus the Thracian . Marcus Licinius CrassusOPPOSING ARMIES 34The slave army . The Roman armyOPPOSING PLANS 47The Spartacan plan . The Roman planTHE CAMPAIGN 52Defeat of the praetorian armies, 73 BC - Defeat of the consular armies, 72 BCThe war with Crassus, 71 BC - The trap closes: River Silarus, 71 BCAFTERMATH 79Crucifixion . The return to orderTHE LEGACY OF SPARTACUS 83A GUIDE TO PRIMARY SOURCES 88Appian (b. AD 95) . Plutarch (c. AD 46-120) . Sallust (86-c. 35 BC)BIBLIOGRAPHY 93GLOSSARY A N D ABBREVIATIONS 94INDEX 95
    • INTRODUCTION T h e year 7 3 BC, the 6 7 9 t h f r o m the f o u n d i n g o f R o m e , w i t n e s s e d the o u t b r e a k of a serious u p h e a v a l in Italy itself, a slave-societys w o r s t n i g h t m a r e c o m e true. T h i s w a s the g r e a t s l a v e u p r i s i n g led b y a c h a r i s m a t i c g l a d i a t o r n a m e d S p a r t a c u s . F o r the m o d e r n r e a d e r his n a m e is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h justified rebellion, the u n d e r d o g d a r i n g t o fight b a c k . N o t o n l y w a s he the p o s s e s s o r in T o m Wolfes p h r a s e of the right s t u f f for a H o l l y w o o d e p i c , S p a r t a c u s a l s oRocca di Cerere (left) and b e c a m e a n i m p o r t a n t l e i t m o t i f t o typify the m o d e r n w a g e - s l a v e w h o r e b e l sCastello di Lombardia (right),looking south-east outside the a g a i n s t e c o n o m i c e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d s o c i a l inequality. M o s t n o t e w o r t h y in thisEurospin supermarket, Enna. respect is the r a d i c a l g r o u p o f G e r m a n Socialists f o u n d e d in M a r c h 1 9 1 6 byCicero describes Enna as a R o s a L u x e m b u r g a n d K a r l L i e b k n e c h t , the Spartakusbund (Spartacus League),town built on a lofty eminence, w h o l i n k e d the S p a r t a c u s l e g e n d t o p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the G r e a t W a r a n d thethe top of which is a table-land,watered by perennial springs, c u r r e n t e c o n o m i c order. Similarly, in m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s , the b a l a c l a v a - c l a dand bound in every direction Subcomandante M a r c o s , w h o d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f a s the i n t e r n a t i o n a lby precipitous cliffs {Verrines s p o k e s p e r s o n for the i n d i g e n o u s rebel m o v e m e n t in C h i a p a s , s o u t h e r n M e x i c o ,2.4.107). Besieged by Roman has used Spartacus, alongside Ernesto C h e G u e v a r a , as a revolutionary iconforces, Enna remainedimpregnable and only fell for the p o p u l a r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t p o l i t i c a l , j u d i c i a l , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i cthrough betrayal from within. i n e q u a l i t i e s , the f o u r h o r s e m e n o f a n e n t r e n c h e d s t a t u s q u o , w h a t e v e r t h a t(Fields-Carre Collection) status q u o m a y be.
    • Enna, a general view west- E x a m p l e s c o u l d b e m u l t i p l i e d o f S p a r t a c u s a s s u m i n g a different s h a p esouth-west from Rocca di a c c o r d i n g t o the v i e w p o i n t o f the o b s e r v e r : a s i n d i v i d u a l h e r o , a s leader of aCerere. At the time of the First s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e b e l l i o n , a s p o t e n t i a l d e s t r o y e r o f R o m e a n d , ofSlave War, the town was theagricultural centre of one of the c o u r s e , a s i n s p i r a t i o n for future c l a s s s t r u g g l e . A s it h a p p e n s , w e all h a v e o u rrichest grain-producing plains o w n p a r t i c u l a r v i s i o n o f S p a r t a c u s , b e it f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f p o l i t i c a lof Sicily and also an important c o m m i t m e n t o r a n t i q u a r i a n interest. A c c o r d i n g t o P l u t a r c h , himself a G r e e kcult centre of Demeter (Ceres), a n d one of our three m a i n sources, S p a r t a c u s w a s much m o r e than onethe goddess of the earth,agriculture and grain. Like the w o u l d e x p e c t f r o m his c o n d i t i o n , m o s t intelligent a n d c u l t u r e d , b e i n g m o r eSyrian Atargatis, Demeter was like a G r e e k t h a n a T h r a c i a n (Crassus 8.2). T h e c o m m e n t implies that to aa manifestation of the Great G r e e k intellect l i v i n g u n d e r t h e s u p e r p o w e r o f R o m e , S p a r t a c u s c o u l d beMother. (Fields-Carre c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e o v e r c o m e the n a t u r a l inferiority p r o d u c e d by the t w i nCollection) h a n d i c a p s o f f o r e i g n n e s s a n d servile s t a t u s b y sheer f o r c e o f p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e historical S p a r t a c u s w a s r o u g h a n d heroic, a big, brave and great- h e a r t e d m a n , a n d his r e p o r t e d a c t i o n s b e a r o u t his ability t o l e a d others a n d his ingenuity in battle. B u t like s u c h a h e r o , v i e w s o n his s h o r t career a s a slave g e n e r a l o s c i l l a t e b e t w e e n the i m p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f fiction t o the p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f f a c t . S p a r t a c u s , a s M a r x f a m o u s l y w r o t e in a letter t o E n g e l s d a t e d 2 7 F e b r u a r y 1 8 6 1 , a p p e a r s t o b e the m o s t c a p i t a l fellow t h a t all of ancient h i s t o r y c a n s h o w for i t s e l f ( Correspondence 1846-95, 1 9 3 4 , p. 126). For m a n y , this will p e r h a p s s e e m like a n e x t r e m e view. T h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y rebel C h e G u e v a r a w a s a l s o a s t r o n g a d m i r e r of S p a r t a c u s . T h e H e r o i c Guerrillero r e m a i n s a w e l l - k n o w n f i g u r e , w h e t h e r a d o r e d or reviled, t o millions a r o u n d the m o d e r n w o r l d . A s a real m a n , n o t a u n i v e r s a l i c o n , he killed for a c a u s e , o r d e r e d p e o p l e t o kill for t h a t c a u s e , a d v o c a t e d w a r t o the d e a t h a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s m , a n d m a d e the u l t i m a t e sacrifice for his beliefs. D e a d m e n m a y tell n o t a l e s , b u t they c a n m a k e a l e g e n d . In the ancient w o r l d S p a r t a c u s w a s a real s l a v e w h o r e b e l l e d , b u t w h o u l t i m a t e l y did n o t w i n . Yet for all this, his c o n t i n u e d a p p e a r a n c e o n the battlefield s o a l a r m e d R o m e t h a t it m o b i l i z e d a6
    • punitive force e q u a l t o t h a t w i t h w h i c h C a e s a r w a s later t o c o n q u e r G a u l t o Temple of Demeter (Tempiohunt h i m d o w n a n d kill h i m . di Cerere), looking north-east from Torre Pisana, Castello di Lombardia. It was here that Eunus and his followers fromTHE ORIGINS OF THE REVOLT the eastern Mediterranean worshipped the Great Mother in her local form as Demeter.T h e r e b e l l i o n o f s l a v e s in I t a l y u n d e r S p a r t a c u s m a y h a v e b e e n the b e s t Also it was from here, accordingo r g a n i z e d , b u t it w a s n o t the first o f its k i n d . T h e r e h a d b e e n o t h e r r e b e l l i o n s to Cicero (Verrines 2.4.112), thatof s l a v e s t h a t afflicted R o m e , a n d w e m a y a s s u m e t h a t S p a r t a c u s w a s w i s e Verres, the infamous Romane n o u g h t o p r o f i t by their m i s t a k e s . All the s a m e , t h o u g h his r e b e l l i o n is easily governor of Sicily, dared to take away her cult statue.the m o s t f a m o u s , it is i m p o r t a n t for u s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t s t e a l i n g , p e t t y (Fields-Carre Collection)s a b o t a g e , or s i m p l y r u n n i n g a w a y , w e r e the m o r e u s u a l m o d e s o f r e s i s t a n c ee m p l o y e d by s l a v e s . F u l l - b l o w n w a r s w e r e highly u n u s u a l . N e i g h b o u r i n g Sicily, a l a n d o f v a r i o u s p e o p l e s , b u t chiefly G r e e k s , h a db e c o m e R o m e s first o v e r s e a s p r o v i n c e in the w a k e o f the first l o n g s t r u g g l ea g a i n s t C a r t h a g e (First P u n i c War, 2 6 4 - 2 4 1 BC). B u t the s u b s e q u e n t r e v i v a lof C a r t h a g e t h a t led t o the s e c o n d s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t R o m e ( S e c o n d P u n i c War,2 1 8 - 2 0 1 BC) b r o u g h t a l o g i c a l C a r t h a g i n i a n a m b i t i o n t o r e c o v e r its f o r m e rinterests in Sicily a n d R o m e in effect w a s f o r c e d t o c o n q u e r the i s l a n d a n e w .It w a s Sicilys e n o r m o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o s p e r i t y , e a r n i n g it by C i c e r o s d a y then i c k n a m e R o m e s g r a n a r y (Verrines 2 . 2 . 5 ) , t h a t w a s t o p r o v e the p r o v i n c e sgreatest material asset to plundering R o m e . Slavery of c o u r s e w a s n o t n e w to Sicily, b u t after the R o m a n r e c o n q u e s t thescale of slave o w n i n g o n the i s l a n d h a d i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y , a p h e n o m e n o nD i o d o r o s , a Sicilian himself, m a k e s clear in his r e m a r k s ( 3 5 . 2 . 1 - 2 , 2 7 , 3 4 ) o nthe c o n d i t i o n of the p r o v i n c e just p r i o r t o the first g r e a t s l a v e rebellion - theFirst Slave War. 7
    • LEFTBronze statue of Eunus,Castello di Lombardia -Scuola Regionale dArteEnna (1960). Eunus, theprincipal figure of the FirstSlave War, was a domesticslave who belonged to acertain Antigenes of Enna.The rebel slaves of Enna MARCO TULLIO CICERONEdeclared Eunus their king, D I F E N S O R E DI ENNA E D E L I . A SICILIAwho then took a diadem C 0 N T R 0 IL DEPREDATORE DI T E M P I !and regal dress, called his CA10 I J C I N I O V E R R Efemale companion queen, C 0 V E R N A T O R E ROMANO D E L L I S O L Aand conferred on himselfthe Seleucid dynastic nameof Antiochos.(Fields-Carre Collection) OUESTO R1C0RD0RIGHTVia Roma 528, the site ofCiceros residence in Enna.This commemorative plaque makes mentionof his prosecution of Verres,the former governor of Sicily.It is significant that early inhis life Cicero had discoveredthe profound differencebetween justice and morality.Justice was the tool of the THE FIRST SLAVE WAR (135-132 B C )strong, morality the illusionof the weak. Thus, for him, D i o d o r o s w r i t e s ( 3 5 . 2 . 4 , 1 0 ) t h a t t h e s l a v e s , w h o h a d their o r i g i n s in theslavery was just.(Fields-Carre Collection) e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , m o t i v a t e d b y their m i s e r a b l e living c o n d i t i o n s a n d the b r u t a l i t y w i t h w h i c h there w e r e t r e a t e d , h a d d i s c u s s e d rebellion before the v i o l e n c e a c t u a l l y e r u p t e d . C o n v e n i e n t l y w e c a n d i v i d e it i n t o t w o t h e a t r e s of o p e r a t i o n , w e s t e r n a n d e a s t e r n , w h i c h reflect the b a s i c g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n o f the i s l a n d . O n e R o m a n q u a e s t o r w a s in c h a r g e of the w e s t e r n p a r t of the island, stationed at L i l y b a e u m , a n d another w a s stationed at Syracuse, on the e a s t c o a s t . S l a v e h e r d s m e n d o m i n a t e d the w e s t e r n r e g i o n a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l s l a v e s d o m i n a t e d the g r a i n - p r o d u c i n g p l a i n s o f the e a s t . T h e s l a v e s in the t w o h a l v e s of the i s l a n d a p p e a r t o h a v e risen u p separately - t h o s e in the e a s t u n d e r a s l a v e n a m e d E u n u s , by birth a S y r i a n f r o m A p a m e a , a n d t h o s e in the w e s t u n d e r a h e r d e r of h o r s e s n a m e d K l e o n , a Cilician f r o m the T a u r u s M o u n t a i n s . E u n u s w a s a m a g i c i a n a n d w o n d e r w o r k e r with a deep d e v o t i o n t o the S y r i a n m o t h e r g o d d e s s A t a r g a t i s ( A s t a r t e ) , while K l e o n h a d b e e n a c c u s t o m e d t o a life o f b a n d i t r y f r o m the t i m e he w a s a s m a l l c h i l d ( D i o d o r o s 3 5 . 2 . 5 , 3 . 2 ) . It w a s h o p e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t the t w o g r o u p s of rebels w o u l d c o m e into conflict a n d tear e a c h other t o p i e c e s . C o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , however, the rebellion g a t h e r e d m o m e n t u m w h e n K l e o n a c k n o w l e d g e d the s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t y o f E u n u s , a c t i n g a s g e n e r a l t o his k i n g , a n d their f o l l o w e r s c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a single c o h e r e n t f o r c e . T h e r a p i d e s c a l a t i o n o f their s t r e n g t h s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n a b e t t e d by the s l a v e o w n e r s t h e m s e l v e s , w h o h a d e n c o u r a g e d violent b e h a v i o u r by a l l o w i n g their s l a v e h e r d s m e n t o feed a n d c l o t h e t h e m s e l v e s by s t e a l i n g w h a t they n e e d e d f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e o n the i s l a n d . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s p o n s e of the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w a s l e t h a r g i c , a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e they g r e a t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the s l a v e s ability t o o r g a n i z e a large-scale military c a m p a i g n . M o r e o v e r , with m o r e8
    • d e m a n d i n g o v e r s e a s c o m m i t m e n t s elsewhere, agarrison army w a s not permanently stationedo n the island. In t e r m s o f m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s t h e m o s ti m p o r t a n t officials w e r e t w o c o n s u l s of R o m e ,a n d , b e n e a t h t h e m , the s i x p r a e t o r s . T h e s echief m a g i s t r a t e s w e r e u s u a l l y p u t in c h a r g e o fR o m a n armies that battled formidable foreignenemies. Repressing rebellious slaves w a scertainly c o n s i d e r e d b e n e a t h the d i g n i t y o fthese m e n a n d n o t w o r t h y o f the talents o f thel e g i o n a r i e s they c o m m a n d e d . S u c h a s o r d i dt a s k w a s n o r m a l l y left to the slave o w n e r s or t olocal m i l i t i a s , w h i c h w e r e often v e n a l , w e a k ,a n d p r o v i s i o n a l . A s the p e r m a n e n t g o v e r n i n gb o d y of R o m e , the S e n a t e did h a v e a l o n g - t e r mperspective o n events, b u t it h a d t o be m o v e dby the r e c o g n i t i o n o f a m a n i f e s t t h r e a t o fm a j o r p r o p o r t i o n s for it t o direct the c o n s u l s orthe p r a e t o r s t o u s e R o m a n l e g i o n s t o d e a l w i t ha slave rebellion. R o m a n provincial governors, such as thosew h o a d m i n i s t e r e d Sicily, w e r e n o r m a l l y f o r m e rp r a e t o r s w h o u s u a l l y h e l d their p r o v i n c i a lc o m m a n d s for o n e - y e a r t e r m s . B e c a u s e they w e r e t e m p o r a r y a n d they w e r e During the First Slave War,severely u n d e r s t a f f e d by m o d e r n s t a n d a r d s , these g o v e r n o r s w e r e d e p e n d e n t Kleon, having risen in rebellion on the western, more pastoral,o n the g r e a t a n d the g o o d t h a t r a n l o c a l t o w n s a n d cities t o help a d m i n i s t e r side of Sicily, immediatelytheir p r o v i n c e s . T h e s e local l a n d o w n i n g elites often g a v e their o w n interests overran Agrigentump r i o r i t y o v e r the rule o f l a w a n d o r d e r t h a t w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e e n f o r c e d (Agrigento), whose walls hadby the g o v e r n o r s . T h e R o m a n g o v e r n o r s o f Sicily, a s D i o d o r o s e x p l a i n s , probably fallen into disrepair, and the neighbouring regiontried t o p r e v e n t the g r o w t h of these g a n g s , b u t they d i d n o t d a r e t o p u n i s h with a force said by Diodorost h e m b e c a u s e o f the p o w e r a n d influence o f the l a n d o w n e r s w h o w e r e the (35.2.17) to have numberedb r i g a n d s slave m a s t e r s ( 3 5 . 2 . 2 ) . 5,000. Most of his followers G i v e n the f a i l u r e o f the l o c a l f o r c e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e s l a v e r e b e l l i o n in were slave herdsmen, pastores. View of the south circuit ofSicily, the S e n a t e finally d e c i d e d t o d i s p a t c h R o m a n a r m y u n i t s t o the i s l a n d , the city, looking west fromfirst u n d e r the p r a e t o r L u c i u s H y p s a e u s a n d t h e n u n d e r t w o s u c c e s s i v e the temple of Hera.c o n s u l s , L u c i u s C a l p u r n i u s P i s o ( cos. 1 3 3 BC) a n d P u b l i u s R u p i l i u s P e r p e r n a (Fields-Carre Collection)( c o s . 1 3 2 B C ) . A s a result, the w a r w a s finally b r o u g h t t o a n e n d .THE SECOND SLAVE WAR (104-100 B C )T o a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent, the s e c o n d g r e a t s l a v e rebellion, w h i c h a g a i n e r u p t e do n Sicily, w a s a l m o s t a c a r b o n c o p y of the first. O u t l a w r y o u t s i d e the cities a n dt o w n s c o n t i n u e d l a r g e l y u n a l t e r e d , n o t l e a s t b e c a u s e o f the t r a d i t i o n a la s s o c i a t i o n of b r i g a n d a g e w i t h p a s t o r a l i s m . R e s i s t a n c e in the e a s t e r n p a r t o fthe i s l a n d w a s led by S a l v i u s , w h o h a d the gift o f p r o p h e c y , a n d in the w e s tw a s o r g a n i z e d by A t h e n i o n , a C i l i c i a n f a m o u s for his bravery. A t h e n i o n w a sn o t only the overseer of a l a r g e f a r m i n g o p e r a t i o n b u t , like S a l v i u s , he w a sa l s o r e p u t e d t o p o s s e s s s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s , i n c l u d i n g the a b i l i t y t o utterp r o p h e c i e s b a s e d o n his a s t r o l o g i c a l skills ( D i o d o r o s 3 6 . 5 . 1 ) . H e w a s certainlyn o t the ideal bailiff, c a l l e d the vilicus, e n v i s i o n e d b y C a t o the Elder, w h o 9
    • Lilybaeum (Marsala) started r e c o m m e n d e d a m o n g his d u t i e s t h a t he s h o u l d h a v e n o d e s i r e t o c o n s u l tlife as a Punic city, but at its d i v i n e r s , a u g u r s , fortune-tellers or a s t r o l o g e r s (On Agriculture 5 . 4 ) , a rulingzenith it was a Roman naval C o l u m e l l a later r e p e a t s in his a g r i c u l t u r a l t r e a t i s e , a d d i n g t h a t these types ofbase and the seat of thequaestor in charge of the silly s u p e r s t i t i o n c a u s e u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d p e o p l e t o s p e n d m o n e y a n d result inwestern part of Sicily. w r o n g d o i n g (On Agriculture 1 . 8 . 6 ) . O f c o u r s e b o t h he a n d Salvius h a d theCicero would call it civitas capacity, in v i e w of their ability t o c a s t spells over their f o l l o w e r s , t o e n c o u r a g esplendidissima. During the the k i n d o f r e s i s t a n c e t o a u t h o r i t y all s l a v e o w n e r s f e a r e d .Second Slave War, the rebelsunder Athenion felt strong B u t there w a s m o r e t o l e a d i n g a r e b e l l i o n t h a n the a l l u r e of m y s t i c i s m .enough to lay siege to S a l v i u s , like E u n u s b e f o r e h i m , w a s d e c l a r e d k i n g by his f o l l o w e r s , a n d heLilybaeum. This is a view a s s u m e d the r o y a l n a m e o f T r y p h o n . Intriguingly, the o r i g i n a l T r y p h o n h a dof Marsala looking south- b e e n a b a r b a r o u s , f r e e - b o o t i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r of violence f r o m Cilicia, a p l a c ewest from Isola di Mozia. w h i c h b e c a m e f a m o u s for its p i r a t e s , w h o u s u r p e d the S e l e u c i d t h r o n e(Fields-Carre Collection) (r. 1 4 2 - 1 3 9 / 8 BC). M e a n w h i l e in the w e s t a n o t h e r slave k i n g w a s p r o c l a i m e d , A t h e n i o n a d o p t i n g all the e x t e r n a l t r a p p i n g s of m o n a r c h y , a p u r p l e r o b e , silver s c e p t r e , a n d a r o y a l d i a d e m , a n d p r o c l a i m i n g t o his f o l l o w e r s t h a t the g o d s i n t e n d e d h i m t o rule all Sicily ( D i o d o r o s 3 6 . 4 . 4 , 7 . 1 , F l o r u s Epitome 3 . 1 9 . 1 0 ) . S o the slave k i n g s c o n s c i o u s l y i m i t a t e d the c o n v e n t i o n s of Hellenistic k i n g s h i p , the i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t h a d d o m i n a t e d the p o l i t i c a l m e n t a l i t y o f the e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n w o r l d since the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the A n t i g o n i d , Seleucid, a n d P t o l e m a i c d y n a s t i e s . N o n e of this s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d u n u s u a l w h e n w e recall the fact t h a t m a n y o f the rebels w e r e first-generation s l a v e s w h o s e p l a c e s of birth w e r e in the e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n . D e s p i t e t h e l e s s o n s o f t h e first w a r , the r e s p o n s e by the S e n a t e w a s s i m i l a r l y s l o w . Its i n a d e q u a t e r e a c t i o n , d u e in p a r t t o the n e e d for R o m a n f o r c e s t o f a c e G e r m a n i c t r i b e s t h r e a t e n i n g n o r t h e r n Italy, a l l o w e d the slaves t o a c q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e m o m e n t u m in the c r u c i a l early s t a g e s o f the rebellion a n d then t o c o a l e s c e in n u m b e r s t h a t o v e r w h e l m e d the l o c a l f o r c e s trying to s u b d u e t h e m . O n c e a g a i n , the t w o rebel l e a d e r s c a m e t o a n a g r e e m e n t a n d j o i n e d f o r c e s , w i t h A t h e n i o n d e f e r r i n g t o S a l v i u s , a n d o n c e a g a i n , only the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the larger, b e t t e r - t r a i n e d a n d d i s c i p l i n e d c o n s u l a r f o r c e s of the R o m a n a r m y finally b r o u g h t the w a r t o a n e n d .10
    • CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOREVENTS 146-60 BC146 BC Romans destroy Carthage and Corinth. 121 B C Caius Gracchus attempts to secure further term - outlawed and suicide.138 B C Birth of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. 119 B C Marius tribune of the people.135 BC First Slave War begins - Lucius (?) Cornelius Lentulus, governor in 116 B C Marius praetor. Sicily, defeated. C. 115 B C Birth of Marcus Licinius Crassus.134 BC Caius Fulvius Flaccus, as consul, sent against slaves. Uprising of 114 B C Marius, as propraetor, governor 4,000 slaves crushed at Sinuessa, in Hispania Ulterior - suppresses Campania. Slave uprisings repressed local bandits. in Attic silver mines and on the island of Delos. 113 B C Cnaeus Papirius Carbo, consul, routed by Cimbri at Noreia.133 B C Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus tribune of the people - land reform 111 B C Lucius Calpurnius Bestia, as consul, and assassination. Lucius Calpurnius sent against Iugurtha of Numidia. Piso Frugi, as consul, sent against slaves. Caius Marius serves under 109 B C Marius legate under his patron, consul Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Quintus Caecilius Metellus, in Numidia. at Numantia. 107 B C Marius consul - enlists capite censi132 BC Publius Rupilius Perperna, as consul, and returns to Numidia. winds up First Slave War. 106 B C Sulla serves Marius as quaestor in129 B C Marius military tribune. Numidia - battle of the Muluccha. Births of Cnaeus Pompeius (Pompey)125 BC Abortive bill to enfranchise Latins and Marcus Tullius Cicero. and Italians of Fulvius Flaccus. 105 B C Iugurtha captured. Consular armies123 B C Caius Sempronius Gracchus tribune routed and destroyed at Arausio. of the people - socio-political reforms. Marius quaestor. 104 B C Marius second consulship - army reforms. Insurrection of Titus Vettius122 BC Caius Gracchus re-elected as tribune - Minucius, a Roman eques - leads an bill to enfranchise Latins and Italians. army of 3,500 slaves. Second Slave War begins. 11
    • 103 B C Marius third consulship. Lucius 85 B C Cinnas third consulship. Sulla completes Licinius Lucullus, as propraetor, sent settlement of Asia. Sertorius praetor. against slaves. 84 B C Cinnas fourth consulship - lynched102 B C Marius fourth consulship - Teutones during mutiny. Peace of Dardanus. and Ambrones defeated at Aquae Sextiae. Salvius (Tryphon) killed - 83 B C Sulla lands in Italy. Pompey and Athenion assumes leadership of Crassus join Sulla. slave army. 82 B C Battle of Porta Collina. Sulla dictator101 B C Marius fifth consulship - Cimbri - proscription lists. defeated at Vercellae. Manius Aquilius, as consul, sent against slaves. 81 BC Sullas second dictatorship. Pompey sent against Marians100 B C Marius sixth consulship. Birth of in Sicily and Africa. Sertorius Caius Iulius Caesar. Aquilius, as expelled as (pro-Marian) governor proconsul, ends Second Slave War f Hispania Ulterior. - kills Athenion in duel. 80 B C Sullas second consulship. Pompeys99 B C Marius in Asia. first triumph. Sertorius re-enters Iberia - establishes a Marian98 B C Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus government in exile. invades Cappadocia. 79 B C Sulla retires.97 BC Quintus Sertorius military tribune in Iberia. 78 B C Marcus Aemilius Lepidus consul. Publius Servilius Vatia, as proconsul,96 B C Sulla propraetor of Cilicia - installs begins war against Mediterranean Ariobarzanes as king of Cappadocia. pirates. Death of Sulla.91 BC Social War begins. Mithridates invades 77 BC Insurrection and death of Lepidus. Cappadocia for second time. Pompey, with propraetorian command, sent against Sertorius.90 B C Enfranchisement of Italy south of the Po. 76 BC Successes for Sertorius in Iberia.89 B C Destruction of Asculum Picenum. 75 BC Sertorius-Mithridates pact. Caesar Rome provokes Mithridates to war. captured by pirates.88 B C Sulla consul. Mithridates overruns 74 B C Lucius Licinius Lucullus, as consul, province of Asia. Social War ends. sent against Mithridates. Marcus Sulla marches on Rome - Marius Antonius, a praetor, given wide- flees to Africa. ranging powers to fight pirates.87 B C Lucius Cornelius Cinna consul. 73 B C Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus and Marius returns - Marians take Rome. Caius Cassius Longinus consuls.86 B C Cinnas second consulship. Marius Spring: gladiators escape from Capua. seventh consulship - dies soon after. Occupation of Mount Vesuvius. Sullas victories at Chaironeia and Orchomenos. Birth of Caius Sallustius Summer: Caius Claudius Glaber, Crispus (Sallust). as praetor, sent against slaves.12
    • Autumn: defeat of Glaber. Publius Other events: Antonius humiliating Varinius, as praetor, sent against peace - Senate later rejects. slave army. Defeats of Varinius and his subordinates. 70 BC Crassus and Pompey consuls. Cicero prosecutes Verres. Winter: slave army moves to Lucania. Crixus splits from Spartacus. 69 BC Lucullus invades Armenia - battle and sack of Tigranocerta. Caesar quaestor Other events: Sertorius assassinated; in Hispania Ulterior. Caius Verres governor in Sicily; Crassus praetor. 68 BC Lucullus soldiers mutiny.72 BC Lucius Gellius Publicola and Cnaeus 6 7 BC Pompey, as proconsul, sent against Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus consuls. pirates. Mithridates defeats Romans at Zela. Spring: Spartacus treks northward. Defeat and death of Crixus in Apulia. 66 BC Pompey, as proconsul, replaces Lucullus in east. Summer: Spartacus defeats consular armies. Spartacus defeats army of 65 B C Crassus censor. Caesar curule aedile. Cassius. Spartacus treks southward. 64 B C Pompey establishes Syria as province. Autumn: Crassus, as propraetor, sent against Spartacus. Spartacus 63 BC Cicero consul. Conspiracy of Lucius withdraws to Bruttium. Sergius Catilina (Catiline). Caesar elected pontifex maximus - speaks Winter: Crassus traps Spartacus in against execution of Catilinarian toe of Italy. Spartacus escapes trap. conspirators. Death of Mithridates. Birth of Octavianus (Augustus). Other events: Pompey ends Sertorian War; Antonius defeated by pirates 62 BC Defeat and death of Catiline at Pistoia. on Crete; Caesar military tribune. Pompey returns to Rome from east. Caesar praetor.71 BC Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura and Cnaeus Aufidius Orestes consuls. 61 BC Pompeys third triumph. Caesar, as propraetor, governor in Hispania Spring: Pompey returns to Italy from Ulterior - victory against Lusitani. Iberia. Defeat and death of Spartacus Caius Octavius mopping-up in Lucania. operation in southern Italy. Summer: Crassus triumph along 60 BC The first triumvirate. Via Appia. Winter: Pompeys second triumph. Crassus ovation. 13
    • ROMAN SOCIAL ORDER Order and status, as o p p o s e d to w h a t today we understand as class, were the vital p i g e o n h o l e s for the w o r l d of R o m e . C i c e r o , w h e n he claims that the Senate w a s o p e n to all citizens, t a l k s of the highest o r d e r (Pro Sestio 6 5 . 1 3 7 ) . T h u s the R o m a n s t h e m s e l v e s t a l k e d in the l a n g u a g e of s t a t u s g r o u p s , which entitled t h e m t o certain privileges, a n d if a n outsider a s k e d o n e of them to w h a t class (classis) he or she b e l o n g e d , he or she w o u l d p r o b a b l y refer to one of the five p r o p e r t y c l a s s e s in the o l d e s t of the three citizen a s s e m b l i e s , the comitia centuriata. T h e R o m a n s defined themselves in terms of a n order (ordo) legally defined by the state t h r o u g h s t a t u t o r y or c u s t o m a r y rules a n d in s t a n d i n g in a hierarchical relation t o other o r d e r s (Finley 1 9 9 9 : 4 5 - 5 1 ) . F o r instance Tacitus, albeit w r i t i n g u n d e r the e m p e r o r s , s a y s : S e n a t o r s a n d equites h a v e special p r o p e r t y qualifications, n o t b e c a u s e they differ in nature f r o m other m e n , but just a s they enjoy p r e c e d e n c e in p l a c e , r a n k a n d dignity, s o they s h o u l d enjoy it a l s o in these things that m a k e for mental p e a c e a n d well-being (Annates 2 . 3 3 . 2 ) . E v e n under the e m p e r o r s , w h e n R o m e w a s n o longer a n oligarchic republic, the s e n a t o r i a l a n d e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r s r e m a i n e d p r e s t i g i o u s , a tight-knit g r o u p of families perceived t o be w o r t h y by the traditional s t a n d a r d s of birth, wealth a n d m o r a l excellence. W h e n C i c e r o c l a i m s t h a t the highest order, t o w h i c h s e n a t o r s b e l o n g , is a n o p e n o n e , the last thing he h a d in m i n d w a s o p e n i n g the d o o r s of the Senate t o t h o s e at the other e n d of the social scale. In Ciceros R o m e m o n e y t a l k s a n d all m e n h a v e a price. Indeed O v i d , o n e of the A u g u s t a n p o e t s , laments the fact t h a t the S e n a t e is b a r r e d t o the p o o r (Amores 3 . 8 . 5 5 ) . In a similar vein H o r a c e (Epistulae 1 . 1 . 5 8 ) , a c o n t e m p o r a r y of O v i d , w r o t e u n h a p p i l y that 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 sestertii, the a p p r o p r i a t e a m o u n t o f p r o p e r t y to be registered a s a n eques at the c e n s u s , o p e n s the w a y t o the h o n o u r s of R o m e . In the m e a n t i m e the l o w e r o r d e r s in R o m e w e r e a v a s t a m o e b i c body, v a g u e a n d m u r m u r i n g . T o m o s t o f u s w h a t is m o r e i n v i d i o u s a r e the v i e w s held by t h a t d a r l i n g o f classicists t h r o u g h the a g e s , C i c e r o . H e w r o t e in a p u n g e n t style a n d never failed t o flay the city-dwelling c o m m o n e r s , the R o m a n proletarii w h o h u d d l e d together in tottering tenements built n o t for p e o p l e but for m o l e s , often referring t o t h e m , a m o n g s t other t h i n g s , a s the city s c u m (e.g. Epistulae ad Atticum 1 . 1 9 . 4 ) . H e a c k n o w l e d g e s the g r i n d i n g p o v e r t y a n d s o c i a l misery they h a v e t o e n d u r e , b u t , t o a d d insult t o injury, a s it w e r e , he sees it a s their o w n fault, blithely u s i n g the w o r d egens, d e s t i t u t e , for the p o o r a n d even g o e s s o far a s t o m e n t i o n the destitute a n d f e l o n i o u s (egens et improbus, De domo sua 8 9 ) in the s a m e b r e a t h . Little d i d C i c e r o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t for the p r o l e t a r i a t o f R o m e , b u r i e d in a m o n o c h r o m e life w i t h o u t p r o s p e c t s , the furthest h o r i z o n h a d a l w a y s b e e n t o m o r r o w . B u t w h a t o f t h o s e b e n e a t h the s o c i a l pile, that is, t h o s e of servile s t a t u s ?14
    • THE SLAVE SYSTEMSlavery is a n a s p e c t o f a n t i q u i t y t h a t is highly c o n t r o v e r s i a l . It r e m a i n s a nemotive subject even in the 2 1 s t century, especially a s slavery w a s a facet ofwestern civilization that h a s raised a m a s s i v e a m o u n t of d e b a t e b u t neverthelessh a s p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t , albeit g r i e v o u s , p a r t in o u r o w n e c o n o m i c a l a n dsocial history. In the literature o f R o m e s l a v e s a r e ever p r e s e n t , a n d , for i n s t a n c e , theagricultural writers M a r c u s Porcius C a t o ( 2 3 7 - 1 4 9 BC), k n o w n also asthe Elder t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i m f r o m his g r e a t - g r a n d s o n , a n d M a r c u s T e r e n t i u sV a r r o ( 1 1 6 - 2 7 BC) b o t h p r e s u m e t h a t the m a i n l a b o u r e l e m e n t w a s the aliens l a v e . We a l s o find s l a v e s in w o r k s h o p s a n d c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n s , b u t itw o u l d be w r o n g o f u s t o a s s u m e t h a t the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s e r v i l el a b o u r w a s i n v o l v e d in p r o d u c t i v e w o r k , e s p e c i a l l y o n l a n d e d e s t a t e s . A s am a t t e r of fact, the b i g g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s l a v e s w a s in h o u s e h o l d s , w h e r ethey p e r f o r m e d n o n - p r o d u c t i v e duties a s d o m e s t i c s . R o m a n l a w m a d e a cleardistinction b e t w e e n mancipia rustica a n d mancipia urbana ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s ein the villa rustica or f a r m h o u s e ) , the latter s l a v e s b e i n g t h o s e w i t h w h i c h theh e a d of the h o u s e h o l d s u r r o u n d s h i m s e l f for the s o l e p u r p o s e o f his lifestyle,sua cultus causa. A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : w a s R o m a n s o c i e t y a s l a v esociety? Statistically, s l a v e r y w a s n o t t h a t p r e v a l e n t in the R o m a n w o r l d a n dl a r g e t r a c t s of the e m p i r e w e r e left u n t o u c h e d by servile l a b o u r . H o w e v e r , w ec a n n o t a n s w e r this q u e s t i o n by statistics a l o n e . R o m a n s o c i e t y w a s a s l a v es o c i e t y s i m p l y b e c a u s e s l a v e r y a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n d o m i n a t e d the R o m a nmentality. After all, libertas, f r e e d o m , w a s d e f i n e d a s n o t b e i n g e n s l a v e d . T h o s e w h o w o r k e d in the f i e l d s , m i l l s a n d m i n e s w e r e s u b j e c t t o a ne x i s t e n c e of h a r d , b a c k b r e a k i n g l a b o u r . In his n o v e l , The Golden A s s , theAfrican A p u l e i u s offers a n u n c o m p r o m i s i n g g l i m p s e o f the c r u s h i n g c o n d i t i o nof slaves w o r k i n g in a flour mill: Their skins were seamed all over with the marks of old floggings, as you could see through the holes in their ragged shirts that shaded rather than covered their scarred backs; but some wore only loin-cloths. They had letters marked on their foreheads, and half-shaved heads and irons on their leg. (The Golden Ass, 9.12)T h e s e h a p l e s s s o u l s h a d t o t r u d g e r o u n d a n d r o u n d the m i l l s t o n e in u n e n d i n gcircles, their feet w e i g h e d d o w n in i r o n s . T o m a k e t h e m w a l k their circlesquicker, their b a c k s w o u l d be s t u n g w i t h a l a s h . G r a d u a l l y their eyes w o u l dg r o w sightless w i t h all the d u s t a n d d a r k . T h e o w n e r o f s l a v e s e n j o y e d c o m p l e t e p o w e r o v e r t h e m , even t h a t o f lifea n d d e a t h . A horrifying i n s c r i p t i o n (AE 1 9 7 1 . 8 8 ) f r o m the s e a p o r t o f P u t e o l ia p p e a r s a t first t o be n o t h i n g m o r e i n i q u i t o u s t h a n a l a b o u r c o n t r a c t(manceps) for the p u b l i c u n d e r t a k e r o f t h a t s a i d t o w n , l a y i n g d o w n his h o u r sof w o r k a n d r a t e s o f p a y . H o w e v e r , o n c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n the r e a d e r will seethat o n e of the u n d e r t a k e r s d u t i e s is t h a t o f friendly n e i g h b o u r h o o d s l a v et o r t u r e r ; a list o f p r i c e s is g i v e n for v a r i o u s n a s t y d e e d s r a n g i n g f r o ms c o u r g i n g t o c r u c i f i x i o n ( c o l u m n II, lines 8 - 1 4 ) . T h e r e w e r e g o o d a n d b a d s l a v e o w n e r s , b u t this w a s a m a t t e r o f p u r ec h a n c e . R o m a n society h a d a n i n g r a i n e d m e n t a l a t t i t u d e t o s l a v e s , a societyw h e r e m a n c o m m a n d e d , w o m a n b o r e , a n d the s l a v e l a b o u r e d , for s u c h w a s
    • Agora of the Italians, Delos. the R o m a n o r d e r o f t h i n g s . I n d e e d , in the eyes o f R o m a n l a w a s l a v e w a s n o tIt is possible that this was a a p e r s o n b u t res, a thing s u b j e c t t o the d o m i n i o n of his or her master. We m u s tslave market, built as a result b e c a r e f u l h e r e , h o w e v e r , a s t h e r e w a s n o s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the R o m a n sof the First Slave War. Ageneration before the Romans t h e m s e l v e s c o n s i d e r e d a s l a v e m o r e a s a thing t h a n a p e r s o n , a n d the conditionhad made Apollos sacred t h a t p u t s o n e i n d i v i d u a l a t the m e r c y o f a n o t h e r h a d t o b e r e g u l a t e d , theisland into a free port exempt c e n s o r s , for i n s t a n c e , b e i n g e m p o w e r e d t o c h e c k u n w a r r a n t e d acts of violencefrom taxes and soon Delos u p o n s l a v e s . T h e t e r m res i m p l i e s t h a t a s l a v e h a d n o r i g h t s , pronullo, butacquired the grim reputationof being the slave market d u t i e s , a n d this l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s e p a r a t e d h i m o r her f r o m o t h e r f o r m s ofpar excellence, boasting that s u b o r d i n a t i o n . In his h a n d b o o k o n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s V a r r o , S p a r t a c u s it could handle 10,000 slaves R o m a n c o n t e m p o r a r y , e m p h a s i z e s t h a t the bailiff, the vilicus, s h o u l d n o ta day. (Ancient Art e m p l o y w h i p s w h e n w o r d s will suffice (On Agriculture 1.17.5). Athenaios& Architecture) p e r h a p s e x p r e s s e s it b e s t w h e n he e x p l a i n s the principle of servile divide a n d r u l e , e x p l o r i n g the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n a n o w n e r s r i g h t s o v e r a s l a v e a n d the u n e a s i n e s s o v e r a n o w n e r w h o w a s e x c e s s i v e l y cruel: There are two safeguards that one may take: first, those who are going to be slaves must not come from the same country of origin, and in so far as it can be arranged they must not speak the same language; and secondly, they must be properly looked after - and not just for their sakes; anyone who wishes to pay proper regard to his own interests should never behave arrogantly towards his slaves. (Athenaios 6.265a)16
    • Slaves w e r e certainly h u m a n b e i n g s , yet t o c o w t h e m into then e c e s s a r y docility of a b r u t e b e a s t n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e g i m e o fcalculated brutality and terrorism, especially so on f a r m s ,w h e r e vilici e x p l o i t e d the s t r e n g t h o f s l a v e s . M o r e t h a n ah u n d r e d years after the S p a r t a c a n rebellion h a d been c r u s h e d ,the s e n a t o r a n d p h i l o s o p h e r S e n e c a f o r m u l a t e d the m o s tliberal set of d o c t r i n e s o n slavery t h a t h a d been a r t i c u l a t e d a tR o m e . A d v o c a t i n g t h a t m a s t e r s s h o u l d treat their s l a v e s w i t hlenience, Seneca b r o k e d o w n the artificial distinction b e t w e e ns l a v e a n d free a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t all m e n s h a r e d a c o m m o norigin a n d a c o m m o n m o r a l i t y , a s p i r i t u a l b r o t h e r h o o d o fm a n k i n d if y o u will. In De beneficiis ( 3 . 1 8 - 2 8 ) he p o s e s the q u e s t i o n whether ornot it w a s p o s s i b l e for a slave t o benefit his master. B e f o r ea n s w e r i n g , Seneca m a k e s a n interesting distinction a b o u tterms: a) beneficum, a g o o d deed or favour p e r f o r m e d a s a freea n d v o l u n t a r y g e s t u r e by a n individual u n d e r n o o b l i g a t i o nt o the recipient; b) officium, a d u t y p e r f o r m e d by a s o n ,daughter, wife, etcetera, t o w a r d s a father, h u s b a n d , h e a d o fhousehold, p a t r o n , etcetera, n a m e l y a n o b l i g a t i o n of duty; a n d c)ministerium, a n action expected f r o m a slave a s he or she h a s n o otherchoice but to p e r f o r m this action. Seneca then cuts to the c h a s e by saying that it Relief (Mainz, Mittelrheinischesis not the social standing, which w a s simply a n accident of birth, but the intention Landesmuseum) decorating a column base from theof that individual b e s t o w i n g the favour, d u t y or whatever. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a principia of Mainz-Mogontiacumc o u n t e r a r g u m e n t runs a s follows: a slave c a n n o t be a c c o u n t a b l e to the m a s t e r if showing two naked captiveshe or she gives m o n e y or tends h i m w h e n ill, but Seneca immediately ripostes by chained together at the neck.saying he w a s thinking of the slave w h o fights for the m a s t e r or refuses t o reveal It is conceivable that they are Gauls, since their horseshis secrets even under torture. It is a m i s t a k e , e x p l a i n s Seneca, t o believe that a mane hairstyle indicates theslaves m i n d is not free even if his or her b o d y is o w n e d . Celtic practice of washing it in A n o t h e r fascinating p a s s a g e is t o be f o u n d in o n e of Senecas Moral Letters chalky water and then combing(Epistulae Morales 4 7 ) , written after his r e t i r e m e n t f r o m p u b l i c life. H e r e the it back from the forehead to the nape. This was probably donep h i l o s o p h e r a s k s a friend if he is o n g o o d t e r m s w i t h his s l a v e s , a n d n a t u r a l l y to enhance fearsomeness onthe friend replies in the a f f i r m a t i v e . S e n e c a then p o i n t s o u t t h a t they a r e still the battlefield. (Ancient Arts l a v e s , to w h i c h the friend replies y e s , b u t h u m a n b e i n g s all the s a m e . A g a i n & Architecture)Seneca p o i n t s o u t they are still s l a v e s , a n d s o o n a n d s o forth. A n d then S e n e c am a k e s a lunge w i t h the R o m a n p r o v e r b s o m a n y s l a v e s , s o m a n y e n e m i e s (quot servi, tot hostes, 4 7 . 5 ) , t h a t is t o say, y o u r e n e m i e s a r e the p e o p l ew o r k i n g for y o u . T h e rule of fear m a y h a v e b e e n the b a s i s o f the m a s t e r - s l a v er e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t o n e m i g h t r i p o s t e , a s S e n e c a d o e s h e r e , t h a t s u c h fear b r e d as a v a g e cruelty in the m a s t e r s a n d t h u s w e t u r n t h e m into e n e m i e s . O f c o u r s e all this m o r a l p o s t u r i n g c a m e o u t o f a S t o i c , a n d n o w h e r e in hisv a s t c o r p u s o f w r i t i n g s d o e s S e n e c a a c t u a l l y call for a n a b o l i t i o n o f slavery.O n the c o n t r a r y , S t o i c i s m , the d o m i n a n t s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h y since the lateR e p u b l i c , p r o m o t e d the belief t h a t w h a t d i d n o t affect the inner m a n w a s a nirrelevance. S o w a r , w h i c h w a s a d i s t u r b a n c e o f c o s m i c h a r m o n y , c a u s e d b ym a n s w i c k e d n e s s or w r o n g j u d g e m e n t , a n d its h o r r o r s , s u c h a s d e a t h a n de n s l a v e m e n t , w e r e irrelevant t o a g o o d m a n . T h u s w a s the S t o i c a free m a n ,h a v i n g c h o s e n t o be free. It w a s a r g u e d t h a t it w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o e n s l a v e am a n a g a i n s t his will - he h a d t o c o n s e n t t o be a s l a v e , o t h e r w i s e he m i g h tc h o o s e t o die a free m a n . T h e g o a l w a s p r o g r e s s , n o t p e r f e c t i o n . In C a i u s Institutiones, an introduction to R o m a n jurisprudence writtena r o u n d AD 1 6 1 , w e find a l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n o f s l a v e r y : t h e s t a t e t h a t is 17
    • r e c o g n i z e d b y ius gentium in w h i c h s o m e o n e is s u b j e c t t o the d o m i n i o n ofa n o t h e r p e r s o n c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r e ( 1 . 3 . 2 ) . T h e ius gentium w a s a l a w o n thec u s t o m s a n d p r a c t i c e s f o u n d in all k n o w n p e o p l e s a n d n o t a n i n t e r n a t i o n a llegal c o d e a s s u c h . B u t w h y c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r e ? B e c a u s e , a s C a i u s r e a s o n s , thes t a t e o f f r e e d o m is w h a t is n a t u r a l even if p e o p l e a r e b o r n s l a v e s . In otherw o r d s , s l a v e r y is a h u m a n i n v e n t i o n a n d n o t f o u n d in n a t u r e . I n d e e d , it w a st h a t o t h e r h u m a n i n v e n t i o n , w a r , w h i c h p r o v i d e d the b u l k o f s l a v e s , b u t theyw e r e a l s o the b o u n t y o f p i r a c y (e.g. S t r a b o 1 4 . 5 ) or the p r o d u c t of b r e e d i n g(e.g. C o l u m e l l a On Agriculture 1.8.19). It h a s a l w a y s b e e n a s s u m e d t h a t the s t u r d y p e a s a n t - f a r m e r w o r k e d thel a n d for h i m s e l f a n d his family. T h e G r e e k p o e t H e s i o d , a s m a l l - s c a l e f a r m e rhimself, tells u s t h a t the three vital t h i n g s n e e d e d by a f a r m e r a r e a h o u s e ,a w i f e a n d a p l o u g h i n g - o x (Works and Days 4 0 5 ) . N a t u r a l l y , in the h o m e l yp a r s i m o n y o f H e s i o d , the w i f e s e r v e s a s a n o t h e r s o u r c e of l a b o u r p o w e r , b u tat w h a t point d o w e witness landowners resorting to slave labour? U n d e n i a b l y , there w a s a h u g e i n f l u x o f s l a v e s into the Italian p e n i n s u l af o l l o w i n g R o m e s s u c c e s s f u l e x p a n s i o n i s t w a r s . E q u a l l y , s o m e o f the figuresin the t a b l e b e l o w o f t h o s e c a r r i e d off t o the R o m a n s l a v e m a r k e t , given bythe a n c i e n t a u t h o r s for the s e c o n d c e n t u r y BC, a r e i m p r e s s i v e a n d d a u n t i n g : Date Ethnicity Source 177 BC 5,632 Istrians Livy 41.11.8 167 BC 150,000 Epeirotes Livy 45.34.5 146 BC 55,000 Carthaginians Orosius 4.23.3 142 BC 9,500 Iberians Appian Iberica 68 101 BC 60,000 Cimbri Plutarch Marius 27.5 O f c o u r s e , c l i o m e t r i c s h a v e l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n for antiquity, a s ancienta u t h o r s cited n u m b e r s s y m b o l i c a l l y n o t statistically. N e v e r t h e l e s s , it h a s beene s t i m a t e d t h a t a t the e n d o f first c e n t u r y BC the b o d y o f s l a v e s in Italya m o u n t e d t o b e t w e e n t w o a n d three m i l l i o n p e o p l e o u t o f a t o t a l of six tos e v e n - a n d - a - h a l f m i l l i o n (including G a l l i a C i s a l p i n a ) , or r o u g h l y one-third ofthe p o p u l a t i o n (Brunt 1 9 7 1 : 1 2 4 , H o p k i n s 1 9 7 8 : 1 0 2 ) . B u t did this m a s s i v ei m p o r t of s l a v e s h a v e s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s o n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of agriculturall a b o u r in the p e n i n s u l a ? S t r a n g e a s it m a y a p p e a r , it c a n be a r g u e d t h a t slavery is n o t the o b v i o u sm e t h o d w i t h w h i c h t o e x p l o i t the l a n d . A g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k is s e a s o n a l w o r k ,b u t s l a v e l a b o u r h a s t o b e k e p t a n d fed all y e a r r o u n d . It h a s n o w beenr e c o g n i z e d t h a t a lot m o r e free l a b o u r w a s w o r k i n g the l a n d in Italy ( G a r n s e y -Saller 1 9 8 7 : 75-77). A r i s t o c r a t i c l a n d o w n e r s c o u l d , a n d d i d , divide their l a n dinto p l o t s a n d rent t h e m o u t t o t e n a n t p e a s a n t - f a r m e r s , w h o in turn m a n a g e dthe t e n a n c y w i t h the h e l p o f their o w n f a m i l i e s or even t h a t of s e a s o n a lhired l a b o u r . In fact, the t e n a n t p e a s a n t - f a r m e r h a d a l w a y s been p a r t of thea g r i c u l t u r a l s c e n e a n d he w a s a v i a b l e alternative t o s l a v e l a b o u r even in thes e c o n d a n d first centuries BC. A s a l r e a d y n o t e d , b o t h C a t o a n d V a r r o a s s u m ein their a g r i c u l t u r a l treatises t h a t s l a v e s will f o r m the c o r e o f the p e r m a n e n t ,b r u t e l a b o u r f o r c e o n the f a r m (e.g. C a t o On Agriculture 2.2-7, 5.1-5).H o w e v e r , they w e r e w r i t i n g for a p a r t i c u l a r m i l i e u , the s e n a t o r i a l l a n d o w n e rw i t h a l a n d e d e s t a t e t h a t w a s p l u g g e d i n t o a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t ofs u r p l u s e s , a m a n like C i c e r o (De officiis 1 . 1 5 1 ) , w h o p r a i s e s a g r i c u l t u r e b o t ha s a s o u r c e o f w e a l t h a n d o n m o r a l g r o u n d s . F o r these big m e n of v a s t m e a n sw a s there a n y l a n d , in the r h e t o r i c a l w o r d s o f V a r r o , m o r e fully cultivatedt h a n I t a l y ? (On Agriculture 1.2.3).
    • S o investment f a r m i n g , a s o p p o s e d t o the p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e of s u b s i s t e n c ea g r i c u l t u r e , w a s only really a p p l i c a b l e t o the n a r r o w c o a s t a l l a n d s o f centrala n d s o u t h e r n Italy a n d the i s l a n d o f Sicily. H e r e a f e w w e a l t h y l a n d o w n e r sheld l a n d in the f o r m of h u g e t r a c t s o f a r a b l e - c u m - p a s t u r e - l a n d , the latifundiaor w i d e fields of R o m a n literature, w h e r e l a r g e s l a v e p o p u l a t i o n s w e r e f o u n din three a r e a s : a) viticulture a n d olive g r o w i n g ; b) l i v e s t o c k r a i s i n g ; a n d c)cereal p r o d u c t i o n . This leads us on to a discussion of R o m e as a slave e c o n o m y . There area n u m b e r o f w a y s o f l o o k i n g a t this i s s u e . W e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t a s l a v ee c o n o m y o n l y e x i s t e d w h e n the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d in t h a t societyse c o n o m y w e r e s l a v e s , b u t in t h a t c a s e there h a s never b e e n s u c h a n e c o n o m y .E v e n the D e e p S o u t h o f the p r e - C i v i l W a r U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d n o t m e e t thiscriterion. M u c h m o r e p r o d u c t i v e is the n o t i o n t h a t a s l a v e e c o n o m y is o n e inw h i c h the d o m i n a n t m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n sets the p a c e for the r e s t , t h a t is,slave p r o d u c t i o n or n o t . T h u s s l a v e s w e r e a m a j o r e n g i n e o f the e c o n o m y o fthe D e e p S o u t h , a s they w e r e o f t h o s e o f c l a s s i c a l G r e e c e , the H e l l e n i s t i c e a s ta n d R o m e . In other w o r d s , n o t e v e r y b o d y o w n e d s l a v e s b u t if the m o n e y w a sa v a i l a b l e e v e r y b o d y w o u l d b u y s l a v e s , w i t h the s l a v e - r u n e s t a t e b e i n g seen a sthe ideal. O f c o u r s e a n e c o n o m y c o u l d e x i s t w i t h o u t the institution o f slavery.If w e l o o k f o r w a r d into the late R o m a n w o r l d w e w i t n e s s a n o t h e r f o r m o fs u b o r d i n a t e l a b o u r a r i s i n g in w h i c h free m e n w e r e tied t o the l a n d , t h a t is t osay, the institution of f e u d a l i s m , w h i c h s e r v e d t o p r o d u c e a s u r p l u s s o a s t oa l l o w a n elite g r o u p t o e x i s t . We s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r the a c t u a l c o s t o f a s l a v e . A c c o r d i n g t o P l u t a r c h ,the elder C a t o never o n c e b o u g h t a s l a v e for m o r e t h a n 1 , 5 0 0 drachmae,since he d i d n o t w a n t l u x u r i o u s o r b e a u t i f u l o n e s , b u t h a r d w o r k e r s , likeh e r d s m e n (Cato major 4 . 4 , cf. 2 1 . 1 ) . T h e drachma w a s the G r e e k e q u i v a l e n tof the R o m a n denarius, w h i c h m u s t h a v e b e e n the t e r m C a t o h i m s e l f u s e d .Since at this t i m e (it w a s t o be retariffed at 1 6 t o the denarius a t the t i m e o fG r a c c h i ) there w e r e 1 0 asses t o the denarius, the s u m o f 1 , 5 0 0 drachmae wase q u i v a l e n t t o 1 5 , 0 0 0 asses. C o m p a r e this w i t h t h e l e g i o n a r y stipendium,a l l o w a n c e , w h i c h in C a t o s d a y w a s five asses p e r d a y (to c o v e r r a t i o n s ,c l o t h i n g , a n d r e p a i r s t o a r m s a n d e q u i p m e n t ) . S o the c o s t o f a n a g r i c u l t u r a lslave m i g h t e q u a l 3 , 0 0 0 d a y s w o r t h o f stipendium. So slaves were not cheap,even at the height o f the w a r s o f c o n q u e s t . A c c o r d i n g t o his o w n t e s t i m o n y C a t o (On Agriculture 1 0 . 1 , 11.1)reckoned a n olive g r o v e of 2 4 0 iugera (c. 6 0 h a ) s h o u l d be w o r k e d by 13 s l a v e s ,a n d a v i n e y a r d o f 1 0 0 iugera (c. 2 5 h a ) w o r k e d by 1 6 s l a v e s , a n d V a r r o (OnAgriculture 1 . 1 8 ) , after d i s c u s s i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s o f C a t o s m a t h e m a t i c s ,basically agrees with h i m . O n e slave a l o n e m u s t h a v e been a c o n s i d e r a b l e prizefor a l e g i o n a r y in war. T h u s the fact t h a t s l a v e n u m b e r s w e r e h u g e d o e s n o ta l l o w valid d e d u c t i o n s t o be m a d e a b o u t the g r e a t e r o r lesser a v a i l a b i l i t y o fslaves in the p o p u l a t i o n a s a result o f w a r f a r e , a b o u t the p r o p o r t i o n o f s l a v e sin the p o p u l a t i o n a s a w h o l e , or a b o u t the p r o p o r t i o n o f citizens w h o o w n e dslaves - they are rather a sign of the i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h in asmall n u m b e r o f p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e h o l d s . In The Banqueting Sophists (Deipnosophistae), an enormous compendiumof the conversations of p h i l o s o p h e r s at a b a n q u e t s u p p o s e d l y held in A l e x a n d r i aa r o u n d the year AD 2 0 0 , A t h e n a i o s u p h o l d s the m y t h t h a t the v i r t u o u s R o m a n sof o l d , n o b l e s s u c h a s S c i p i o a n d C a e s a r , o w n e d a m e r e h a n d f u l o f s l a v e s( 6 . 2 7 3 a - b ) . H o w e v e r , he d o e s a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t s o m e R o m a n s l a v e - h o l d i n g sw e r e e x t r a v a g a n t l y l a r g e . Yet clearly A t h e n a i o s t h o u g h t t h a t the p u r p o s e
    • o f o w n i n g s u c h v a s t n u m b e r s of s l a v e s w a s p r i m a r i l y t o d e m o n s t r a t e ones w e a l t h , a n d since w e a l t h w a s linked to s t a t u s , it c o u l d be advertised t h r o u g h c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n ( 6 . 2 7 2 e , 2 7 3 c ) . T h i s w a s not only true of R o m a n s . A n t i o c h o s IV, for i n s t a n c e , s o u g h t t o i m p r e s s his s u b j e c t s by o r g a n i z i n g a p r o c e s s i o n involving h u n d r e d s if n o t t h o u s a n d s of slaves (Polybios 3 0 . 2 5 . 1 7 ) , a n d it w a s a m a r k of e x t r e m e indignity for the exiled Ptolemy V I to arrive at R o m e a c c o m p a n i e d by just four slaves ( D i o d o r o s 3 1 . 1 8 . 1 - 3 ) . B u t then a g a i n , these m e n w e r e k i n g s . C a i u s C a e c i l i u s I s i d o r u s , a R o m a n l a n d o w n e r w h o flourished in the g e n e r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the S p a r t a c a n rebellion a n d w h o himself w a s a f o r m e r s l a v e , h a d c o m e t o o w n 3 , 6 0 0 p a i r s of o x e n , 2 5 7 , 0 0 0 otherRelief (Rome, MNR Palazzo l i v e s t o c k a n d 4 , 1 1 6 s l a v e s a t the t i m e o f his d e a t h in 8 BC (Pliny HistoriaMassimo Alle Terme, inv. Naturalis 33.135).126119) depicting Samnitesin the arena, dated c. 30-10 BCEach is armed with a gladiusand carries a scutum, and PIRACY AND THE SLAVE TRADEappears to wear one greaveon the left or leading leg. W h e n s t r o n g k i n g d o m s w i t h p o w e r f u l n a v i e s e x i s t e d , s u c h a s t h o s e of theA triangular loincloth is tiedabout the waist, pulled up Hellenistic kings, piracy w a s usually reduced to a m i n i m u m . Yet the last hundredbetween the legs and tucked years of the R o m a n R e p u b l i c s a w o n e of the m o s t r e m a r k a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t s ofunder the knot at the front p i r a c y t h a t the M e d i t e r r a n e a n h a s k n o w n , w h e n f r o m m e r e f r e e b o o t e r s theand secured by a broad belt. p i r a t e s o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s into a p i r a t e - s t a t e w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s in Cilicia(Fields-Carre Collection) a n d C r e t e . It w a s the m o r e r e m a r k a b l e that the sea w a s controlled by a single p o w e r , w h i c h , w h e n it p u t f o r t h its s t r e n g t h u n d e r a c a p a b l e leader, h a d n o difficulty in p u t t i n g a n end t o a m a l i g n a n c y in such a short s p a c e of time. T h e e a s e with w h i c h P o m p e y finally achieved its s u p p r e s s i o n h a s naturally led to a severe c o n d e m n a t i o n of R o m e s negligence a n d a p a t h y in permitting piracy to f l o u r i s h for s o l o n g a p e r i o d . T h i s is especially s o w h e n the alliance f o r m e d b e t w e e n M i t h r i d a t e s a n d the p i r a t e s o f Cilicia h a d given the Pontic king c o m m a n d of the A e g e a n , w h i c h h a d been nearly fatal to Sulla (First Mithridatic War, 8 9 - 8 5 BC). T h i s w a s p a r t l y d u e t o the t u r m o i l o f the t i m e s , w h i c h h i n d e r e d policing of the s e a s , a n d p a r t l y d u e t o the influence of R o m a n slave d e a l e r s w h o tolerated the p i r a t e s a s w h o l e s a l e p u r v e y o r s o f s l a v e s . T h e m o r e t h a t the e c o n o m y w a s g l u t t e d w i t h s l a v e s , the m o r e d e p e n d e n t it b e c a m e o n t h e m . W h e t h e r c o n v e y i n g v i c t i m s o f w a r or t h o s e o f k i d n a p p i n g , there c a n be n o d o u b t a b o u t the i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d b y p i r a t e s in m a i n t a i n i n g the level of the R o m a n s l a v e supply, directing their h u m a n c a r g o e s t o d e s t i n a t i o n s such a s Sicily where t h e y w e r e n e e d e d . T h e p i r a t e s w e r e the m o s t c o n s i s t e n t s u p p l i e r s . A p p i a n w r i t e s t h a t the p i r a t e s o p e r a t e d in s q u a d r o n s u n d e r p i r a t e chiefs, w h o w e r e like g e n e r a l s o f a n a r m y (Mithridatica 9 2 ) . A t this level of o r g a n i z a t i o n they w e r e c a p a b l e o f r a i d i n g r o a d s a n d b e s i e g i n g t o w n s a l o n g the c o a s t s of Italy. T h e y even s t a g e d p r e d a t o r y r a i d s into the w e s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , w h e r e they w e r e r e p u t e d t o b e in c o n t a c t w i t h v a r i o u s i n s u r g e n t m o v e m e n t s , including S e r t o r i u s in Iberia a n d , a s w e shall see later, S p a r t a c u s in Italy. GLADIATORS - MEN OF THE SWORD W h e n P e r u s i a ( P e r u g i a ) c a p i t u l a t e d t o O c t a v i a n u s a n d the s u r v i v o r s w e r e r o u n d e d u p , he allegedly t o o k 3 0 0 rebel s e n a t o r s a n d equites a n d , in the w o r d s o f S u e t o n i u s , offered t h e m o n the Ides o f M a r c h a t the altar of D i v u s Iulius, a s h u m a n s a c r i f i c e s ( Divus Augustus 15.1). N o t long afterwards, Octavianus20
    • h a v i n g m e t a m o r p h o s e d i n t o A u g u s t u s , V i r g i l h a s the e m p e r o r s l e g e n d a r y Funerary painting froma n c e s t o r , the p i o u s A e n e a s , p e r f o r m h u m a n s a c r i f i c e a t the f u n e r a l o f the Paestum (Gaudo Tomb 7 North Slab, c. 340 BC) depicting a duel.y o u n g prince P a l l a s : Such paintings were not mere decorative elements, as they Then came the captives, whose hands he had bound behind their backs to send reflect the values and ideals them as offerings to the shades of the dead and sprinkle the funeral pyre with of the Lucanians who now controlled Paestum. This scene the blood of their sacrifice. (Virgil, Aeneid 1 1 . 8 1 - 8 4 West) represents the final moments of a competition, with a judgeH i s t o r i c a l l y it w a s the E t r u s c a n s , a p e o p l e r e g u l a t e d b y a h i g h l y r i t u a l i z e d standing behind the winnerreligion, w h o m a d e it their c u s t o m t o sacrifice p r i s o n e r s o f w a r t o the s h a d e s about to place a wreath on his head. These duels wereof their o w n fallen w a r r i o r s . L i v y s a y s t h a t in 3 5 8 bc a t o t a l o f 3 0 7 R o m a n not to the death. (Fields-Carresoldiers w e r e t a k e n p r i s o n e r a n d s l a u g h t e r e d a s h u m a n sacrifice in the f o r u m Collection)of the E t r u s c a n city of T a r q u i n i i ( T a r q u i n i a ) ; in r e v e n g e 3 5 8 c a p t i v e s , c h o s e nf r o m the n o b l e s t families o f T a r q u i n i i , w e r e d i s p a t c h e d t o R o m e three y e a r slater a n d publicly f l o g g e d in the F o r u m a n d then b e h e a d e d ( 7 . 1 5 . 1 0 , 1 9 . 2 - 3 ) .T h e T a r q u i n i e n s e s m a y h a v e b e e n e n a c t i n g a f o r m o f h u m a n sacrifice, b u t theR o m a n r e s p o n s e - if historical - w a s a n a c t of v e n g e a n c e , n o t cultic o b l i g a t i o n . S o g l a d i a t o r s p e r h a p s o r i g i n a t e d f r o m s u c h E t r u s c a n h o l o c a u s t s in h o n o u rof the d e a d : they w e r e s o m e t i m e s k n o w n a s bustuarii, funeral m e n , a n d thec o n t e s t w a s c a l l e d a munus f r o m b e i n g a d u t y p a i d t o the d e c e a s e d b y hisdescendants. T h e African Christian Tertullian, writing a r o u n d AD 2 0 0 , describesthese c o m b a t s of the a m p h i t h e a t r e a s the m o s t f a m o u s , the m o s t p o p u l a rspectacle of all: 21
    • Crucial to the development The ancients thought that by this sort of spectacle they rendered a service toof the spectacle of gladiatorial the dead, after they had tempered it with a more cultured form of cruelty. Forcombat were the lanistae. They of old, in the belief that the souls of the dead are propitiated with humanwere indispensable operatorswho functioned as slave traders, blood, they used at funerals to sacrifice captives or slaves of poor quality.managers, trainers, and Afterwards, it seemed good to obscure their impiety by making it a pleasure.impresarios all in one. However, So after the persons procured had been trained in such arms as they then hadthey were seen by their fellow and as best they might - their training was to learn to be killed! - they then didcitizens as utterly contemptible,some think like an unpleasant them to death on the appointed day at the tombs. So they found comfort forcross between a butcher and death in murder. (Tertullian De spectaculis 12)a pimp. Sculptural relief (Selcuk,Arkeoloji Muzesi) showing a S o R o m e t u r n e d munus, in the fiery a n t i - p a g a n e l o q u e n c e of T e r t u l l i a n , intolanista armed with baton andshield. (Fields-Carre Collection) a p l e a s u r e a n d a m o r e c u l t u r e d f o r m o f cruelty. A s well a s p u n i s h m e n t a n d s a c r i f i c e s , munera b e c a m e p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Alternatively, 4th-century t o m b paintings a n d v a s e paintings f r o m C a m p a n i a s e e m m o r e o b v i o u s l y t o d e p i c t a r m e d single c o m b a t s , a n d literary s o u r c e s d o refer t o C a m p a n i a n c o m b a t s a t b a n q u e t s (e.g. S t r a b o 5 . 4 . 1 3 , A t h e n a i o s 4 . 1 5 3 f - 1 5 4 a ) . In these C a m p a n i a n c o m b a t s elite volunteers c o m p e t e d for prizes, fighting only to the p o i n t of first b l o o d s h e d . T h e R o m a n s b e c a m e familiar with C a m p a n i a n g l a d i a t o r i a l c o m b a t s at the tail end of the s a m e century. Livy s p e a k s of a battle in 3 0 8 BC of R o m a n s a n d C a m p a n i a n s a g a i n s t the S a m n i t e s , w h o f o u g h t w i t h inlaid shields, p l u m e d helmets, a n d g r e a v e s o n the left leg. A s they a d v a n c e d into battle, the S a m n i t e s dedicated themselves in the Samnite m a n n e r while the R o m a n c o m m a n d e r , w h o w a s p o s t e d o n the left w i n g , m e t them head- o n declaring that he offered these m e n a s a sacrifice to O r c u s (Livy 9 . 4 0 . 1 2 ) . C e l e b r a t i n g the victory, the R o m a n s a d o r n e d the F o r u m with c a p t u r e d a r m s : T h u s the R o m a n s m a d e use of the splendid a r m s of their enemies to d o h o n o u r t o the g o d s ; while the C a m p a n i a n s in their p r i d e , o u t of h a t r e d to the Samnites, e q u i p p e d the g l a d i a t o r s w h o p r o v i d e d e n t e r t a i n m e n t at their b a n q u e t s with similar a r m o u r a n d g a v e t h e m the n a m e of S a m n i t e s (ibid. 9 . 4 0 . 1 7 ) .22
    • W h a t e v e r its true o r i g i n s , the first g l a d i a t o r i a l fight t o o k p l a c e in R o m e in Initially, gladiator duels took2 6 4 BC, the year w h e n the first w a r w i t h C a r t h a g e b e g a n . A t the funeral o f place in whatever public spaces a town might possess. UnderD e c i m u s I u n i u s B r u t u s S c a e v a his t w o s o n s , M a r c u s a n d D e c i m u s B r u t u s , the emperors, however, thefor the first t i m e e x h i b i t e d , in the m a r k e t c a l l e d F o r u m B o a r i u m , t h r e e characteristic scene for suchs i m u l t a n e o u s g l a d i a t o r i a l fights. It m a y h a v e b e e n a m o d e s t affair by later displays was the amphitheatre.s t a n d a r d s , b u t half of R o m e a p p a r e n t l y t u r n e d o u t t o w a t c h the fight. T h e The first known permanent amphitheatre is not in Romef o l l o w i n g statistics s h o w h o w fast the i d e a c a u g h t o n but Pompeii (c. 70 BC), an enormous structure for Date Numbers Source a provincial town with its 264 BC 3 pairs of gladiators Valerius Maximus 2.4.7 seating capacity of 20,000 216 BC 22 pairs of gladiators Livy 23.30.15 places. A view of the 200 BC 25 pairs of gladiators Livy 31.50.4 amphitheatre looking 60 pairs of gladiators Livy 39.46.2 north-west with Vesuvius 183 BC in the distance. (Fields-Carre 174 BC 74 pairs of gladiators Livy 41.28.11 Collection) Beginning a s a grandiosity o c c a s i o n a l l y a d d e d t o a n aristocratic funeral, theg l a d i a t o r s themselves being t a k e n f r o m a m o n g s t the p e r s o n a l s l a v e s o f thed e c e a s e d a n d e q u i p p e d in m a k e s h i f t f a s h i o n , over t i m e the c o m b a t s w e r eextended to public celebrations. A n d s o it w a s by Ciceros d a y the m a s s e s , a s hesays (Pro Sestio 1 0 6 , 1 2 4 ) , c o u l d e x p r e s s themselves at a s s e m b l i e s , elections,g a m e s (ludi) a n d gladiatorial contests (munera). 23
    • In 1 0 5 BC, for the first t i m e , the t w o c o n s u l s of t h e y e a r g a v e a g l a d i a t o r i a l s p e c t a c l e officially. Indeed, one of them, Publius Rutilius Rufus, began the practice of e m p l o y i n g gladiatorial trainers to instruct n e w a r m y recruits (Valerius M a x i m u s 2 . 3 . 2 ) . It s o o n b e c a m e c u s t o m a r y for g l a d i a t o r i a l d i s p l a y s t o be p u t o n n o t only by v i c t o r i o u s g e n e r a l s , a s a f e a t u r e o f their t r i u m p h s , b u t a l s o by officials of every r a n k . S u c h s p e c t a c l e s , o b v i o u s l y b u t n o t solely, w e r e p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e s u s e d by R o m a n a r i s t o c r a t s to gain support. T h e functionaries k n o w n as aediles, for e x a m p l e , s o u g h t t o a t t r a c t p o p u l a r i t y by giving ludi honorarii, supplementary g a m e s attached to theatre a n d circus performances. It w a s a s o n e o f the a e d i l e s of 6 5 BC t h a t C a e s a r , in m e m o r y o f his l o n g - d e a d father, g a v e a m a g n i f i c e n t g l a d i a t o r i a l spectacle. H o w e v e r , at a time w h e n the m e m o r y o f the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n still f r e s h in p e o p l e s m i n d , he h a d c o l l e c t e d s o i m m e n s e a t r o o p o f c o m b a t a n t s that his terrified political o p p o n e n t s r u s h e d a bill t h r o u g h the S e n a t e , limiting the n u m b e r t h a t a n y o n e m i g h t k e e p in R o m e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y far fewer p a i r s f o u g h t t h a n h a d b e e n a d v e r t i s e d ( S u e t o n i u s Divus lulius 1 0 . 2 ) . C a e s a r w a s u n d a u n t e d . H e m a d e certain everyone in R o m e k n e w t h a t it w a s the S e n a t e t h a t h a d r o b b e d t h e m o f the m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r g a m e s of all t i m e . All the s a m e his d i m i n i s h e d t r o u p e o f g l a d i a t o r s still a m o u n t e d to 3 2 0 pairs, and each m a n w a s equippedIn 1874 Raffaello Giovagnoli w i t h a r m o u r specially m a d e f r o m s o l i d silver.(1838-1915), who had fought It w a s f r o m s u c c e s s i v e w a v e s o f p r i s o n e r s o f w a r c o n s c r i p t e d a s g l a d i a t o r swith Garibaldi, published his t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n w a s t o inherit its b i z a r r e , e x o t i c u n i f o r m s , w h i c h w a s o n eepic novel Spartaco. Thecomparison between ancient o f the s o u r c e s o f p u b l i c e n j o y m e n t . F r o m R o m e s b r u t a l w a r s of e x p a n s i o nand modern is made explicit d u r i n g the s e c o n d a n d first c e n t u r i e s BC, w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d m o s t o f its s e r i o u sby the author, and Garibaldi c o m p e t i t o r s for power, there w a s a ready supply of foreigners w h o hadhimself wrote the preface. The s u f f e r e d the f a t e o f s l a v e r y t h r o u g h c a p t u r e in w a r f a r e . T h e s e w e r e t r i b a lillustrations were executedby Nicola Sanesi, and here w a r r i o r s o r t r a i n e d s o l d i e r s w h o c o u l d b e p u s h e d i n t o the a r e n a w i t h littlewe see Spartacus, brave yet n e e d for p r e p a r a t i o n , b e i n g m a d e t o fight w i t h their n a t i v e w e a p o n s a n d incompassionate, sparing the their e t h n i c s t y l e s . M a n y o f t h e s e m e n , it is t r u e , w e r e s i m p l y w r e t c h e dlife of his friend Crixus in c a p t i v e s h e r d e d b e f o r e the b a y i n g , b l o o d - m a d d e n e d s p e c t a t o r s , b u t v a r i o u sthe arena. (Reproducedfrom R. Giovagnoli, Spartaco, c l a s s e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l g l a d i a t o r l i k e w i s e c a m e f r o m this c a t e g o r y , especiallyRome, 1874) t h e w a r h a r d e n e d . T h e s e e a r l i e s t t r a i n e d killers a p p e a r e d in the a r e n a a s p r i s o n e r s t a k e n d u r i n g the w a r w i t h the I t a l i a n allies, the S o c i a l War, a s it is g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d , o f 9 1 - 8 8 B C , a n d w e r e chiefly f r o m the S a m n i t e s o f central e a s t e r n Italy, d r e s s e d in the heavy, r e s p l e n d e n t a r m o u r of the S a m n i t e warrior. S o o n after the S a m n i t e s , G a u l s s t a r t e d t o a p p e a r in the a r e n a . A g a i n these w e r e o r i g i n a l l y p r i s o n e r s o f w a r t a k e n f r o m the tribes o f G a u l . By a b o u t the early seventies BC these t w o h a d b e e n j o i n e d by a third type of g l a d i a t o r b a s e d o n a n o t h e r f o r e i g n f o e , the T h r a c i a n . C i c e r o s m e t a p h o r i c a l u s e o f g l a d i a t o r i a l r e t i r e m e n t in the Second Philippic ( 2 9 ) is the first k n o w n reference t o a w a r d i n g the rudis or w o o d e n s w o r d o f f r e e d o m , the c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g t h a t by his d a y g l a d i a t o r s w e r e24
    • an investment, skilled artisans to be r e w a r d e da n d n o t w a s t e d . F o r w h a t it is w o r t h , F l o r u sr e c k o n s the e x c e s s i v e size o f g l a d i a t o r i a l t r o u p e sled t o the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n : H o w else could those armies of gladiators have risen against their masters, save that a profuse expenditure, which aimed at winning the common people by indulging their love of shows, had turned what was originally a method of punishing enemies into a competition of skill? (Florus Epitome 3.12.10).Yet it w a s not until the early years of the Principatethat there w o u l d be the m a n y c a t e g o r i e s o fgladiators that we are m o r e familiar with,namely g l a d i a t o r s w h o w e r e distinguished by thekind of a r m o u r they w o r e , the w e a p o n s theyu s e d , a n d their style of fighting. A n d s o w h e nS p a r t a c u s w a s a gladiator, munera w e r e still in thep r o c e s s of b e c o m i n g a prolific f o r m o f p o p u l a re n t e r t a i n m e n t , a n d the e l a b o r a t e p r o t o c o l s o fc o m b a t a n d spectacle k n o w n to history h a d yet t obe developed.OSCAN SPEAKERSIn the central s e c t i o n o f the A p e n n i n e c h a i n ,w h i c h f o r m s the s p i n e o f the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a ,m o s t of the Italic p e o p l e s s p o k e a l a n g u a g e calledO s c a n . This w a s a tongue closely related toL a t i n , b u t h a d s o m e distinctive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .The O s c a n speakers were divided into variousg r o u p i n g s ; the m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f w h i c h w e r e the w a r l i k e S a m n i t e s w h o Triple-disc cuirass andinhabited the m o u n t a i n o u s r e g i o n d u e e a s t o f R o m e d o w n t o the a r e a b e h i n d Attic-style helmet with impressive iron three-C a m p a n i a . A t the time of their l o n g , h a r d w a r s w i t h the R o m a n s in the f o u r t h branched crest-cum-feather-a n d third centuries BC the S a m n i t e s c o n s i s t e d o f four m a i n g r o u p s , e a c h w i t h holder, Paestum (Gaudoits o w n territory: the C a r r i c i n i , C a u d i n i , H i r p i n i , a n d Pentri, t o w h o m w e Tomb174, c. 390/80 BC).s h o u l d p r o b a b l y a d d the F r e n t a n i . B u t these O s c a n g r o u p s often f o r m e d n e w This elaborate style of armour was peculiar to Oscan-speakingtribal c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . In the late 5 t h century BC a n e w O s c a n - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e , warriors, and a broad bronzethe L u c a n i a n s ( L u c a n i ) , e m e r g e d ( p e r h a p s a s o u t h e r n o f f s h o o t f r o m the belt, the symbol of manhood,S a m n i t e s ) , a n d in the m i d d l e o f the f o l l o w i n g century a n o t h e r O s c a n - s p e a k i n g would normally accompanyp e o p l e , the B r u t t i a n s (Bruttii), split off f r o m the L u c a n i a n s in the t o e o f Italy. it. Thus for a time the Romans regarded, in the sporting T h e instability of these O s c a n - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e s w a s p r o b a b l y the p r o d u c t language of their arena,of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e . G o o d a r a b l e l a n d w a s in p a r t i c u l a r l y s h o r t s u p p l y in gladiator and Samnitethe u p l a n d v a l l e y s o f the A p e n n i n e s , a n d in t h e c o u r s e o f the 5 t h a n d 4 t h as synonymous terms.centuries BC the h i g h l a n d e r w a r r i o r s m a d e f r e q u e n t i n c u r s i o n s a g a i n s t c o a s t a l (Fields-Carre Collection)s e t t l e m e n t s , m a n y o f t h e m f o u n d e d b y G r e e k s . S o the S a m n i t e s c o n q u e r e dG r e e k C u m a e a n d E t r u s c a n C a p u a , m e r g i n g w i t h the e x i s t i n g i n h a b i t a n t s o fC a m p a n i a a n d b e c o m i n g k n o w n a s the C a m p a n i a n s ( C a m p a n i ) . M e a n w h i l ethe L u c a n i a n s o v e r r a n P o s e i d o n i a , r e n a m i n g it P a e s t u m b u t m a i n t a i n i n g the 25
    • s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l institutions set u p b y the G r e e k c o l o n i s t s , a n d a t t a c k e d otherG r e e k cities o n the s o u t h - e a s t c o a s t . N a t u r a l l y their w a r r i o r ethic e n c o u r a g e dw a r s o f c o n q u e s t , b u t o n c e they h a d settled in the c o a s t a l p l a i n s , they tendedt o m e r g e w i t h the l o c a l s a n d a d a p t themselves to the relative e a s e of u r b a n life. L a t e r the f o r m e r c o n q u e r o r s , w h o f o r m e d the l o c a l a r i s t o c r a c y , readilyb e c a m e a s p o i l t o their m o u n t a i n k i n s m e n . E v e n t u a l l y , this s t a t e o f affairsw o u l d a l l o w the R o m a n s t o e x p l o i t the w o r s e n i n g s i t u a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t theC a m p a n i a n s a g a i n s t t h e S a m n i t e s , a n a c t i o n t h a t w a s t o set in t r a i n theS a m n i t e w a r s ( 3 4 3 - 3 4 1 BC, 3 2 7 - 3 0 4 BC, 2 9 8 - 2 9 0 BC). E v e n by themselves theS a m n i t e s w e r e sufficiently w a r l i k e a n d n u m e r o u s t o c a u s e c o n c e r n , a n d theirm u t u a l hostility w i t h R o m e w a s d e e p r o o t e d . In 8 2 BC the S a m n i t e s , just sixy e a r s after t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l War, in w h i c h t h e y h a d p l a y e d al e a d i n g r o l e , for t h e l a s t t i m e in h i s t o r y s t r a p p e d o n their a r m o u r a n dm a r c h e d d o w n f r o m their A p e n n i n e f a s t n e s s . R e a l i z i n g t h a t R o m e lay at theirm e r c y , they d a s h e d t o w a r d s the c a p i t a l t o pull d o w n a n d d e s t r o y the t y r a n tcity (Velleius P a t e r c u l u s Historiae Romanae 2.72.2).
    • OPPOSING COMMANDERS SPARTACUS THE THRACIAN T h e r e is n o d o u b t a t all o v e r S p a r t a c u s skill a s a m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d e r , a n d t o his n a t u r a l flair he s o o n a d d e d v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . B u t o f the m a n himself, his p e r s o n a l i t y , f a u l t s a n d f o i b l e s , w e k n o w n o t h i n g , for a s w e p e e r a c r o s s the d i v i d i n g c e n t u r i e s w e o n l y see the stylized, s h a d o w y s p e c t r e o f a rebel a n d a h e r o . Plenty is k n o w n a b o u t his a c h i e v e m e n t s , h o w e v e r , m a i n l y b e c a u s e in his Life of Crassus Plutarch illumined S p a r t a c u s nobility of character - a q u a l i t y P l u t a r c h felt t h a t C r a s s u s , w h o m he c l e a r l y d i s l i k e d , s i g n a l l y l a c k e d . S o S p a r t a c u s is d e s c r i b e d a t s o m e l e n g t h in o r d e r t o s h o w w h a t a w r e t c h e d fellow C r a s s u s w a s . R o m a n sources p r o v i d e n o n a m e s for g l a d i a t o r s f o r a t l e a s t t h e first h u n d r e d y e a r s o f munera. T h e n , in the l a s t t h i r d o f the 2 n d c e n t u r y BC, the satirist L u c i l i u s , the g r e a t u n c l e o f P o m p e y w h o h a d f o u g h t a t the s i e g e o f N u m a n t i a , mentions a f a m o u s victor a n d a despised loser by n a m e : In the public show given by the Flacci was a certain Aeserninus, a Samnite, a nasty fellow, worthy of that life and station. He was matched with Pacideianus, who was by far the best of all the gladiators since the creation of man. (Lucilius fr. 150 Marx) By the w a y , the d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t a g e n a m e s , m a n y o f t h e m e r o t i c o r h e r o i c , c a m e m u c h later w h e n g l a d i a t o r s were b e c o m i n g stars by fighting a n d s u r v i v i n g s e v e r a l fights. E v e n s o , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f S p a r t a c u s , n o n e really e a r n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e in r e c o r d e d history. H i s n a m e m a y i n d i c a t e t h a t S p a r t a c u s w a s a d e s c e n d a n t of the d y n a s t y o f the S p a r t o k i d s , f o u n d e d by S p a r t o k o s (or S p a r t a k o s ) I, the T h r a c i a n ruler of the C i m m e r i a n B o s p o r u s in the late 5 t h c e n t u r y BC ( D i o d o r o s 1 2 . 3 1 . 1 , 3 6 . 1 , 1 6 . 9 3 . 1 ) , while a T h r a c i a n S p a r a d o k o s , father o f S e u t h e s o f the O d r y s a e , is a l s o k n o w n ( T h u c y d i d e s 2 . 1 0 1 . 5 ) . B u t w h o w a s the g l a d i a t o r n a m e d S p a r t a c u s ? Little is k n o w n a b o u t this r e m a r k a b l e c h a r a c t e r b e y o n d the e v e n t s o f the r e b e l l i o n , a n d the s u r v i v i n g a n c i e n t a c c o u n t s a r e o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y . According to one, Spartacus h a d spent s o m e years serving as a paid auxiliary for the R o m a n s a n d t h e n , h a v i n g t u r n e d a g a i n s t t h e m , b e c a m e a deserter, then a b a n d i t , a n d finally, t h a n k s t o his b o d i l y s t r e n g t h , a g l a d i a t o r ( F l o r u s Epitome 3 . 2 0 . 8 ) . T h e R o m a n s , as w e w o u l d naturally expect, were fond of d e c l a r i n g t h a t their m o s t d a n g e r o u s o p p o n e n t s w e r e a l w a y s t h o s e they h a d t r a i n e d t h e m s e l v e s , a n d e v e n n o lesser a n a u t h o r i t y t h a n C a e s a r h i m s e l f s a y s 27
    • The only (possible)contemporary likenessof Spartacus is a grafittofrom an entranceway toa house in Pompei. It depictsa gladiator on horseback, andabove him is his name, writtenin Oscan and read right to leftSPARTAKS. The contentsof the find and the use ofthe Oscan tongue for thecaption both suggest a dateof 100-70 BC. (Authors drawing,after Shaw 2001: fig. 1) t h a t the S p a r t a c a n a r m y w a s c r e a t e d t o s o m e e x t e n t by the m i l i t a r y training a n d d i s c i p l i n e t h a t t h e y h a d a c q u i r e d f r o m their R o m a n m a s t e r s (Bellum Gallicum 1 . 4 0 . 6 ) . W h a t e v e r the t r u t h o f the m a t t e r , he h a d certainly g a i n e d s o m e e x p e r i e n c e o f m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d b e f o r e b e i n g c a p t u r e d a n d sent t o the school of gladiators at C a p u a . V a r r o , a l e a r n e d a n t i q u a r i a n s c h o l a r w h o served a s a legate with P o m p e y b o t h in the S e r t o r i a n W a r ( 8 2 - 7 2 BC) a n d in the e a s t , o n sea a n d l a n d , w r o t e o n just a b o u t everything i m a g i n a b l e , including of c o u r s e o n rural science. In one lost w o r k by h i m , there w a s a n intriguing reference t o S p a r t a c u s : A l t h o u g h he w a s an innocent m a n , Spartacus w a s condemned to a gladiatorial school ( q u o t e d in F l a v i u s S o s i p a t e r C h a r i s i u s Ars Grammatica 1.133 K e i l ) . S p a r t a c u s w a s certainly a f r e e b o r n T h r a c i a n , a s c o r r o b o r a t e d by Plutarch (Crassus 8.2) a n d A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 6 ) , w h e r e a s A t h e n a i o s s t a t e m e n t that he w a s a s l a v e , a T h r a c i a n by o r i g i n ( 6 . 2 7 2 f ) refers only t o his s t a t u s at the time of his e s c a p e . H e r e it is i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t the n e a t c h a n g e f r o m nomadikou t o maidikou in P l u t a r c h Crassus 8 . 2 is d u e t o K o n r a d Z i e g l e r ( 1 9 5 5 : 2 4 8 - 5 0 ) ; the t r a n s m i t t e d t e x t is c o r r u p t e d a n d i n s t e a d of a T h r a c i a n of n o m a d i c s t o c k , the n a m e o f the T h r a c i a n tribe of the M a e d i is very likely here. Ziegler a r g u e s t h a t S p a r t a c u s w a s a p r i s o n e r o f w a r f r o m the M a e d i of the central S t r y m o n Valley ( s o u t h - w e s t e r n B u l g a r i a ) , a c q u i r e d in R o m e s c a m p a i g n s o f either 8 5 BC o r 7 6 BC (e.g. D i o d o r o s 3 9 . 8 . 1 , A p p i a n Mithridatica 55). F r e e T h r a c i a n tribes p r o b a b l y s u p p l i e d a u x i l i a r i e s for the R o m a n forces in M a c e d o n i a , w h o s e governors m o u n t e d a n u m b e r of punitive c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t l o c a l t r i b e s in the seventies BC. T h e n , t o c o u n t e r the g r o w i n g threat of the P o n t i c k i n g , M i t h r i d a t e s V I , t o B i t h y n i a o n the e a s t e r n b o r d e r of T h r a c e ,28
    • RIGHTThe modern frontier betweenGreece and Bulgaria north ofSidhirokastro, Strymon Valley,the Thracian homeland ofSpartacus. At the time ofhis birth Thrace was stillan independent land thoughit was already the victim ofRoman punitive expeditions,intrusions that eventuallyadded Thracian territory to theRoman province of Macedonia.Thracian auxiliaries were oftenemployed by the Romans asraiders and skirmishers.(Fields-Carre Collection)BELOWLater a Thracian, threx, was atype of gladiator who foughtwith the sica. In Spartacustime, however, thrax was the the R o m a n s b e g a n t o p u s h i n t o T h r a c e . T h a t c o u l d h a v e driven S p a r t a c u s toterm for the people of thetribes who lived between the d e s e r t the R o m a n s a n d fight a g a i n s t t h e m in a n a t t e m p t t o s t o p the e x p a n s i o nDanube, the Aegean and the o f R o m e s p o w e r into his tribal h o m e l a n d . It is q u i t e p o s s i b l e .Black Sea, and the curved knife O f c o u r s e it is n o t c e r t a i n t h a t the rebel s l a v e s w e r e a h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u pwas by no means common to u n d e r the s o l e l e a d e r s h i p o f S p a r t a c u s , a n d it is difficult to believe this w a sthem all. Grave marker (Paris,Musée du Louvre, MA 4992) i n d e e d the c a s e . W h i l e this is the u n s p o k e n a s s u m p t i o n o f the ancient s o u r c e s ,of Antaios set up by his wife. w e d o hear of other leaders - C r i x u s , O e n o m a u s , C a s t u s and Gannicus.(Fields-Carre Collection) Plutarch d o e s n o t i n t r o d u c e S p a r t a c u s until the o c c u p a t i o n of M o u n t Vesuvius, w h e r e the g l a d i a t o r s c h o s e three l e a d e r s , S p a r t a c u s b e i n g o n e of t h e m , a n d i n d e e d being c o n s i d e r e d the first a m o n g s t e q u a l s (protos in Plutarchs G r e e k , cf. Sallust Historiae 3 . 9 0 , princeps gladiatorum); the other t w o b e i n g C r i x u s a n d O e n o m a u s , w h o w e r e G a u l s a c c o r d i n g t o O r o s i u s ( 5 . 2 4 . 1 ) . F l o r u s (Epitome 3.20.3) h a s t h e m e s c a p i n g w i t h S p a r t a c u s f r o m the g l a d i a t o r i a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l , w h e r e a s A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 6 ) , w h i l e a g r e e i n g t h a t they w e r e g l a d i a t o r s , s h o w s t h e m emerging as Spartacus subordinates once raiding a n d p i l l a g i n g f r o m V e s u v i u s w a s in p r o g r e s s . O n the o t h e r h a n d , L i v y (Periochae 95) suggests Crixus a n d S p a r t a c u s w e r e c o - l e a d e r s ( O e n o m a u s n o t being mentioned here), while Orosius (5.24.1) suggests t h a t all t h r e e w e r e m o r e or less e q u a l l e a d e r s w h e n Vesuvius w a s occupied. Yet it s e e m s t h a t it w a s S p a r t a c u s w h o s u p p l i e d the s p a r k , the b r a i n s , a n d w e s h o u l d m a r v e l at the l e a d e r s h i p skills e x h i b i t e d b y h i m . H e w a s a m e r e g l a d i a t o r , w i t h n o o r g a n i z e d g o v e r n m e n t behind h i m , n o t r a i n e d s o l d i e r s a t his b e c k a n d c a l l , n o a r s e n a l o f w e a p o n s a n d e q u i p m e n t u p o n w h i c h he c o u l d draw. Beginning with nothing, Spartacus organized, e q u i p p e d , t r a i n e d a n d fed a n a r m y , a difficult a n d brilliant stroke of policy. T h e rebellion certainly g a v e h i m the perfect o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s e r t a n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y for l e a d e r s h i p . W e s h o u l d n o t e a c o m p a r i s o n30
    • w i t h a R o m a n c o m m a n d e r , w h o held his p o s i t i o n b y r e a s o nof his r a n k r a t h e r t h a n his fighting q u a l i t i e s , a n d i n v a r i a b l yd e p e n d e d o n the fighting q u a l i t i e s o f the R o m a n l e g i o n i n s t e a dof k n o w l e d g e of s t r a t e g y a n d t a c t i c s . A p p i a n , w h o generally paints a rather m o r e d a m n i n g pictureof S p a r t a c u s than Plutarch, d o e s h o w e v e r give us t w o veryinteresting pieces of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i m . First, S p a r t a c u sdivided e q u a l l y the s p o i l s w o n f r o m v i c t o r i e s o r r a i d s , a n d thisg e n e r a l rule o f e q u a l t r e a t m e n t f o r e v e r y b o d y a t t r a c t e d m o r ef o l l o w e r s t o his c a m p . S e c o n d , S p a r t a c u s b a n n e d m e r c h a n t sf r o m b r i n g i n g in g o l d or silver a n d d i d n o t a l l o w a n y o n e in hisc a m p t o p o s s e s s any. S o t h e r e w a s n o t r a d e in t h e s e p r e c i o u sm e t a l s . T h e n a g a i n he d i d e n c o u r a g e the t r a d e in i r o n a n dc o p p e r , a n d a s a result o f this c o m m o n - s e n s e p o l i c y the s l a v e s h a d plenty of r a w m a t e r i a l a n d w e r e well e q u i p p e d a n d m a d efrequent r a i d i n g e x p e d i t i o n s ( A p p i a n Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 7 ) .MARCUS LICINIUS CRASSUSW h e n he w a s a s s i g n e d the t a s k o f p u t t i n g d o w n the S p a r t a c a nrebellion, M a r c u s L i c i n i u s C r a s s u s w a s n o s t r a n g e r t o m i l i t a r yc o m m a n d . L i k e P o m p e y , the y o u n g C r a s s u s h a d j o i n e d L u c i u sC o r n e l i u s S u l l a d u r i n g his s e c o n d m a r c h o n R o m e . U n l i k eP o m p e y , however, C r a s s u s h a d a p e r s o n a l f e u d w i t h the M a r i a nfaction. H i s father h a d led the o p p o s i t i o n t o M a r i u s d u r i n g hisb l o o d s t a i n e d seventh c o n s u l s h i p , a n d h a d a n t i c i p a t e d his fate b ys t a b b i n g himself t o d e a t h ( C i c e r o De oratore 3 . 1 0 ) . In the r e s u l t i n gp u r g e C r a s s u s elder b r o t h e r w a s l i q u i d a t e d a n d the familys e s t a t e s s e i z e d . Grave marker (Aphrodisias, inv.Yet at the time of the rebellion C r a s s u s , w h o w a s n o w in his early forties, w a s 1067) of a gladiator, a Thracian or threx. It was not until theo n e of the w e a l t h i e s t m e n in R o m e a n d allegedly the citys g r e a t e s t l a n d l o r d . Principate that the trademark C r a s s u s h a d laid the f o u n d a t i o n s o f his m o n s t r o u s w e a l t h in the t i m e o f equipment of a threx wouldterror under Sulla, b u y i n g u p c o n f i s c a t e d p r o p e r t y of the p r o s c r i b e d at r o c k - consist of a wide-brimmedb o t t o m p r i c e s . H e h a d m u l t i p l i e d it b y a c q u i r i n g d e p r e c i a t e d o r b u r n t - o u t crested helmet with visor (galea), quilted fabric leg andhouses for next to nothing a n d rebuilding t h e m w i t h his w o r k f o r c e o f h u n d r e d s arm defences (fasciae etof specially trained slaves (Plutarch Crassus 2 . 3 - 4 ) . Yet for C r a s s u s m o n e y w a s manicae), high greaves (ocrea)not the m e a n s t o profit a n d p l e a s u r e , however, b u t the m e a n s t o p o w e r . A n d on both legs, a small, round ort h o u g h , like any s h r e w d b u s i n e s s m a n , he did his u t m o s t to increase his p e r s o n a l square shield (parma), and a short, slightly-curved swordfortune by all k i n d s of investments a n d s h a d y d e a l s , his p r i m a r y c o n c e r n w a s (sica). (Fields-Carre Collection)to e x t e n d his political influence. A genial h o s t , a g e n e r o u s d i s p e n s e r o f l o a n sa n d a shrewd p a t r o n of the potentially useful, he e n s u r e d his m o n e y b o u g h t h i mi m m e n s e influence. H a l f the S e n a t e w a s in his d e b t , a n d a d e b t t a k e n o u t w i t hC r a s s u s a l w a y s c a m e w i t h h e a v y political interest. N o o n e , C r a s s u s is r e p o r t e d t o h a v e b o a s t e d , c o u l d call h i m s e l f rich untilhe w a s a b l e t o s u p p o r t a legion o n his y e a r l y i n c o m e (Pliny Historia Naturalis3 3 . 1 3 4 ) . T h e c o s t of this is easily d e t e r m i n a b l e . In 5 2 BC C r a s s u s rival o f o l d ,P o m p e y , w o u l d r e c e i v e f r o m the s t a t e 1 , 0 0 0 t a l e n t s o u t o f w h i c h h e w a se x p e c t e d t o feed a n d m a i n t a i n his s o l d i e r s ( P l u t a r c h Pompey 5 5 . 7 ) . A t thet i m e P o m p e y s p r o v i n c e s w e r e I b e r i a a n d A f r i c a , in w h i c h t h e r e w e r es t a t i o n e d six l e g i o n s (ibid. 5 2 . 3 w i t h A p p i a n Bellum civilia 2 . 2 4 ) . O n e t a l e n tw a s w o r t h 6 , 0 0 0 G r e e k drachmae, which w a s equivalent to 6 , 0 0 0 R o m a ndenarii or 2 4 , 0 0 0 sestertii. T h u s s i x l e g i o n s c o s t s i x m i l l i o n denarii to 31
    • m a i n t a i n , the c o s t for o n e w o u l d be f o u r million sestertii per a n n u m . B u t here w e s h o u l d r e m e m b e r t h a t this is C r a s s u s m i n i m u m q u a l i f i c a t i o n for the e p i t h e t rich; Pliny, in the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d p a s s a g e , says C r a s s u s fortune w a s w o r t h 2 0 0 million sestertii. O b v i o u s l y C r a s s u s w a s o n e w h o c o u l d s u p p o r t not only a legion but a whole army. Fleeing the b o u n t y h u n t e r s , the y o u n g C r a s s u s h a d left M a r i a n R o m e a n d m a d e it to Iberia where his fathers spell a s p r o c o n s u l h a d been immensely p r o f i t a b l e . D e s p i t e b e i n g a fugitive, he h a d t a k e n the u n h e a r d - o f step o f recruiting his o w n p r i v a t e army, a force of s o m e 2 , 5 0 0 clients a n d d e p e n d a n t s . C r a s s u s h a d then led it a r o u n d the M e d i t e r r a n e a n , s a m p l i n g alliances with other a n t i - M a r i a n factions, b e f o r e finally sailing for G r e e c e a n d t h r o w i n g his lot in w i t h Sulla. A t the battle of P o r t a C o l l i n a (2 N o v e m b e r 8 2 BC) he w o u l d shatter the S a m n i t e left w i n g a n d thereby s a v e Sulla. Sadly, his besetting sin of a v a r i c e lost h i m the f a v o u r of the dictator s o o n a f t e r w a r d s w h e n he a d d e d to the p r o s c r i p t i o n lists the n a m e of a m a n w h o s e property he w a n t e d . Sulla d i s c o v e r e d this, a n d never t r u s t e d C r a s s u s a g a i n (Plutarch Crassus 6 . 6 - 7 ) . F a b u l o u s l y w e a l t h y he w a s , b u t his d r i v i n g a m b i t i o n w a s m i l i t a r y glory. H e t o o k o n the c o m m a n d a g a i n s t S p a r t a c u s w h e n m a n y other s e n a t o r s w e r e r e l u c t a n t t o d o s o . B e c a u s e o f the total humiliation that w o u l d have followed from it, a n a n n i h i l a t i n g d e f e a t a t the h a n d s of a s l a v e a r m y w o u l d h a v e s u n k a n y political career. Besides, a s well a s the u n s p e a k a b l e s h a m e in s u c h a defeat, t h e r e w a s little v i r t u e in p u t t i n g d o w n s l a v e s . B e h i n d the a c c e p t a n c e o f c o u r s e lay C r a s s u s political rivalry w i t h the s u p r e m e egotist, P o m p e y .Grave marker (Aphrodisias, inv. C r a s s u s first a c t i o n o n t a k i n g c o m m a n d w a s t o revive a n a n c i e n t a n d1070) of the gladiator Phortis, a terrible f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t t o strike m o r t a l t e r r o r in his s o l d i e r s h e a r t s . H eretiarius. Another speciality of inflicted the fate o f d e c i m a t i o n o n the r e l u c t a n t m e m b e r s o f t w o legions w h othe Principate, a net-man wasequipped with a quilted fabric h a d s u r v i v e d a recent h a m m e r i n g b y S p a r t a c u s . H e selected 5 0 0 soldiers w h oarm protector (manica), which h a d r u n f r o m the b a t t l e , then d i v i d e d t h e m in t o 5 0 g r o u p s of ten. E a c h g r o u pwas often topped with a of ten h a d t o select a victim by lot f r o m a m o n g t h e m . T h e n the r e m a i n i n g ninebronze shoulder-piece w e r e o r d e r e d t o c l u b the t e n t h m a n t o d e a t h , the c o u r a g e o u s a l o n g w i t h the(galerus), fish net (refe), three-pronged fish fork (fascina), and c o w a r d l y , w h i l e the r e s t o f the a r m y l o o k e d o n ( P l u t a r c h Crassus 10.2-3,a small dagger (pugio). The A p p i a n Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 8 ) . M i l i t a r y discipline w a s r e - i m p o s e d . A t the s a m eretiarius was the only type of t i m e , a w a r n i n g w a s sent t o the o p p o s i t i o n t h a t they c o u l d e x p e c t n o m e r c ygladiator whose head and face f r o m a c o m m a n d e r p r e p a r e d t o i m p o s e s u c h s a n c t i o n s u p o n his o w n m e n .was uncovered. (Fields-CarreCollection) O n fleeing the b a t t l e f i e l d , m a n y o f the l e g i o n a r i e s h a d left their w e a p o n s t o i n c r e a s e the r e b e l s a l r e a d y g r o w i n g s t o r e . A p p a r e n t l y C r a s s u s i s s u e d n e w a r m s o n p a y m e n t o f a d e p o s i t . In later life C r a s s u s w o u l d be indicted w i t h s e d u c i n g a V e s t a l V i r g i n , b u t p r o c e d u r e s h a d b r o u g h t t o light t h a t the n o c t u r n a l visits t o the s m a l l t e m p l e o f V e s t a h a d b e e n n o t h i n g b u t b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s a n d n o t o f the h e a r t . A p p a r e n t l y the l a d y in q u e s t i o n , Licinia w a s her32
    • n a m e , o w n e d a d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n c e in the s u b u r b s a n d C r a s s u s w a n t e dto b u y it at a very f a v o u r a b l e p r i c e , h e n c e the a m o r o u s a t t e n t i o n a n dthe s u b s e q u e n t s c a n d a l . It w a s his a v a r i c e t h a t c l e a r e d h i m o fh a v i n g c o r r u p t e d the l a d y , P l u t a r c h e x p l a i n s , b u t he d i d n o t d i dn o t let Licinia a l o n e until he h a d a c q u i r e d the p r o p e r t y (Crassus1.2). S u c h a f a r c e a s this m u s t h a v e r o c k e d all R o m e . C r a s s u s a v a r i c e is, i n d e e d , e m p h a s i z e d f r o m the very s t a r t o fPlutarchs biography. Even a m o n g his m a t u r e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s C r a s s u s wealth w a s proverbial, as w a s his willingness to acquire it by a n y m e a n swhatsoever. Wealth w a s to be o b t a i n e d by inheritance a n d e x p a n d e dby agriculture a n d by the s p o i l s o f war. T h e r e w e r e o t h e r f o r m s o fm a k i n g m o n e y such a s m i n i n g , usury, t a x f a r m i n g , a n d t r a d e , b u t theseh a d to be left to the equites, p r o s p e r o u s R o m a n s b e l o w the senatorialorder w h o did n o t c o m p e t e for public office or h o l d provincialc o m m a n d s . S e n a t o r s were held to a higher s t a n d a r d . N o t s oC r a s s u s : he a c c u m u l a t e d w e a l t h by a g g r e s s i v e l y p r o f i t i n gfrom the misfortune of others. Certainly the R o m a n s s a y , a sPlutarch puts it, that in the c a s e of C r a s s u s m a n y virtues w e r eo b s c u r e d by o n e vice, n a m e l y a v a r i c e (Crassus 2.1). Indeed asimilar p o i n t is m a d e by the R o m a n h i s t o r i a n VelleiusP a t e r c u l u s : A l t h o u g h C r a s s u s w a s , in his g e n e r a l character,entirely upright a n d free f r o m b a s e desires, in his lust for m o n e ya n d his a m b i t i o n for g l o r y he k n e w n o limits, a n d a c c e p t e d n ob o u n d s (Historiae Romanae 2.46.2). C e r t a i n l y his grisly a n d p o i n t l e s s e n d , w h i c h P l u t a r c h e l a b o r a t e s w i t h a Marble bust (Copenhagen, Nyd r a m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the delivery o f C r a s s u s freshly s e v e r e d h e a d t o the Carlsberg Glyptotek, inv. 749) found in the Tomb of the Licinii,P a r t h i a n k i n g , w a s the result o f a n e x c e s s o f a m b i t i o n . It w a s t o s s e d f r o m Rome. It is possible that thish a n d to h a n d like a ball d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f a p e r f o r m a n c e o f E u r i p i d e s represents the future triumvirBacchae, w h i c h the k i n g , w h o k n e w G r e e k a n d w a s well v e r s e d in G r e e k Marcus Licinius Crassus. Unlikeliterature (Crassus 3 3 . 2 ) , h a d p r e s e n t e d o n the a f t e r n o o n o f the v i c t o r y o v e r his predecessors, Crassus did not make the mistake ofR o m e . T h e S p a r t a c a n rebellion a n d the P a r t h i a n c a m p a i g n w e r e the t w o m o s t underestimating Spartacus.i m p o r t a n t m i l i t a r y u n d e r t a k i n g s o f C r a s s u s career, a n d P l u t a r c h s v i e w o f He saw the war as a waythe d a n g e r s o f n a k e d a m b i t i o n is m a d e the m o r e tellingly w h e n the r e a d e r of furthering his politicalu n d e r s t a n d s t h a t the s u c c e s s o f the first led directly t o the c a t a s t r o p h e o f the ambitions and satisfying his hunger for military glory.s e c o n d in C r a s s u s d e s p e r a t e struggle t o k e e p p a c e w i t h P o m p e y ( a n d C a e s a r ) , (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)a s his lust for g l o r y led h i m t o w a r d s C a r r h a e ( H a r r a n , T u r k e y ) , a c a r a v a nt o w n s h i m m e r i n g in the a r i d w a s t e s o f n o r t h e r n M e s o p o t a m i a . 33
    • OPPOSING ARMIES A c c o r d i n g to o u r sources, over a period of s o m e t w o years the slave army w o n a t l e a s t nine e n c o u n t e r s a n d s a c k e d a t l e a s t f o u r m a j o r t o w n s . I n d e e d , m a n y o f t h e f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n s l a v e s , like S p a r t a c u s , m a y h a v e p r e v i o u s l y seen m i l i t a r y service in t h e a r m i e s o f R o m e o r o f t h e H e l l e n i s t i c k i n g s , o r f o u g h t a s t r i b a l w a r r i o r s in m i s c e l l a n e o u s t r i b a l w a r s . A s f o r t h e R o m a n s , they a t t a c h e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i m p o r t a n c e t o t r a i n i n g , a n d it is this t h a t l a r g e l y e x p l a i n s t h e f o r m i d a b l e s u c c e s s o f their a r m y . A n d w h a t c a n I s a y a b o u t t h e t r a i n i n g o f l e g i o n s ? is t h e r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n aired b y C i c e r o . P u t a n e q u a l l y b r a v e , b u t u n t r a i n e d s o l d i e r in t h e front line a n d he will l o o k like a w o m a n (Tusculanae disputationes 2 . 1 6 . 3 7 ) . T h e basic aim o f this t r a i n i n g w a s t o g i v e t h e l e g i o n s s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h e b a r b a r i a n in b a t t l e . T h e r e f o r e R o m a n s t r e n g t h l a y in t h e set-piece b a t t l e , the decisive c l a s h o f o p p o s i n g a r m i e s t h a t settled t h e i s s u e o n e w a y o r another. In this role the l e g i o n u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d v e r y w e l l . Still, S p a r t a c u s w a s n o b a r b a r i a n g e n e r a l , n o r w a s his a r m y a b a r b a r i a n h o r d e . THE SLAVE ARMY T h e e v i d e n c e in t h e s o u r c e s c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d s u s t h a t t h e v a r i e d ethnic a n d c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f S p a r t a c u s h o s t m a k e its spirit inherently u n s t a b l e . Y e t this h e t e r o g e n e o u s b o d y o f m e n j u s t r e l e a s e d f r o m s l a v e r y b e c a m e a s u r p r i s i n g l y effective f i g h t i n g f o r c e t h a t r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t its m e m b e r s c o u l d s t a n d u p t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e d l e g i o n s o f R o m e . S p a r t a c u s never h a d c a v a l r y , s u c h a s H a n n i b a l d i d , b u t h e d i d p u t s u c h a unit together, a c c o r d i n g t o F l o r u s , b y b r e a k i n g in w i l d h o r s e s t h a t t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d (Epitome 3 . 2 0 . 7 ) . E v e n s o , b e i n g a n i n f a n t r y - b a s e d f o r c e , the a g e - o l d military virtues o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n , e n d u r a n c e , ingenuity, b o l d n e s s , a n d c o u r a g e e n a b l e d S p a r t a c u s t o k e e p h i s s l a v e a r m y f r o m b e i n g d e s t r o y e d a n d t o p r e v e n t his infant rebellion from being crushed. N a t u r a l l y it c a n b e a r g u e d t h a t in s u c h a v a s t m u l t i r a c i a l g a t h e r i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a m o n g its m e m b e r s w o u l d h a v e b e e n difficult t o s a y t h e l e a s t . H o w e v e r , it w o u l d b e n a i v e t o a s s u m e s u c h a n a r g u m e n t a s it g l o s s e s o v e r the n e c e s s a r y p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t if foreign slaves a n d their R o m a n m a s t e r s h a d t o e s t a b l i s h b a s i c f o r m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n in o r d e r f o r w o r k t o b e a c c o m p l i s h e d , t h e n s u c h a s y s t e m o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n c o u l d b e e x p l o i t e d by s l a v e s f o r their o w n p u r p o s e s . Moreover, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p i d g i n a n d Creole l a n g u a g e s in m o d e r n s l a v e s o c i e t i e s s h o w s t h a t l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r s34
    • between slaves were p r o b l e m s that c o u l d bes u r m o u n t e d , a n d the s a m e c a n b e i m a g i n e d for thea r m y o f S p a r t a c u s w h e r e the lingua franca wasprobably a d e b a s e d form of Latin. S p a r t a c u s followers, it is r e p o r t e d , w e r e m a i n l yG a u l s , G e r m a n s , or other T h r a c i a n s (SallustHistoriae 3 . 9 6 , P l u t a r c h Crassus 8 . 1 , 9 . 5 , 6, L i v yPeriochae 9 7 ) . It h a s been s u g g e s t e d that the G a u l sa n d the G e r m a n s , a l o n g with the T h r a c i a n s , w e r e allf r o m the B a l k a n s , recently b r o u g h t t o Italy a s theh u m a n spoils of war. H o w e v e r , w e m u s t n o t forgetthe trade in p r o v i d i n g slaves to Italy f r o m G a u l itself.This human commerce w a s brought along majorslave-trading n e t w o r k s - f r o m northern E u r o p e , f r o mlands north a n d east of the R h i n e , a n d f r o m the l a n d sof the u p p e r reaches of the D a n u b e - t o the w e s t e r nM e d i t e r r a n e a n d o w n the R h o n e t o A r e l a t e (Aries),M a s s i l i a ( M a r s e i l l e ) a n d other s e a p o r t s in G a l l i aT r a n s a l p i n a . O b v i o u s l y these s l a v e s w e r e m a i n l yG a u l s a n d G e r m a n s , but other slaves c a m e f r o m theregion north of the lower D a n u b e a n d the B l a c k S e a .T h e m a i n s l a v e - t r a d i n g r o u t e here r a n t h r o u g hT h r a c e to s e a p o r t s o n the n o r t h e r n s h o r e s o f theA e g e a n . T h e fact that T h r a c e w a s a c r o s s r o a d s in thistraffic in h u m a n s , a n d itself fed significant n u m b e r sof its p o p u l a t i o n into the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n a sslaves, is p a r t i c u l a r l y significant in u n d e r s t a n d i n gthe n u m b e r of T h r a c i a n s f o u n d a m o n g the f o l l o w e r sof S p a r t a c u s . L i k e the t w o earlier slave w a r s m o s t o f the slaves w h o j o i n e d the S p a r t a c a n Ludovisi Gaul (Rome, MNRrebellion, w h a t e v e r their p r o v e n a n c e , w e r e s i m p l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s a n d Palazzo Altemps, inv. 8608), Roman copy of a bronzeherdsmen. Agricultural slaves, namely those w h o cultivated cereals, vines, originally dedicated to Athenaolives a n d other a r b o r e a l c r o p s , w o r k e d u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Bringer of Victory by Attalos Ithe h a n d b o o k s o n a g r i c u l t u r e , a s a l r e a d y n o t e d , the i d e a l w a s t o h a v e the of Pergamon (r. 241 -197 BC).slaves d e p l o y e d in w o r k g a n g s of 13 to 1 6 p e o p l e . F o r p u r p o s e s o f surveillance This statue group is usually interpreted as a Gallica n d security, d u r i n g the night or at t i m e s they w e r e n o t l a b o u r i n g in the fields, chieftain and his wife,the slaves w e r e s h a c k l e d a n d p e n n e d in q u a r t e r s k n o w n a s ergastula, or work bravely pre-empting captureb a r r a c k s . W o r k e d like a n i m a l s , the s l a v e s w e r e h o u s e d like a n i m a l s . by suicide. It rightly reminds T h e o p e n e x p a n s e s of s o u t h e r n Italy a n d Sicily w e r e m o r e a r i d a n d c o u l d us that women were an integral and important part of the slaven o t easily s u s t a i n a v i a b l e m a r k e t - o r i e n t a t e d a g r i c u l t u r e b a s e d o n c a s h c r o p s . army. (Fields-Carre Collection)In t h e s e r e g i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , s l a v e o w n e r s d e v e l o p e d a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o fagriculture t h a t m i x e d the c u l t i v a t i o n o f cereals w i t h the r a i s i n g o f l a r g e h e r d so f cattle a n d s h e e p , s o m e t i m e s p i g s a n d g o a t s . M e n like the R o m a n equesP u b l i u s A u f i d i u s P o n t i a n u s , a w e a l t h y l a n d o w n e r o f A m i t e r n u m in the h e a r tof the S a b i n e h i g h l a n d s , w h o b r o u g h t , a s S p a r t a c u s R o m a n c o n t e m p o r a r yV a r r o tells u s , h e r d s in furthest U m b r i a t o h a v e t h e m d r i v e n t o the p a s t u r e sof M e t a p o n t u m a n d to m a r k e t at H e r a c l e a (On Agriculture 2.9.6), a distanceof s o m e 4 5 0 k m . U n d e r the c a r e of s l a v e h e r d s m e n , pastores, s u c h h e r d s s p e n tthe s u m m e r in the m o u n t a i n s a n d the w i n t e r o n the p l a i n s . O b v i o u s l y t h e s eslaves c o u l d n o t be c o n s t r a i n e d by c h a i n s o r h o u s e d in ergastula each night.T h e y h a d t o be free t o f o l l o w the h e r d s . In a d d i t i o n , they h a d t o be a r m e d t op r o t e c t the a n i m a l s f r o m p r e d a t o r s , f o u r - l e g g e d a n d t w o - l e g g e d v a r i e t y a l i k e . 35
    • Spartacus & Crixus movements, spring 72 B C36
    • In Sicily, in the d e c a d e s p r e c e d i n g the First Slave War,R o m a n a n d Italian l a n d o w n e r s c o n s c i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e dtheir slave h e r d s m e n in the practice of b a n d i t r y a s a f o r mof e c o n o m i c self-help. F r e e l a n c e r a i d i n g a n d p i l l a g i n g ,e n c o u r a g e d by the l a n d o w n e r , a l l o w e d h i m t o e s c a p e theo n e r o u s b u r d e n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h the s u r v e i l l a n c e a n dm a i n t e n a n c e o f d i s t a n t l y r o a m i n g b a n d s o f his s l a v eh e r d s m e n at the e x p e n s e of u n p r o t e c t e d village a n d f a r mdwellers w h o b e c a m e the t a r g e t o f w i d e s p r e a d a c t s o fbanditry. C o n s e q u e n t l y Sicily w a s r e d u c e d t o a n i s l a n dinfested with b a n d s of s l a v e h e r d s m e n w h o r o a m e d a twill t h r o u g h o u t the l a n d like d e t a c h m e n t s o f s o l d i e r s (Diodoros 35.2.1). Despite formal complaints, R o m a ng o v e r n o r s h e s i t a t e d t o e n f o r c e the rule o f l a w a n d t orepress b r i g a n d a g e b e c a u s e of the p r e s s u r e b r o u g h t t obear o n t h e m by the p o w e r f u l l a n d o w n e r s . In 7 1 BC, the y e a r the S p a r t a c a n rebellion w a sextinguished, C i c e r o delivered a forensic s p e e c h , the ProTullio, which survives only in f r a g m e n t s . B u t its interestfor us is c o n s i d e r a b l e , for C i c e r o t a k e s us into the wildhill-country of L u c a n i a w h e r e w e find c a t t l e - b a r o n sa n d their hired h a n d s , a r m e d slaves that is, r a i d i n g a n dplundering each others herds a n d h o m e s t e a d s ( S t o c k t o n1 9 7 1 : 1 9 ) . Ciceros client, M a r c u s Tullius, h a d in fact h a dhis villa in the region of Thurii r a z e d to the g r o u n d a n dhis slaves b u t c h e r e d by a n a r m e d b a n d b e l o n g i n g t o acertain Publius F a b i u s , t h o u g h Tullius o w n pastores w e r equite c a p a b l e of similar atrocities. Dying Gaul (Rome, Musei T h e c e n t r a l n a t u r a l a d v a n t a g e o f s l a v e h e r d s m e n w a s their f r e e d o m o f Capitolini, inv. 747), Roman copy of a bronze originallym o v e m e n t a n d the p o s s e s s i o n o f a r m s . F r o m V a r r o s r e m a r k s o n pastores in dedicated to Athena Bringerthe a g r i c u l t u r a l h a n d b o o k he p u b l i s h e d in 3 7 B C , n e a r the e n d o f his l o n g of Victory by Attalos I ofa n d a c t i v e life, a s e n s e o f w h a t t h e y w e r e like c a n b e g l e a n e d . P r e f e r a b l y , Pergamon (r. 241-197 BC).V a r r o s a y s , h e r d s m e n w h o p a s t u r e d l i v e s t o c k for s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d s w i t h o u t The oversize warrior was glamorized soon after itsreturning daily t o the f a r m s t e a d w e r e t o be p h y s i c a l l y m a t u r e , b o y s b e i n g o f discovery as a Dying Gladiatorlittle use for this k i n d o f g r a f t , a n d well a b o v e a v e r a g e in fitness, in v i e w o f - butchered to make a Romanthe r i g o u r s o f their w o r k a n d the t e r r a i n t o w h i c h they w e r e d a i l y e x p o s e d . holiday, as Byron puts it in Y o u s h o u l d c h o o s e m e n , he e x p l a i n s , o f p o w e r f u l p h y s i q u e , f a s t - m o v i n g Childe Harold. Yet the torque,a n d n i m b l e , w h o a r e n o t c l u m s y w h e n they m o v e their l i m b s , a n d a r e j u s t moustache and spiky hair are very much Gaulish traits.n o t a b l e t o f o l l o w after the flock b u t a l s o t o d e f e n d it f r o m p r e d a t o r y b e a s t s (Fields-Carre Collection)or b r i g a n d s , w h o c a n lift l o a d s u p o n t o the b a c k s o f the p a c k a n i m a l s , a r eg o o d a t s p r i n t i n g a n d a t h i t t i n g their t a r g e t (On Agriculture 2.10.3).O b v i o u s l y a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h w e a p o n s w a s s t a n d a r d for t h e s e m e n . T h e i n d e f a t i g a b l e V a r r o , w h o o w n e d l a n d a t b o t h e n d s o f the S a m n i u m -Apulia t r a n s h u m a n c e route a n d p o s s e s s e d large stocks of cattle a n d sheep,o b s e r v e s further t h a t I b e r i a n s w e r e n o t a t all s u i t a b l e for h e r d i n g b u t t h a tG a u l s w e r e , a r e m a r k i m p l y i n g t h a t e v e n in his d a y h e r d s m e n w e r e o f t e nn e w s l a v e s (On Agriculture 2.10.4). So habitually armed and enjoying ac o n s i d e r a b l e f r e e d o m o f m o v e m e n t t h o u g h a n s w e r a b l e t o a magister pecorisor herd m a s t e r , a s they m o v e d their c h a r g e s a l o n g the d r o v e - t r a i l s b e t w e e nm o u n t a i n a n d p l a i n , s u c h m e n , n e w t o slavery, u s e d t o a certain i n d e p e n d e n c ea n d t o relying o n their o w n w i t s a n d r e s o u r c e s for s u r v i v a l , m i g h t well j o i nS p a r t a c u s willingly. 37
    • T h e magister pecoris V a r r o m e n t i o n s w a s to be a m a n physically s t r o n g but older than the rest a n d a l s o m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d (On Agriculture 2.10.2). S u c h s l a v e s , exercising m a n a g e r i a l functions, were u s e d t o c o m m a n d i n g a u t h o r i t y a n d to being o b e y e d . L i k e w i s e the vilicus in a r a b l e farming, w h o o r g a n i z e d the d a y - t o - d a y f i n a n c e s of the f a r m , b r o u g h t a n d s o l d m a t e r i a l s , a n d s u p e r v i s e d the a n n u a l cycle of w o r k . H e a l s o set the w o r k details a n d controlled the w o r k f o r c e ( C a t o On Agriculture 5 . 1 - 5 ) . H e w a s t o be of m i d d l e a g e a n d of strong b o d y a n d be k n o w l e d g e a b l e in agricultural w o r k ( C o l u m e l l a On Agriculture 1 . 8 . 3 ) . T h e vilicus e q u a t e d w i t h magister pecoris a n d these elite slaves p r o v i d e d the m a n a g e r i a l skills a n d technical k n o w - h o w needed to run farms and homesteads e x p l o i t e d by s l a v e l a b o u r . Since they a l r e a d y h a d e x p e r i e n c e in c o n t r o l l i n g a n d directing the w o r k a n d b e h a v i o u r of slaves, they c o u l d easily a p p l y the s a m e skills t o leading the rebels of S p a r t a c u s army. T h e c o r e o f the s l a v e s w h o incited a n d led the r e b e l l i o n , h o w e v e r , w e r e n o t vilici or magistri pecoris, b u t t h o s e w h o h a d b e e n t r a i n e d in b l o o d s h e d a n d s o a k e d in v i o l e n c e , n o t a s soldiers b u t a s g l a d i a t o r s . T h e s e w e r e m e n of the s w o r d , h a r d , a n g r y m e n , d i s c i p l i n e d t o inflict d e a t h o n o t h e r s , a n d , m o s t likely, e v e n t u a l l y be killed b y a s u p e r i o r killer. It w a s w i t h their h e l p t h a tReconstruction of a metal S p a r t a c u s w a s able to t r a n s f o r m w h a t w a s essentially a r a v a g i n g b a n d ofsmelting furnace or hearth, a m a t e u r b a n d i t s , s e e k i n g a p r i m e o p p o r t u n i t y for r a i d i n g a n d l o o t i n g , into aarchaeological open day f o r m i d a b l e fighting f o r c e .Bobigny, Seine-Saint-Denis.Charcoal was the preferred Initially all the a r m s this fighting force h a d w e r e t a k e n in booty, p u r c h a s e dfuel for smelting (reduction o r f o r g e d , w h i c h w a s sufficient o n l y for p a r t o f the s l a v e a r m y . T h e restof ore to metal), as it burned w e r e a r m e d w i t h s i c k l e s , p i t c h f o r k s , r a k e s , flails, a x e s , h a t c h e t s a n d othermore slowly and evenly than i m p l e m e n t s o f the field t h a t c o u l d be called into service for battle p u r p o s e s , or,wood, and since artificialdraught (fan or bellows) was w h e r e even these w e r e l a c k i n g , flourished fire-hardened sticks, s h a r p e n e d poles,used the temperature would hobnailed clubs a n d other w o o d e n points and bludgeons. These makeshiftbe controlled more easily. w e a p o n s w e r e a s m u c h for defence a s for d a m a g i n g the enemy, but naturallyThe blacksmiths in Spartacus n o t h i n g w a s t o be s c o r n e d .camp would have employedthe same smelting techniques. S a l l u s t (Historiae 3 . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 ) t a l k s o f m e n skilled in w e a v i n g a n d b a s k e t -(Fields-Carre Collection) m a k i n g w h o w e r e a b l e t o c o m p e n s a t e for the lack of p r o p e r shields by m a k i n g s m a l l c i r c u l a r b u c k l e r s . F r o n t i n u s (Strategemata 1 . 7 . 6 ) p r o v i d e s us w i t h further d e t a i l s , s a y i n g these w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o u t of vine b r a n c h e s a n d then c o v e r e d w i t h the skins of a n i m a l s . F l o r u s (Epitome 3 . 2 0 . 6 ) h a s the s a m e details c o n c e r n i n g the r o u g h s h i e l d s , a s he calls t h e m , b u t a d d s t h a t s w o r d s a n d s p e a r h e a d s w e r e f o r g e d by m e l t i n g d o w n a n d r e w o r k i n g leg irons t a k e n f r o m ergastula. S a l l u s t h o w e v e r , in a f r a g m e n t referring t o the c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t V a r i n i u s , s a y s the rebels n e e d e d to h a r d e n their s p e a r s in the fire, a n d give t h e m ( a p a r t f r o m the n e c e s s a r y w a r l i k e a p p e a r a n c e ) the c a p a b i l i t y of inflicting a l m o s t a s m u c h d a m a g e a s steel (Historiae 3 . 9 6 ) . E x a c t details m a y differ, b u t the t h e m e is the s a m e , t h a t is, initially the rebels h a d t o e q u i p themselves with makeshift w e a p o n s .38
    • TOP Selection of iron implements and weapons, archaeological open day Bobigny, Seine-Saint- Denis. Blacksmiths did not have the technology to melt iron for casting, so instead it was forged (heated and hammered) using techniques quite adequate for producing very effective implements and weapons. One source of iron for Spartacus blacksmiths would have been the shackles and chains plundered from ergastula. (Fields-Carre Collection) BOTTOM Reconstruction Gallic arms and armour, archaeological open day Bobigny, Seine- Saint-Denis. Here we see the characteristic long slashing- sword of the Gallic warrior, a weapon designed to either hack an opponent to pieces or to beat him to a bloody pulp. It is highly conceivable that such swords were forged by Spartacus blacksmiths for use by the Gauls of his army. (Fields-Carre Collection) T h e h e r d s m e n w h o c a m e t o j o i n S p a r t a c u s w e r e , u n s u r p r i s i n g l y , bettera r m e d a n d e q u i p p e d . T h e s e m e n w e r e s t r o n g a n d wirily built, a c c u s t o m e d t os p e n d i n g their d a y s a n d nights in the o p e n air, n o m a t t e r h o w i n c l e m e n t theweather. H u n t i n g s p e a r s , s h e p h e r d s t a f f s , k n o t t y c u d g e l s a n d s l i n g s s e r v e dt h e m a s w e a p o n s . T h e i r attire c o n s i s t e d o f the s k i n s o f w o l v e s or the h i d e s o fwild b o a r s . In a d d i t i o n they w e r e a c c o m p a n i e d by w a t c h d o g s , calf-sized bruteswith e x t r e m e l y fierce t e m p e r s . S u c h w i l d , w i n d - b u r n e d m e n h a d n o t h i n g t olose a n d everything t o g a i n t h r o u g h w a r , a n d , a s P l u t a r c h s a y s , s o m e of t h e m ,especially t h o s e w i t h legs of i r o n , w e r e e x c e e d i n g l y useful a s s c o u t s a n d light-a r m e d t r o o p s (Crassus 9.3). A c c o r d i n g to A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 6 ) , S p a r t a c u s h a d w e a p o n s m a d efor w h a t h a d b e c o m e , in his r e c k o n i n g , a force o f 7 0 , 0 0 0 after the d e f e a t o fVarinius, while at T h u r i i his f o l l o w e r s b r o u g h t lots o f iron a n d b r o n z e a n d didn o t d o a n y t h i n g t o h a r m p e o p l e w h o t r a d e d in these m e t a l s . In this w a y theyc a m e to be well s u p p l i e d w i t h a lot of w a r m a t e r i a l (ibid. 1 . 1 1 7 ) . N a t u r a l l y 39
    • TOPSheep and goats are lightand mobile, and thus cancope with steep and roughterrain as well as thrive onpoor pastures at higherelevations. Some of Spartacusmanpower came from slaveherdsmen, who lived in theApennines independently formonths at a stretch. Becauseof the nature of theiroccupation, these pastores,as they were called, had tobe armed to deter wildernesspredators. (Fields-Carre Collection)BOTTOMThough most herdsmen ofthe slave army were dressedas such and carried rusticweapons, some are recordedas having watchdogs.Diodoros, on the First SlaveWar, says following closeon the heels of each man wasa pack of fierce dogs (35.2.27).Mosaic in the entrance of aPompeian house depictinga chained dog with baredteeth. Underneath is writtenCAVE CANEM - Beware of theDog! (Fields-Carre Collection) the m o s t fruitful s o u r c e s o f r e a d y - m a d e a r m s a n d e q u i p m e n t w e r e the R o m a n a r m i e s the r e b e l s c o n f r o n t e d a n d d e s t r o y e d . S o the c a p t u r e o f t w o R o m a n c a m p s , t h o s e o f G l a b e r a n d C o s s i n i u s , a n d their battlefield s u c c e s s e s over Varinius produced m o r e acquisitions. Finally, w e s h o u l d s p e a k o f the r o l e o f w o m e n in the s l a v e a r m y . W h e n A p p i a n r e c o r d s t h a t the rebels n u m b e r e d s o m e 7 0 , 0 0 0 , he m a y h a v e included the s o - c a l l e d n o n - c o m b a t a n t s in his t o t a l . B e f o r e the r e b e l l i o n b e g a n , m a n y male slaves must have formed unions with female slaves, wives w h o were p r e p a r e d in the event t o f o l l o w their h u s b a n d s in revolt. W h e n S p a r t a c u s w a s s o l d a s a s l a v e he h a d w i t h h i m a w i f e , a l s o T h r a c i a n by o r i g i n , w h o r e m a i n e d w i t h h i m after his t r a n s f e r t o C a p u a a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d in the r e v o l t he led. P l u t a r c h a d d s s h e w a s a p r o p h e t e s s a n d i n i t i a t e d i n t o the e c s t a t i c cult of D i o n y s o s (Crassus 8 . 3 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y n o m o r e is h e a r d of her, a n d she is o n l y m e n t i o n e d b y P l u t a r c h b e c a u s e she i n t e r p r e t e d the terrible significance o f the s n a k e t h a t o n c e c o i l e d r o u n d his h e a d w i t h o u t h a r m i n g h i m while he slept. P l u t a r c h g i v e s her n o n a m e .40
    • W h i c h b r i n g s us t o a n o t h e r o f P l u t a r c h s c u r i o u s t a l e s . T h e R o m a n s w e r estealthily a p p r o a c h i n g the c a m p o f a g r o u p o f r e b e l s led by G a n n i c u s a n dC a s t u s w h e n they w e r e s p o t t e d by a c o u p l e o f w o m e n . T h e s e t w o h a d left thec a m p a n d g o n e u p the n e a r b y m o u n t a i n t o m a k e , in P l u t a r c h s w o r d s , ritualsacrifices (Crassus 1 1 . 3 ) . S a l l u s t r e c o r d s the s a m e i n c i d e n t , b u t s t a t e s t h a tthe t w o w o m e n , G a u l s , c l i m b e d u p the m o u n t a i n t o s p e n d their m e n s t r u a lp e r i o d s t h e r e (Historiae 4 . 4 0 ) . Either P l u t a r c h m i s r e a d the o r i g i n a l L a t i n , o rdeliberately b o w d l e r i z e d the t e x t . W h a t e v e r , these t w o w o m e n w e r e p r o b a b l ythe w i v e s o f t w o of the r e b e l s .THE ROMAN ARMYC a i u s M a r i u s h a s often been credited with t a k i n g the decisive steps that laid thebasis for the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g a r m y of the P r i n c i p a t e . R o m e w a s n o w thed o m i n a n t p o w e r in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n a n d the a n n u a l levying o f w h a tw a s in effect a part-time citizen militia w a s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the r u n n i n g a n dm a i n t e n a n c e of a w o r l d e m p i r e . M o r e o v e r , d e c a d e s of w a r o v e r s e a s h a d t u r n e dout t h o u s a n d s of trained soldiers, a n d m a n y of them w o u l d have foundthemselves strangers to civilian life after their y e a r s of service a b r o a d . T h e a r m yh a d been their life a n d M a r i u s c a l l e d t h e m b a c k h o m e . B u t b e s i d e s t h e s eleathery o l d v e t e r a n s o f R o m e s d i v e r s e c a m p a i g n s , M a r i u s a l s o e n r o l l e danother m o r e n u m e r o u s k i n d o f volunteer: the m e n w i t h n o t h i n g . A c e n s u s of all a d u l t m a l e citizens r e c o r d e d the v a l u e o f their p r o p e r t y a n ddivided t h e m a c c o r d i n g l y into five p r o p e r t y c l a s s e s . H o w e v e r , t h o s e citizensw h o c o u l d n o t d e c l a r e t o the c e n s o r s the m i n i m u m c e n s u s q u a l i f i c a t i o n fore n r o l m e n t in C l a s s V w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m m i l i t a r y service. L a c k i n g the m e a n st o p r o v i d e t h e m s e l v e s a r m s , t h e s e p o o r citizens w e r e listed in the c e n s u ssimply a s the capite censi or h e a d c o u n t . H o w e v e r , M a r i u s w a s n o t c o n t e n tto s u p p l e m e n t his a r m y by only d r a w i n g u p o n the b r a v e s t s o l d i e r s f r o m theL a t i n t o w n s ( S a l l u s t Bellum lugurthinum 8 4 . 2 ) . T h u s , o f all the r e f o r m sattributed t o M a r i u s , the o p e n i n g of the r a n k s t o capite censi in 1 0 7 BC h a so b v i o u s l y a t t r a c t e d the u n a n i m o u s d i s a p p r o v a l of ancient w r i t e r s , a s e n t i m e n tbest p u t by his n e a r - c o n t e m p o r a r y S a l l u s t : Some said he did this because he could not get enough of a better kind; others, that he wanted to curry favour with men of low condition, since he owed to them his fame and advancement. And indeed, if a man is ambitious for power, he can have no better supporters than the poor: they are not concerned about their own possessions, since they have none, and whatever will put something in their pockets is right and proper in their eyes. (Sallust Bellum lugurthinum 86.2)A n d s o M a r i u s s t a n d s a c c u s e d o f p a v i n g the w a y for the s o - c a l l e d l a w l e s s ,g r e e d y s o l d i e r y w h o s e activities w e r e t h o u g h t t o h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t othe decline a n d fall of the R e p u b l i c a f e w g e n e r a t i o n s later. Yet w e s h o u l d n o t l o s e sight o f the fact t h a t M a r i u s w a s n o t the first t oenrol the capite censi. R o m e w a s ruled by a n a r i s t o c r a t i c o l i g a r c h y e m b e d d e din the S e n a t e , w h i c h d i s a r m e d the w e a r y a n d c h e a t e d p o o r by p r e s s i n g s w o r d sin their h a n d s , the a s s u m p t i o n being t h a t a n y o n e w h o b e c a m e a soldier b e c a m ethereby o n c e a n d for all o n e of the p r o p s o f the ruling order. T h u s at t i m e s o fe x t r e m e crisis in the p a s t the S e n a t e h a d i m p r e s s e d t h e m , a l o n g w i t h c o n v i c t sa n d slaves, for service a s legionaries. In the d a r k d a y s f o l l o w i n g the c r u s h i n g
    • defeat at C a n n a e ( 2 1 6 BC), for instance, t w o legions w e r e enlisted f r o m slave-volunteers (Livy 2 2 . 5 7 . 1 1 , 2 3 . 3 2 . 1 ) . M a r i u s w a s merely carrying one stage further a p r o c e s s visible d u r i n g the 2 n d century BC, by w h i c h the p r e s c r i b e d p r o p e r t y qualification for service in the a r m y w a s e r o d e d a n d b e c a m e less m e a n i n g f u l . N o w the only real prerequisites were t h a t o f R o m a n c i t i z e n s h i p a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s to g o soldiering. N o t i c e a b l y the ancient s o u r c e s d o not say that M a r i u s s w e p t a w a y the q u a l i f i c a t i o n , or c h a n g e d the l a w o n eligibility. O n the c o n t r a r y , he merely a p p e a l e d t o the capite censi for volunteers, w h o m he c o u l d equip f r o m state funds under the legislation d r a w n u p by C a i u s G r a c c h u s in 1 2 3 BC, by which the state w a s r e s p o n s i b l e for e q u i p p i n g the soldier fighting in its defence (Plutarch Caius Gracchus 5 . 1 ) . E v e n before G r a c c h u s lex militaria, there h a d b e e n a p r o g r e s s i v e d e b a s e m e n t of the p r o p e r t y t h r e s h o l d for C l a s s V f r o m 1 1 , 0 0 0 asses to 4 , 0 0 0 asses (Livy 1 . 4 3 . 8 , cf. Polybios 6 . 1 9 . 2 ) . In 1 2 3 BC, as o n e o f the tribunes of the p e o p l e , G r a c c h u s himself r e d u c e s the p r o p e r t y qualification a g a i n , setting the m i n i m u m at 1 , 5 0 0 asses ( G a b b a 1 9 7 6 : 7 - 1 0 ) . T h i s l a s t r e p r e s e n t s a very s m a l l a m o u n t of p r o p e r t y i n d e e d , a l m o s t certainly insufficient to m a i n t a i n a n average-sized family, but the effect w a s a n o n g o i n g a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e the n u m b e r of citizens that qualified for military service. M a r i u s r e f o r m s h o u l d be seen a s the logicalA Roman praetor or consul c o n c l u s i o n t o this d e v e l o p m e n t , s o m e t h i n g R o m e s o v e r s e a s v e n t u r e s o nwas preceded by lictors, each i n c r e a s i n g l y far-flung fields h a d e x a c e r b a t e d . W h a t he d i d w a s t o legalize acarrying on his left shoulder p r o c e s s that h a d been present for a b o u t a century a n d that the Senate h a d faileda ceremonial bundle of bound,wooden rods (fasces) with t o i m p l e m e n t , t h a t is, o p e n i n g u p the a r m y t o all citizens r e g a r d l e s s of theira single-headed axe (securis) p r o p e r t y , a r m i n g t h e m at state e x p e n s e , a n d recruiting t h e m n o t t h r o u g h theembedded in them. These dilectus, the a n n u a l levy, b u t o n a volunteer b a s i s . W i t h M a r i u s the traditionalsymbolized, six for a praetor link b e t w e e n p r o p e r t y a n d defence o f the state w a s b r o k e n forever. W h a t isand 12 for a consul, the powerof the magistrate to discipline m o r e , by the enfranchizing l a w s o f 9 0 - 8 9 BC the recruiting a r e a for t h o s e w h oby the use of physical force. c o u l d serve in the legions w a s e x t e n d e d t o all o f Italy s o u t h of the P o . S o theThis slab is built into a fountain socii - L a t i n a n d Italian allies - d i s a p p e a r e d , a n d the R o m a n a r m y w a s n o wat Paestum. (Fields-Carre c o m p o s e d o f legions o f citizen-soldiers recruited t h r o u g h o u t p e n i n s u l a r Italy,Collection) a n d c o n t i n g e n t s of n o n - I t a l i a n s serving either a s volunteers or a s m e r c e n a r i e s . M a r i u s is a l s o c r e d i t e d w i t h c h a n g e s in t a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , n a m e l y he a b o l i s h e d the m a n i p l e (manipulus, p l . manipuli) a n d s u b s t i t u t e d the c o h o r t a s the s t a n d a r d t a c t i c a l unit o f the l e g i o n . T h e m a n i p u l a r legion of the m i d d l e R e p u b l i c h a d b e e n split i n t o d i s t i n c t b a t t l e lines. B e h i n d a screen o f velites, o r l i g h t - a r m e d t r o o p s , the first line c o m p r i s e d the hastati ( s p e a r m e n ) , the s e c o n d l i n e , t h e s o l d i e r s in their p r i m e , c o m p o s e d o f the principes (chief m e n ) , w h i l e the o l d e s t a n d m o r e m a t u r e m e n w e r e a s s i g n e d t o the third line a n d c a l l e d t h e triarii ( t h i r d - r a n k m e n ) . T h e r e w e r e 1 0 m a n i p l e s a n d 2 0 c e n t u r i e s in e a c h b a t t l e line, m a k i n g a t o t a l o f 3 0 m a n i p l e s a n d 6 0 centuries t o t h e m a n i p u l a r l e g i o n . W h i l e M a r i u s m a i n t a i n e d the c e n t u r i e s a n d the42
    • m a n i p l e s for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , hec h o s e t o d i v i d e his l e g i o n i n t o 1 0 c o h o r t s ,each of which consisted of three m a n i p l e s ,o n e d r a w n f r o m e a c h o f the t h r e e lines o fhastati, principes a n d triarii. T h e c o h o r t (cohors, p l . cohortes) as aformation of three m a n i p l e s w a s not anentirely n o v e l i n n o v a t i o n , a s it a p p e a r s t oh a v e b e e n in u s e a s a t a c t i c a l , a s o p p o s e dto a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x p e d i e n t f r o m the t i m eof the S e c o n d P u n i c War. P o l y b i o s , in hisa c c o u n t ( 1 1 . 2 3 . 1 , cf. 3 3 ) o f the b a t t l e o f Ilipa(206 BC), p a u s e s to explain the m e a n i n g ofthe t e r m cohors t o his G r e e k r e a d e r s h i p .S u r p r i s i n g l y , it r e c e i v e s n o m e n t i o n in hisdetailed a c c o u n t o f a r m y o r g a n i z a t i o n neitherin the s i x t h b o o k n o r in his c o m p a r i s o n o fl e g i o n a n d p h a l a n x in the e i g h t e e n t h b o o k ,a l t h o u g h , it s h o u l d be s t a t e d , t h e r e is littleo n t a c t i c s in b o t h t h e s e n a r r a t i v e s . O n t h eother h a n d , s o m e h a v e d e t e c t e d , in S a l l u s t sa c c o u n t (Bellum lugurthinum 4 9 . 6 ) of theoperations of Quintus Caecilius M e t e l l u s(cos. 1 0 9 BC) a g a i n s t I u g u r t h a ( 1 0 9 - 1 0 8 B C ) ,the last reference t o m a n i p l e s m a n o e u v r i n g a sthe s o l e t a c t i c a l unit o f the b a t t l e line H e n c ea belief t h a t M a r i u s s w e p t t h e m a w a y eitherin 1 0 6 BC or d u r i n g his p r e p a r a t i o n s in 1 0 4 BCfor the w a r w i t h the C i m b r i a n d T e u t o n e s . It is r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the b a t t l e o f P y d n a( 1 6 8 BC) w a s the t r i u m p h o f the R o m a n m a n i p l e o v e r the M a c e d o n i a n Funerary monument of Tiberiusp h a l a n x , a n d this d i s p o s i t i o n w a s a d e q u a t e until R o m e c a m e t o m e e t a n Flavius Miccalus (Istanbul, Arkeoloji Muzesi, 73.7 T),o p p o n e n t w h o a d o p t e d a m e t h o d of a t t a c k different f r o m the s l o w m e t h o d i c a l 1st century BC, from Perinthusa d v a n c e o f the p h a l a n x w i t h its b r i s t l i n g r a m p a r t o f o u t s t r e t c h e d p i k e s (Kamara Dere). On the right(Plutarch Aemilius Paullus 1 9 . 1 ) . T h e tactics o f the G e r m a n i c a n d Celtic tribes, is an officer; his gladius hangsthe latter a r m e d w i t h a l o n g , t w o - e d g e d s w o r d d e s i g n e d for s l a s h i n g , w a s t o on the left, the opposite side to that of the legionary. Thes t a k e everything u p o n a v i g o r o u s o n s l a u g h t at the s t a r t o f the b a t t l e , b e a t i n g deceased was a prefect, whod o w n the shields of the o p p o s i t i o n a n d b r e a k i n g into their f o r m a t i o n . T h i s ranked higher than a militaryw a s a terrifying thing, a n d at t i m e s c o u l d swiftly s w e e p a w a y a n o p p o n e n t - tribune but below a legate.especially a n e r v o u s o n e - b u t if it w a s h a l t e d the t r i b e s m e n w o u l d t e n d t o The other figure is probablylose their e n t h u s i a s m a n d retreat quickly. T o m e e t this brutal m e t h o d of a t t a c k , a standard-bearer or signifer. (Fields-Carre Collection)w h e r e the p e r p e t r a t o r s believed t h a t fighting p o w e r i n c r e a s e d in p r o p o r t i o nto the size o f the m a s s , the f o r m a t i o n in three f i x e d b a t t l e lines o f m a n i p l e sw a s u n s u i t e d . T h e u n i t s t h e m s e l v e s w e r e fairly s m a l l a n d s h a l l o w , a n d a na t t a c k s t r o n g l y p r e s s e d h o m e m i g h t easily o v e r c o m e their r e s i s t a n c e . In thew a r a g a i n s t the C e l t i c I n s u b r e s ( 2 2 5 BC) the hastati o f the f r o n t line h a da t t e m p t e d t o c i r c u m v e n t this difficulty b y s u b s t i t u t i n g their pila for thet h r u s t i n g - s p e a r s o f the triarii s t a t i o n e d in the r e a r ( P o l y b i o s 2 . 3 3 . 4 ) . Yet the small size of the m a n i p l e w a s a m a j o r w e a k n e s s a g a i n s t s u c h a styleof fighting, a n d M a r i u s d e c i d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n his f r o n t line o f d e f e n c e b yincreasing the size of the individual units. T h u s the c o h o r t t o o k the p l a c e of themaniple as the tactical unit of the M a r i a n legion, w h i c h w a s n o w o r g a n i z e d into 43
    • RIGHTThe war-god Mars on theAltar of Domitius Ahenobarbus(Paris, Musée du Louvre, Ma975) dressed in the uniformof a senior officer, mostprobably that of a militarytribune. He wears a muscledcuirass with two rows offringed pteruges, and a crestedEtrusco-Corinthian helmet.Caesar was elected militarytribune in 72 BC and mayhave served under Crassusthe following year. 1 0 c o h o r t s , e a c h o f w h i c h w a s s u b d i v i d e d into six centuries. In effect the old(Fields-Carre Collection) threefold battle a r r a y w a s cut into 1 0 slices f r o m front to b a c k , with the c o h o r t b e i n g a l a r g e b u t m a n a g e a b l e unit of 4 8 0 m e n . W h e n d e p l o y e d for battle, theABOVE 1 0 c o h o r t s o f a legion still f o r m e d u p in the t r a d i t i o n a l triplex acies, with fourFunerary monument ofTiberius Flavius Miccalus in the front line, then a line of three, a n d finally three m o r e at the rear.(Istanbul, Arkeoloji Muzesi, A n o t h e r s o u n d a r g u m e n t for p l a c i n g a definite d e c i s i o n in f a v o u r of the73.7 T), 1st century BC, from c o h o r t at the t i m e o f M a r i u s c o u l d be t h a t , w i t h the l o w e r i n g of the p r o p e r t yPerinthus (Kamara Dere). q u a l i f i c a t i o n a n d its eventual a b o l i t i o n , the legionaries w e r e n o w e q u i p p e d byHere a legionary wields agladius Hispaniensis, the the state at p u b l i c e x p e n s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , v a r i a t i o n s in e q u i p m e n t originallycelebrated cut-and-thrust linked t o differing financial s t a t u s e s n o w c e a s e d t o h a v e a n y raison detre. Allsword with a superb two- legionaries w e r e n o w e q u i p p e d with a b r o n z e M o n t e f o r t i n o helmet, a mail shirtedged blade and lethal (lorica hamata), the scutum, t w o pila, o n e h e a v y the other light, a n d gladiustriangular point. Recruitswere trained to thrust, not Hispaniensis, p l u s a d a g g e r (pugio). G r e a v e s d i s a p p e a r e d , except o n centurions.slash, with this particularly T h e legionary, like all p r o f e s s i o n a l f o o t soldiers before his d a y a n d after,murderous weapon. w a s grossly overloaded - alarmingly so, according to some accounts. Cicero(Fields-Carre Collection) w r o t e o f the toil, the g r e a t toil, o f the m a r c h : the l o a d of m o r e t h a n half a m o n t h s p r o v i s i o n s , the l o a d o f a n y a n d everything that m i g h t be r e q u i r e d , the l o a d o f the s t a k e for e n t r e n c h m e n t (Tusculanae disputationes 2.16.37). N o r m a l l y , p e r h a p s , a legionary carried rations for three d a y s , not the t w o weeks t o w h i c h C i c e r o refers. H o w e v e r , it h a s been e s t i m a t e d that the legionary w a s b u r d e n e d w i t h e q u i p m e n t w e i g h i n g a s m u c h a s 3 5 k g if n o t m o r e . It a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a n o t h e r o f M a r i u s a p p a r e n t r e f o r m s w a s t o r e d u c e the size of the b a g g a g e train (impedimenta). T h e legionaries n o w h a d to s h o u l d e r m u c h o f their g e a r : b e d r o l l a n d c l o a k , three or m o r e d a y s ration of g r a i n , a b r o n z e c o o k i n g p o t (trulleus) a n d m e s s tin (patera), a m e t a l canteen or leather flask, a sickle for cutting g r a i n a n d f o r a g e , a w i c k e r b a s k e t for earth44
    • LEFTLegionaries, Altar of DomitiusAhenobarbus (Paris, Musée duLouvre, Ma 975), armed withscutum and gladius. Citizensno longer provided their ownequipment, instead beingissued with standard equipmentand clothing by the state. Thusfor many recruits enlistmentwas an attractive option,promising adequate foodand shelter, a cash income,and a hope of somethingmore both during their serviceand on their formal retirement.(Fields-Carre Collection)RIGHTDerived from Celtic helmetsof the 4th and 3rd centuries BC,the Montefortino helmet(Palermo, Museo ArcheologicoRegionale, 42644) was a high-domed pattern that gave goodprotection to the top of thehead. It also had hinged cheek-pieces, but had only a stubbynape-guard. The type is namedafter the necropolis atMontefortino, Ancona m o v i n g , either a p i c k a x e (dolabra) or a n i r o n - s h o d w o o d e n s p a d e (pala), ain northern Italy. l e n g t h o f r o p e , a n d a s t a k e (pilum muralis) for fortifying the o v e r n i g h t(Fields-Carre Collection) m a r c h i n g c a m p . T h i s g e a r w a s slung f r o m a T - s h a p e d p o l e (furca), a n d Plutarch s a y s (Marius 1 3 . 1 ) the soldiers w e r e n i c k n a m e d muli Mariani, M a r i u s m u l e s , a w r y d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t w o u l d r e m a i n in p o p u l a r currency. O n the m a r c h e a c h m e s s - u n i t of eight l e g i o n a r i e s , the contubernium, w a s a l s o a l l o w e d o n e four- legged m u l e t o c a r r y the heavier items s u c h a s its leather tent a n d m i l l s t o n e s . T h e natural implication of M a r i u s decision to enrol p o o r citizens in the a r m y w a s that the newly raised legions w o u l d n o t all a u t o m a t i c a l l y cease t o exist w h e n the m e n w h e r e d i s m i s s e d f r o m duty. In effect, the legion b e c a m e a p e r m a n e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n into w h i c h n e w recruits c o u l d be a d d e d , k e e p i n g the s a m e n a m e a n d n u m b e r t h r o u g h o u t its existence. T o m a r k this c h a n g e in status, M a r i u s g a v e e a c h legion a p e r m a n e n t s t a n d a r d t o r e p r e s e n t it. T h e r e p u b l i c a n l e g i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the elder Pliny (Historia Naturalis 1 0 . 5 . 1 6 . ) , originally h a d five s t a n d a r d s : eagle, wolf, minotaur, h o r s e , a n d boar. H e p l a c e s the a d o p t i o n of the silver eagle (aquila) a s the s u p r e m e s t a n d a r d of all legions precisely in 1 0 4 BC, at the start of p r e p a r a t i o n s for the w a r a g a i n s t the northern tribes. T h i s selection of the eagle, a bird of prey associated with Iuppiter, is thus firmly credited t o M a r i u s . T h e n e w s t a n d a r d w a s c a r r i e d i n t o b a t t l e b y a s e n i o r s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r , the aquilifer, s e c o n d o n l y t o a c e n t u r i o n in r a n k . It w a s u n d e r the p e r s o n a l c a r e o f the primus pilus (first s p e a r ) , t h e chief c e n t u r i o n o f the l e g i o n w h o n o m i n a l l y c o m m a n d e d t h e first c e n t u r y in the first c o h o r t . W h i l e its s a f e c u s t o d y w a s e q u i v a l e n t t o the c o n t i n u a n c e o f the l e g i o n a s a fighting u n i t , h o w e v e r d e p l e t e d in n u m b e r s , its l o s s b r o u g h t the g r e a t e s t i g n o m i n y o n a n y s u r v i v o r s a n d c o u l d r e s u l t in the d i s b a n d m e n t o f t h e l e g i o n in d i s g r a c e . F r o n t i n u s , for i n s t a n c e , r e p o r t s t h a t after the d e f e a t o f the rebels led by C a s t u s a n d G a n n i c u s , C r a s s u s w a s a b l e t o r e c o v e r five aquilae a n d t w e n t y - s i x signa (Strategemata 2.5.34). 45
    • T h e aquila n o t only w o r k e d t o increase the loyalty a n d d e v o t i o n of soldierst o the legion t h r o u g h f o s t e r i n g a c o r p o r a t e identity, b u t it w a s a l s o reflectiveo f the s w e e p i n g a w a y o f the o l d c l a s s d i v i s i o n s within the R o m a n army. A n ds o l e g i o n a r i e s w h o v i e w e d the a r m y a s a career, n o t s i m p l y a s a n interruptiont o n o r m a l life, c a m e t o identify very s t r o n g l y w i t h their legion, a n d these unitsd e v e l o p e d , in the fullness o f t i m e , t r e m e n d o u s c o r p o r a t e spirit. A d m i t t e d l y a no l d p r o v i s i o n a l legion c o u l d be a first-class fighting unit, especially if s e a s o n e db y l o n g service, b u t a n e w p r o f e s s i o n a l legion w a s o n a v e r a g e better traineda n d d i s c i p l i n e d t h a n its p r e d e c e s s o r s , s i m p l y b e c a u s e it w a s m o r e p e r m a n e n t .A t the t i m e o f M a r i u s , the legions w e r e p r o b a b l y still r e c o n s t r u c t e d every year,b u t by C a e s a r s d a y they certainly b e g a n t o retain their identity. T o s u m u p : in the r a n k s o f C r a s s u s l e g i o n s , t h a t is, t h o s e l e g i o n s t h a te v e n t u a l l y e x t i n g u i s h e d the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n , there w e r e m e n of m o d e s tm e a n s , city-dwelling proletarii a n d their c o u n t r y c o u s i n s , the rural poor, w h o s edire p o v e r t y o r m e a g r e fields, i n d e e d if they h a d s m a l l h o l d i n g s , m a d e t h e mw i l l i n g r e c r u i t s . T h e r e w e r e i n d i v i d u a l s w h o h a d c h o s e n the a r m y a s theirp r o f e s s i o n , a n d their m i l i t a r y w o r l d w a s firmly r o o t e d in the esprit de corpso f their l e g i o n s . M a n y of t h e m h a d t a k e n their military o a t h w i t h the h o p e ofa l a n d s e t t l e m e n t a t the e n d o f their t e r m o f service a n d the p r o m i s e of l o o td u r i n g it. R e g a r d l e s s o f their s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n , these m e n w e r e R o m a n a n dfree, a n d t h u s s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s far s u p e r i o r t o a n y alien s l a v e . B e s i d e s , evenin a fight a g a i n s t s l a v e s there w o u l d still be fruits of war.
    • OPPOSING PLANS THE SPARTACAN PLAN W e h a v e seen t h a t S p a r t a c u s , t h r o u g h the f o r c e o f his c h a r i s m a t i c p e r s o n a l i t y and military genius, w a s able to weld an a m o r p h o u s , inarticulate, semi- b a r b a r i a n h o s t o f s l a v e s , d e s e r t e r s , a n d r i f f r a f f ( A p p i a n Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 7 ) i n t o a f o r m i d a b l e fighting f o r c e t h a t m a n a g e d t o d e f e a t nine R o m a n a r m i e s ranging from a few t h o u s a n d untried recruits a n d time-served veterans, to tens o f t h o u s a n d s o f v e t e r a n l e g i o n a r i e s . T h e r e is a b s o l u t e l y n o e v i d e n c e t h a t S p a r t a c u s ever h e l d the b r i g h t v i s i o n o f a n e w w o r l d a n d d r e a m e d o f a b o l i s h i n g slavery. T h e r e is a s a d reality; the a n c i e n t w o r l d e m b r a c e d s l a v e r y a s p a r t o f the n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h i n g s . W h i l e his f o l l o w e r s m a y h a v e a i m e d a t the e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f their o p p r e s s o r s , they c e r t a i n l y w a n t e d t o free t h e m s e l v e s a n d r e t u r n t o their t r i b a l h o m e l a n d s , p r e f e r a b l y after a s p r e e o f h e a v y l o o t i n g in Italy. S a l l u s t , a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f S p a r t a c u s , d o e s i m p l y t h a t he w a s o n e o f the f e w p r u d e n t p e o p l e w i t h free a n d n o b l e m i n d s (Historiae 3 . 9 8 ) in t h e s l a v e a r m y a n d p o r t r a y s h i m a s trying repeatedly, if vainly, t o r e s t r a i n the b a s e r instincts o f the m a j o r i t y o f his m e n w h o w e r e b e n t o n r a p e , m u r d e r , theft, a n d a r s o n . O f c o u r s e v i o l e n c eCapua long remained a centrefor gladiatorial combat and thisCampanian city (along withPuteoli) possessed the largestpermanent amphitheatreknown (until overtaken by theColosseum at Rome). Itprobably had an older one,which was subsequentlysuperseded by the much largerfacility we see here. It has beenargued (Welch 1994) thisamphitheatre was madespecifically for the Caesarianveterans settled there byOctavianus. (Fototeca ENIT) 47
    • a n d u n r e s t s p r e a d t h r o u g h the I t a l i a n c o u n t r y s i d e like s o m e contagious disease, and we have t o i m a g i n e t h a t l a w l e s s elements e v e r y w h e r e t o o k a d v a n t a g e of the s t a t e o f r e b e l l i o n . Other sources, however, do j present a m o r e brutal side to Spartacus. Florus (Epitome 3.20.9) and Orosius (5.24.3) explicitly assert that Spartacus used R o m a n prisoners as gladiators in f u n e r a l g a m e s . A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 7 ) is p r o b a b l y referring t o o n e o f t h e s e w h e n he s a y s S p a r t a c u s sacrificed 3 0 0 R o m a n s o l d i e r s o n b e h a l f o f his d e a d friend C r i x u s . A p p i a n a l s o s a y s (ibid. 1 . 1 1 9 ) t h a t S p a r t a c u s crucified a R o m a n p r i s o n e r t o i n s p i r e his f o l l o w e r s by v i s u a l l y r e m i n d i n g t h e m o f the g r u e s o m e f a t e t h a t a w a i t e d t h e m if t h e y d i d n o t w i n . H e w h o c o m m i t s b r u t a l i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y a c t s u n d e r the i m p u l s e of fear or a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t he h i m s e l f will suffer the s a m e f a t e . A s well a s his character, the ancient a u t h o r s a l s o s e e m t o be a t o d d s a b o u t w h a t the m o t i v e s o f S p a r t a c u s w e r e . A p p i a n (ibid. 1 . 1 1 7 ) a n d F l o r u s (Epitome 3 . 2 0 . 1 1 ) write t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o m a r c h o n R o m e itself - a l t h o u g h this m a y h a v e b e e n a reflection o f R o m a n fears at the t i m e . If S p a r t a c u s d i d i n t e n d t o m a r c h o n R o m e , it w a s a g o a l s u b s e q u e n t l y a b a n d o n e d . P l u t a r c h (Crassus 9 . 5 - 6 ) onlyRelief (Munich, Glyptotek, inv. m e n t i o n s t h a t S p a r t a c u s w a n t e d t o e s c a p e n o r t h w a r d s to G a l l i a C i s a l p i n a a n d364) showing a pair of d i s p e r s e his f o l l o w e r s b a c k t o their h o m e l a n d s , w h e r e v e r they m i g h t b e .gladiators, dated to 1st century N e v e r t h e l e s s , this p l a n w a s a l s o a b a n d o n e d a n d the slave a r m y t u r n e d b a c kBC They are wearing thigh-length shirts of scale or iron south again.mail - the shoulder doubling A s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , it is difficult t o believe that the rebel slaves were asuggests the latter - and Gallic- h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p u n d e r the sole l e a d e r s h i p of S p a r t a c u s . T h u s the questionstyle helmets, and may a r i s e s : w a s there g e n u i n e dissent arising f r o m divergent a s p i r a t i o n s ? P e r h a p srepresent Gallic noblescaptured about the time of they h a d been in Italy s o l o n g t h a t despite their suffering they c o u l d not face theCaesars conquest and p r o s p e c t of a c t u a l l y leaving. M o r e o v e r , they m i g h t h a v e t h o u g h t a n a t t e m p tsubsequently condemned to o n R o m e itself w a s p o s s i b l e , or a t a n y rate c o n t i n u e o n their career of lootingfight in the arena. However, the the p e n i n s u l a . S u p p o s i t i o n s these m a y b e , b u t it is a g o o d g u e s s that S p a r t a c u ssword (gladius, perhaps) andround shields are problematic. s a w the difficulties i n v o l v e d , for a successful c r o s s i n g of the A l p s w o u l d not(Bibi Saint-Pol) n e c e s s a r i l y g u a r a n t e e f r e e d o m . B e y o n d lay m o r e R o m a n territory a n d other R o m a n a r m i e s . M u c h better, s o S p a r t a c u s p r o b a b l y r e a s o n e d , w a s to m a r c h s o u t h , c r o s s t o Sicily, w h e r e tens o f t h o u s a n d s of s l a v e s , full of m e m o r i e s of recent rebellions a g a i n s t R o m e , c o u l d be r a i s e d in revolt. It is S a l l u s t w h o s a y s t h a t C a i u s V e r r e s , w h e n g o v e r n o r of Sicily, strengthened the fortifications o n the s h o r e s closest to Italy (Historiae 4.32). T h i s w a s the s a m e Verres i m m o r t a l i z e d by C i c e r o a s a n a r c h s c o u n d r e l , cut- throat and paragon of w i c k e d n e s s . W h e n Verres w a s b r o u g h t to trial o n charges o f e x t o r t i o n in 7 0 BC, C i c e r o , w h o m he p r o s e c u t e d , p u r p o s e f u l l y m a l i g n e d h i m by m a k i n g his a c t i o n s in Sicily s e e m even w o r s e than those of the rebels48
    • Spartacus movements, summer 72 B C
    • o f the Sicilian s l a v e w a r s (e.g. Verrines 2 . 3 . 6 6 , 4 . 1 1 2 ) . Such d e b u n k i n g w a s to be Ciceros signature. V e r r e s - or s o his p r o s e c u t o r c l a i m e d - m a d e o v e r ten m i l l i o n denarii in e m b e z z l e m e n t a n d s w i n d l e s o f all k i n d s in Sicily (e.g. i b i d . 2 . 1 . 2 7 ) . E v e n s o , his g o v e r n o r s h i p w a s in the y e a r s 7 3 - 7 1 BC, p r e c i s e l y w h e n the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n w a s r a g i n g o n the m a i n l a n d o f s o u t h e r n Italy, directly o p p o s i t e the i s l a n d . G i v e n t h e p r e v i o u s s l a v e w a r s , there w a s a r e a s o n a b l e f e a r t h a t the s l a v e s o f Sicily m i g h t rise a g a i n , a n d V e r r e s s e e m s t o h a v e t a k e n the a p p r o p r i a t e l y d r a c o n i a n m e a s u r e s ( f r o m the R o m a n p o i n t of view, o f c o u r s e ) n e e d e d t o k e e p his p r o v i n c e u n d e r c o n t r o l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the very clever C i c e r o m a n a g e s never t o m e n t i o n S p a r t a c u s by n a m e in his vitriolic a t t a c k on Verres administration. It is S a l l u s t t o o w h o s a y s (Historiae 3.96, 98) a m a j o r bust-up between S p a r t a c u s a n d C r i x u s t o o k p l a c e early o n in the rebellion. With the p r a e t o r Varinius c l o s i n g in, S p a r t a c u s sensibly w a n t e d to escape north as s o o n as possible, butAncient Capua, now known as C r i x u s , w i t h the G a u l s a n d G e r m a n s b e h i n d h i m , i m p r u d e n t l y w a n t e d to fightSanta Maria Capua Vetera, was the R o m a n s h e a d - o n or a t least h a d his h e a r t set o n p l u n d e r i n g the p e n i n s u l a .destroyed by the Arabs in the W h a t e v e r the truth o f the matter, the s o u r c e s d o indicate that C r i x u s a n d9th century and the survivorsemigrated to Casilinum, on the O e n o m a u s m a d e a division of forces a n d split off with the G a u l s a n d G e r m a n ssouth bank of the Volturnus t o f o r m a s e c o n d slave army, t h a t O e n o m a u s w a s s o o n killed, a n d that C r i x u s(Volturno), taking their name b e c a m e the leader o f the G a u l s a n d G e r m a n s until h e , t o o , died in battle a n dwith them. In Spartacus day, w a s , p e r h a p s , succeeded by C a s t u s and Gannicus (Orosius 5 . 2 4 . 6 , Appianhowever, Capua was queenamong cities (Florus Epitome Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 7 , Plutarch Crassus 1 1 . 3 , Frontinus Strategemata 2 . 5 . 3 4 , Livy1.16.6), a metropolitan rival to Periochae 9 6 , 9 7 ) . T h e q u i c k of annihilation of C r i x u s a n d his p e o p l e obviouslyRome itself, a voluptuous city p l a c e d S p a r t a c u s in a fatally w e a k e n e d p o s i t i o n . S p a r t a c u s a n d C r i x u s h a drightly famed for its gladiators s h a r e d the s a m e g o a l , n a m e l y that age-old desire for f r e e d o m . Unfortunately forand perfumes. (Fototeca ENIT) their c a u s e they e s p o u s e d conflicting strategies to reach it, that is to say, to escape Italy v e r s u s t o stay in the p e n i n s u l a t o pillage a n d loot. S p a r t a c u s a n d his f o l l o w e r s r e f u s e d t o b e R o m a n s . T h e y e x p r e s s e d n o d e m a n d for R o m a n c i t i z e n s h i p a n d its a t t e n d a n t r i g h t s . R o m e , font o f rationality, law, a n d o r d e r in the O c c i d e n t , h a d n o t h i n g to offer t h e m , s o the p r i s o n e r of w a r w a n t e d t o r e t u r n h o m e , the d e b t o r w a n t e d his l a n d b a c k , the s l a v e n o t b o r n into slavery w a n t e d his f r e e d o m b a c k , while the slave b o r n into slavery w a n t e d to taste t h a t f r e e d o m . We m u s t , therefore, reject the d o g m a that S p a r t a c u s w a s a p r o t a g o n i s t of the a b o l i t i o n of the institution of slavery or as a d e s t r o y e r of R o m e . T h e r e w a s n o c l a s s s t r u g g l e , n o r a n y social revolution. T h e s i m p l e a n d s o b e r truth w a s t h a t he i n c a r n a t e d the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of his f o l l o w e r s never, never, never t o be s l a v e s a g a i n . H a d he been merely a n a m b i t i o u s chief of b r i g a n d s of s m a l l fighting capacity, it is m o s t unlikely that he w o u l d h a v e left M o u n t V e s u v i u s .50
    • THE ROMAN PLANW a r f a r e w o u l d n o t be w a r f a r e w i t h o u t a n e n e m y , yet for R o m e there w e r et w o t y p e s o f w a r f a r e . O n e t y p e o f w a r , bellum, w a s the o n e r e c o g n i z e d a sg e n u i n e - a conflict b e t w e e n t w o l e g i t i m a t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t e s , a b a t t l ebetween the a r m e d forces of societies t h a t s h a r e d m a n i f e s t political s t r u c t u r e sa n d w h i c h f o u g h t a c c o r d i n g t o r e c o g n i z e d f o r m s o f c o m b a t . In this c a s e thew a r w a s labelled real or g e n u i n e , a bellum iustum. T h e other t y p e o f w a rw a s that w a g e d by a state a g a i n s t i n c h o a t e , u n s t r u c t u r e d a n d s o c i a l l y inferior Author Howard Fast once commented in an interviewfoes, in w h i c h c a s e it w a s r e g a r d e d a s a b u s h conflict or i r r e g u l a r war. A w a r that aside from the gladiatorof this type w a s u s u a l l y qualified by s o m e a d d i t i o n a l t e r m t h a t f o r m a l l y set it fight between Kirk Douglasa p a r t f r o m a bellum iustum a s , for i n s t a n c e , w i t h the t e r m s l a v e , a bellum and Woody Strode nothing inservile (e.g. F l o r u s Epitome 3.19.2). Kubricks epic film Spartacus could compare in dramatic In the e a r l y s t a g e s o f the r e b e l l i o n the S e n a t e , f o r g e t t i n g the l e s s o n s o f intensity with therecent history, l o o k e d u p o n the s l a v e s a s a m o t l e y c r o w d o f d e s p e r a d o e s w h o corresponding scenes inw o u l d fly at the first sight of a R o m a n l e g i o n . H o w c o u l d s u c h c o w e d a n d the novel. Yet the influencetrembling slaves ever be a n d d o a n y t h i n g else? A n d s o a n y initial p l a n n i n g w a s of the film has been tremendous - the scenevery m u c h i n f l u e n c e d by the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y w e r e u p a g a i n s t a f e w Im Spartacus! is iconic -r u n a w a y s l a v e s . It w a s n o t until the S e n a t e h a n d e d C r a s s u s the c o m m a n d and for many today Spartacus isa g a i n s t S p a r t a c u s t h a t their s o - c a l l e d bellum servile b e c a m e a f u l l - b l o w n Douglas. (Wisconsin Center forhelium iustum. Film and Theater Research)
    • THE CAMPAIGN T h e C a m p a n i a n m e t r o p o l i s of C a p u a , Italys m o s t v o l u p t u o u s city a n d for over a century the m a i n entrepot for the training a n d h o u s i n g of g l a d i a t o r s , w a s also the h o t s p o t t h a t p r o d u c e d the g r e a t e s t g l a d i a t o r i a l s e n s a t i o n of all time. O n e d a y in the s p r i n g t i m e o f 7 3 B C , a g r o u p o f s o m e 2 0 0 g l a d i a t o r s , m a i n l y T h r a c i a n s a n d G a u l s , resentful of their i n h u m a n e t r e a t m e n t in the g l a d i a t o r i a l training school of C n a e u s Lentulus Batiatus, hatched a plan to escape. The l e a d e r s w e r e the T h r a c i a n S p a r t a c u s a n d the G a u l s C r i x u s a n d O e n o m a u s . It all s t a r t e d in the m e s s h a l l . T h i s w a s the p l a c e w h e r e the g l a d i a t o r s g a t h e r e d t o e a t , a t o n e e n d o f w h i c h w a s the k i t c h e n a n d the other a p a i r of h e a v y w o o d e n d o o r s . O n c e the g l a d i a t o r s w e r e i n s i d e , t h e s e d o o r s w e r e b o l t e d f r o m the o u t s i d e . H a v i n g t a k e n their p l a c e s , the g l a d i a t o r s w o u l d then b e s e r v e d by the k i t c h e n s l a v e s , w o m e n in the m a i n . P a t r o l l i n g the m e s s hall w e r e g u a r d s a r m e d w i t h hefty b a t o n s . A r m e d w i t h c l e a v e r s a n d s p i t s seized f r o m the k i t c h e n , they o v e r p o w e r e d the g u a r d s a n d f o u g h t their w a y t o f r e e d o m . A s they r a c e d t h r o u g h the streets o f C a p u a they f o u n d a c a r t l o a d e d w i t h g l a d i a t o r i a l w e a p o n s a n d e q u i p m e n t , w h i c h t h e y a l s o s e i z e d . O n c e o u t o f the city a n d h a v i n g d r i v e n off the d e t a c h m e n t o f t r o o p s ( p o s s i b l y l o c a l militia) sent after t h e m , S p a r t a c u s a n dThis is the ludus at Pompeii,as seen from the large theatre.That of the lanista Batiatus atCapua would have been verysimilar. A ludus usuallyconsisted of an exercise square(palaestra), three sides of whichwere lined with cells to housethe inmates. The fourth sidecontained a large kitchen-cum-mess hall. The harsh treatmentsuffered by Spartacus andhis fellow gladiators in thebarracks at Capua wouldfoment a rebellion withprofound consequencesfor the Roman Republic.Fields-Carre Collection)52
    • the other g l a d i a t o r s s o u g h t refuge o n the s l o p e s o f n e a r b y M o u n t V e s u v i u s ,then d o r m a n t a n d believed t o be e x t i n c t . F e w e r t h a n half s e e m t o h a v e s u c c e e d e d - 8 0 l a c k i n g t w o in P l u t a r c h(Crassus 8 . 2 ) ; 7 4 in S a l l u s t (Historiae 3 . 9 0 ) , L i v y (Periochae 95), Frontinus(Strategemata 1 . 5 . 2 1 ) , O r o s i u s ( 5 . 2 4 . 1 ) , a n d E u t r o p i u s ( 6 . 7 . 2 ) ; a b o u t 7 0 inA p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 6 ) ; fewer t h a n 7 0 in A u g u s t i n e (City of God 3 . 2 6 ) ;6 4 in Velleius Paterculus (Historiae Romanae 2 . 3 0 . 5 ) ; n o m o r e t h a n 5 0 (takenat face value) in C i c e r o (Epistulae ad Atticum 6 . 2 . 8 ) ; a n d 3 0 or rather m o r em e n in F l o r u s (Epitome 3 . 2 0 . 3 ) . A l t h o u g h the n u m b e r of fugitive-gladiators isv a r i o u s l y r e p o r t e d , the i m p o r t a n t p o i n t is the s o u r c e s a g r e e m e n t t h a t the Mount Vesuvius (1,281 m),beginnings of the rebellion involved b u t a h a n d f u l o f d e s p e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . though clearly volcanic, was reputed extinct (Strabo 5.247). After the catastrophic eruption of 24 August AD 79, whichDEFEAT OF THE PRAETORIAN ARMIES, 73 BC obliterated Pompeii and Herculaneum, the sides of Vesuvius caved in to form anIn the crater of M o u n t V e s u v i u s S p a r t a c u s q u i c k l y f o r g e d a n a r m y o f r u n a w a y immense crater some 11 kms l a v e s a n d free p e o p l e w i t h little t o l o s e , a n d d e f e a t e d the t r o o p s - f o r c e s in circumference. The north-p i c k e d u p in h a s t e a n d at r a n d o m ( A p p i a n Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 6 ) - u n d e r o n e eastern side of this old craterof the p r a e t o r s of 7 3 BC C a i u s C l a u d i u s G l a b e r (MMR 11.109), sent t o b e s i e g e still exists, but a new cone has formed on the south side.the r e b e l s v o l c a n i c f a s t n e s s . A b r a v e m a n a s l e e p is b u t a n i n f a n t , a n d the This photograph shows thev i c t o r i o u s rebels seized the R o m a n c a m p w i t h all its p o s s e s s i o n s a n d s u p p l i e s . eruption that took place onN e v e r w a s a military e x p e d i t i o n m o r e c e r t a i n o f f a i l u r e , a n d its fate t h r o w s the afternoon of 26 April 1872.into relief the c a s t - i r o n p r e j u d i c e s o f the R o m a n ruling order. (Library of Congress)
    • M e a n w h i l e , in R o m e the S e n a t e w e r e still l o o k i n g u p o n the slave rebellion a s little m o r e t h a n a n irritant t h a t w o u l d be s o o t h e d in d u e c o u r s e , a n d s o t w o m o r e p r a e t o r s f o r t h a t y e a r w e r e s e n t s o u t h t o c l e a n u p this t r o u b l e a n d r e s t o r e o r d e r . T h e p r a e t o r s , L u c i u s C o s s i n i u s (MMR 11.110) a n d P u b l i u s V a r i n i u s (MMR 11.109, 1 1 9 ) , a s well a s V a r i n i u s l e g a t e F u r i u s ( C a i u s or L u c i u s , cf. MMR 11.112) a n d his q u a e s t o r C a i u s T o r a n i u s (MMR 11.110), all s u f f e r e d t h u n d e r i n g d e f e a t s in s e p a r a t e e n c o u n t e r s . F u r i u s , w h o c o m m a n d e d 2 , 0 0 0 m e n , w a s s e e n off w i t h little t r o u b l e . C o s s i n i u s first n a r r o w l y e s c a p e d c a p t u r e w h i l e t a k i n g a b a t h , o n l y t o die a s h o r t w h i l e later in a n e n g a g e m e n t o v e r his o w n c a m p . W h e n V a r i n i u s m a n a g e d t o s u r r o u n d his c a m p , S p a r t a c u s s t o l e his a r m y a w a y a t n i g h t , h a v i n g c r e a t e d the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t all w a s n o r m a l . B u t the s e n t r i e s p o s t e d , p r o p e r l y c l o t h e d a n d a r m e d , w e r e in fact fresh c o r p s e s l a s h e d t o s t a k e s , w h o s e o b j e c t , t o g e t h e r w i t h the evening fires t h a t h a d b e e n left b u r n i n g t h r o u g h o u t the c a m p , w a s t o p r o v i d e c o v e r for t h e r e b e l s silent w i t h d r a w a l . T h e R o m a n s w e r e i n d e e d f o o l e d a n d o n l y n o t i c e d s o m e t h i n g w a s a m i s s w h e n they m i s s e d the c u s t o m a r y insults s h o u t e d a c r o s s a t t h e m , a n d the s h o w e r o f s t o n e s t h a t n o r m a l l y greeted t h e m at s u n u p ( S a l l u s t Historiae 3 . 9 6 , F r o n t i n u s Strategemata 1.5.22). V a r i n i u s w a s t o fight several e n g a g e m e n t s w i t h S p a r t a c u s , a n d he lost each a n d every o n e o f t h e m . M o s t i g n o m i n i o u s l y , in the l a s t of these the p r a e t o r h a d his very h o r s e a n d s i x lictors c a p t u r e d , in o t h e r w o r d s , all the insignia o f his office fell i n t o the v i c t o r s h a n d s . T h e r e w a s a c o s t , o f c o u r s e , a n d s o m e t i m e d u r i n g t h e s e e v e n t s O e n o m a u s , w h o n o w d i s a p p e a r s f r o m the p a g e s o f o u r s o u r c e s , m a y h a v e b e e n killed in b a t t l e . E v e n s o , these s t u n n i n g v i c t o r i e s e n c o u r a g e d m a n y a m a l c o n t e n t t o flock t o j o i n S p a r t a c u s , a s d i d m a n y o f the h e r d s m e n a n d s h e p h e r d s o f the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s - h a r d - b o d i e d a n d swift-footed m e n (Plutarch Crassus 9 . 3 ) . S p a r t a c u s s p e n t the w i n t e r t r a i n i n g a n d a r m i n g his n e w r e c r u i t s . DEFEAT OF THE CONSULAR ARMIES, 72 BC T h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , w i t h a n a r m y r e p u t e d by A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 6 ) to be s o m e 7 0 , 0 0 0 s t r o n g , S p a r t a c u s s w e p t t h r o u g h C a m p a n i a , with specific assaults o n the p r o s p e r o u s t o w n s of C u m a e , N o l a , a n d N u c e r i a , the rebels leaving a thick trail o f d e a d m e n , w o m e n a n d livestock a n d b u r n i n g villas in their w a k e . T h e r e is a l s o evidence that the rebellion n o w affected L u c a n i a a n d B r u t t i u m , the latter a r e g i o n l o n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h r o n i c b r i g a n d a g e , w i t h the t o w n s o f T h u r i i (Sibari), M e t a p o n t u m (Metaponto) and Cosentia (Cosenza) a s o b j e c t s o f e v e n t u a l a t t a c k . S p a r t a c u s tried to restrain the w o r s e of this barbarity, but a perilous d i v i s i o n in the high c o m m a n d h a d resulted in his c o m r a d e C r i x u s d e p a r t i n g , t a k i n g the G a u l s a n d G e r m a n s w i t h h i m , a force of a b o u t 2 0 , 0 0 0 or t h e r e a b o u t s (Plutarch Crassus 9 . 6 , Livy Periochae 9 6 ) .54
    • The sparse, denuded slopes of Mount Vesuvius, captured in a late 19th-century photograph. To those who lived around Vesuvius in Spartacus day, the volcano was just a large, lush mound. Its last eruption had been a thousand years in the past, and its next was to be some 150 years in the future. It has erupted many times since that date, and any plants, shrubs or trees growing on it have been burnt away or swallowed by lava. (Library of Congress) Like his c o m r a d e S p a r t a c u s , C r i x u s the G a u l h a d been trained a s a g l a d i a t o rin the s c h o o l of B a t i a t u s . T o w a r d s the e n d o f 7 3 BC he w a s t o s e p a r a t e f r o mS p a r t a c u s , it s e e m s , o v e r m a t t e r o f policy. W h i l e S p a r t a c u s w a n t e d t o h e a dnorth a n d leave Italy, C r i x u s a n d his p e o p l e , in the w o r d s of S a l l u s t , w a n t e dto m a r c h directly a g a i n s t the enemy, in o r d e r t o force a n a r m e d c o n f r o n t a t i o n (Historiae 3 . 9 6 ) . A n d s o it w a s in the s p r i n g o f 7 2 BC t h a t o n e o f the t w oc o n s u l s for the year, L u c i u s Gellius P u b l i c o l a , c a u g h t u p w i t h C r i x u s a n d hisfollowers near M o u n t G a r g a n u s , o n the A d r i a t i c c o a s t . T h e n u m b e r s involved in the e n s u i n g battle w e r e , a s is u s u a l l y the c a s e , thesubject of s o m e controversy. T h o u g h A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1.116) p u t s C r i x u s a r m y at 3 0 , 0 0 0 s t r o n g , Livy, a n earlier s o u r c e albeit here in the f o r m of a laters u m m a r y , gives h i m o n l y 2 0 , 0 0 0 f o l l o w e r s . S a l l u s t , in the a f o r e m e n t i o n e df r a g m e n t , identifies C r i x u s p e o p l e a s G a u l s a n d G e r m a n s , w h i l e P l u t a r c hn a m e s neither C r i x u s n o r gives the size o f his f o l l o w i n g , merely calling t h e mthe G e r m a n c o n t i n g e n t (Crassus 9 . 7 ) . If the truth be k n o w n , C r i x u s led n o ta n army, b u t a w h o l e travelling p e o p l e - w a r r i o r s , w o m e n , w a i f s , a n d w a g o n s .O n the other h a n d , it is a l m o s t certain t h a t the R o m a n s h a d s o m e 1 0 , 0 0 0 m e n ,w h a t w e w o u l d e x p e c t of a c o n s u l a r a r m y of t w o , full-strength l e g i o n s . D e s p i t e their t a t t e r d e m a l i o n a p p e a r a n c e , the rebels o f C r i x u s a r m y p u t u pa s a v a g e fight. A p p a r e n t l y , if w e f o l l o w the f r a g m e n t a r y S a l l u s t , G e l l i u s o r d e r e d his m e n t o f o r m a d o u b l e battle line o n a c o m m a n d i n g height o f l a n da n d d e f e n d e d it, b u t w i t h h e a v y l o s s e s t o his o w n f o r c e s (Historiae 3.106).T h e rebels w e r e o b v i o u s l y the a t t a c k e r s , a n d the f a c t t h a t the d e f e n d e r sd e p l o y e d in a duplex acies, e a c h legion p r e s u m a b l y in a five-five f o r m a t i o n o fc o h o r t s , i n s t e a d of the m o r e u s u a l triplex acies, m e a n t the R o m a n s w e r eheavily o u t n u m b e r e d . B u t w e h a v e n o m o r e t h a n this. P e r h a p s , a n d in a n ycase it is i m p o s s i b l e at this d i s t a n c e in time t o d o a n y t h i n g other t h a n s p e c u l a t ea b o u t the c o u r s e of the b a t t l e . We c a n g u e s s t h a t the rebels c l i m b e d u p thesteep hillside a g a i n s t the disciplined R o m a n s o n l y t o be b o u n c e d b a c k d o w na g a i n . T h e s e c o n d a t t a c k w a s l i k e w i s e r e p u l s e d , a s w a s the t h i r d a n d t h ef o u r t h . T h e a t t a c k e r s h e s i t a t e d , t u r n e d , a n d fled, a n d the p u r s u i n g s w o r d s 55
    • BREAKOUT AT CAPUA (pp 56-57)Since the purpose of a ludus was to produce prime prize-fighters, scene is set in the kitchen end of the mess hall at the gladiatorialit was in the interest of the lanista to maintain his gladiators at training school of Cnaeus Lentulus Batiatus in Capua. Thethe peak of physical condition. Thus, there was a kitchen staff gladiators are overpowering the guards (1), who are armed withcharged with preparing wholesome meals for the gladiators. batons (2); this was all done to great effect in Kubricks epic filmHigh in protein and fat, barley groats (polenta) made into a gruel, Spartacus of course, with a lengthy scene (cut in the original) ofwas the mainstay of the diet, a food believed to be healthy and a man being drowned in a pot of piping-hot soup. Except formuscle promoting. Gladiators were c o m m o n l y known as as loincloths (3), the gladiators are naked; they are clean shavenhordearii, barley-men, which reflected the cereals benefits and their hair is cut short. From the kitchen they grab everythingin furnishing a g o o d layer of fat that helped prevent heavy that can service as weapons, the knives and cleavers (4) and spitsbleeding if vital arteries were sliced in combat. (5), and even the heavy, wooden pestles (6) used for grinding the grain for the daily porridge. And so it was the gladiators This plate depicts the moment w h e n the group of some 200 hacked and beat their way out of the school of Batiatus, andgladiators, mainly Thracians and Gauls, resentful of their owners then fled in the direction of Mount Vesuvius.inhumane treatment, executed their plan to escape. The chaotic58
    • TOP There is no evidence for Spartacus army using siege machines and the slaves themselves probably did not have the ability to employ such technology. However, a number of fortified towns were certainly taken by them and it is possible such experts were to be found among their numerous Roman prisoners. Here we see the south circuit of Paestum, looking east. (Fields-Carre Collection) BOTTOM Temple of Hera (conventionally known as the Basilica), Paestum. Though not mentioned in our literary sources (e.g. Florus lists Nola, Nuceria,Thurii and Metapontum), it appears that Paestum was also devastated by the slave army. Under the pavement of the temple was found a hoard of baked clay slingshot, which has been dated to around the time of the Spartacan rebellion. (Fototeca ENIT)w e r e n o t far b e h i n d . After t h a t C r i x u s c o m m a n d c e a s e d t o e x i s t ; w e shalla s s u m e t h a t the fiercely m o u s t a c h e d C r i x u s , s e e k i n g d e a t h o u t o n thebattlefield, w e n t d o w n fighting. S u c h w a s the c a r n a g e a t G a r g a n u s . P l u t a r c h hints t h a t the g e n e r a l s h i p o f G e l l i u s w a s o p e n t o r e p r o a c h ; thehigh r e p u t a t i o n g a i n e d in this c a m p a i g n b y t h e y o u n g e r C a t o , w h o h a dv o l u n t e e r e d for service a g a i n s t S p a r t a c u s o u t o f d e v o t i o n t o his o l d e r half-brother, Q u i n t u s Servilius C a e p i o , then s e r v i n g a s a m i l i t a r y t r i b u n e in thec o n s u l s a r m y , f o r m e d a t least a s i g n a l c o n t r a s t t o the elderly G e l l i u s half-h e a r t e d b u n g l i n g . C a t o , n o w a y i n f e r i o r t o the g r e a t a n c e s t o r w h o m hee m u l a t e d a l m o s t t o a p a r o d y , C a t o the Elder, e x t o l l e d the s o - c a l l e d s i m p l i c i t ya n d v i r t u e s t h a t w o n e m p i r e for R o m e in t i m e s p a s t d e s p i t e , in P l u t a r c h sstinging w o r d s , the e f f e m i n a c y a n d l a x i t y o f t h o s e w h o f o u g h t in the w a r (Cato minor 8 . 2 ) . 59
    • ROMAN UNITS A Legio I B Legio III REBEL UNITS 1 Slave army under Crixus, c. 30,000 strong CRIXUS EVENTS1 Having split off from the main slave army, Crixus andhis followers are now encamped in the vicinity of MountGarganus in north-eastern Apulia.2 Lucius Gellius Publicola has caught up with Crixus, butbeing outnumbered decides to deploy his two consularlegions on high ground in duplex acies, each legionadopting in a five-five formation of cohorts.3 Crixus responds the way he knows best, and promptlymarshals his Gauls and Germans for the attack.4 Crixus leads his men up the steep hill in threesuccessive assaults on the Roman position. The fourthand final one results in Crixus death and the destructionof his army.MOUNT GARGANUS, 72 b cCrixus slave army is destroyed in the vicinity of Mount Garganus, in south-eastern Italy, by the pursuingconsular legions under Lucius Gellius Publicola.60
    • Note: the gridlines are shown at intervals of 1 km/1,093 yds
    • Seating and orchestra of the M e a n w h i l e , C n a e u s C o r n e l i u s L e n t u l u s C l o d i a n u s , the o t h e r c o n s u l ,Greek theatre at Metapontum a t t e m p t e d t o h a r r y S p a r t a c u s a s he h e a d e d n o r t h . S p a r t a c u s , h o w e v e r , seized(Metaponto). Sometime in the the initiative a n d t u r n e d o n the R o m a n s b e f o r e they c o u l d j o i n f o r c e s a n dearly part of 72 BC, and beforehe trekked north to the River s m a s h e d b o t h c o n s u l s in t u r n , w h o w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y recalled t o R o m e inPo, Spartacus, like Hannibal d i s g r a c e a n d p r o m p t l y r e l i e v e d o f their d u t i e s b y the i n f u r i a t e d S e n a t ebefore him, used Metapontum ( P l u t a r c h Crassus 1 0 . 1 ) . T h e p r e s e n c e o f a r m i e s o f different c o n s u l s clearlyas a friendly base. As well as r a i s e d all the p o l i t i c a l a n d o p e r a t i o n a l difficulties of d i v i d e d c o m m a n d . A ssecuring supplies for his armyand gathering its strength, he N a p o l e o n w o u l d l a t e r h a v e it, o n e b a d g e n e r a l w o u l d be better t h a n t w owould have trained recently g o o d o n e s (Correspondance, v o l . I, n o . 4 2 1 ) . H o w e v e r , c o n s i d e r i n g thearrived recruits in the relative Senates ( u n u s u a l ) r e a c t i o n , in this p a r t i c u l a r c a s e it s e e m s w e are dealing withsecurity of the town. t w o b a d g e n e r a l s u p a g a i n s t a brilliant o n e .(Fototeca ENIT) A p p i a n (Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 7 ) tells h o w , in m o c k e r y of the R o m a n c u s t o m , S p a r t a c u s n o w f o r c e d 3 0 0 o f his R o m a n p r i s o n e r s t o fight a s g l a d i a t o r s , killing their o w n c o m r a d e s t o s a v e their o w n lives, t o a p p e a s e the spirit of d e a d C r i x u s . T h u s , in the r a t h e r fitting p h r a s e o f O r o s i u s , t h o s e w h o h a d o n c e b e e n the s p e c t a c l e b e c a m e the s p e c t a t o r s ( 5 . 2 4 . 4 ) . C l e a r l y the T h r a c i a n h a d a cruel s e n s e o f irony. M o v i n g n o r t h a g a i n , S p a r t a c u s intention, a c c o r d i n g t o P l u t a r c h (Crassus 9 . 5 ) , w a s t o c r o s s the A l p s i n t o G a u l a n d then t o T h r a c e . O u t s i d e M u t i n a ( M o d e n a ) o n the p l a i n o f the R i v e r P o he d e f e a t e d C a i u s C a s s i u s L o n g i n u s (cos. 7 3 B C ) , the g o v e r n o r o f G a l l i a C i s a l p i n a a n d g e n e r a l o f a n a r m y of t w o l e g i o n s . T h e p r o c o n s u l w a s n e a r l y killed b u t e s c a p e d w i t h difficulty. T h e r o a d t o the A l p i n e p a s s e s w a s o p e n a n d the p r o s p e c t s l o o k e d p r o m i s i n g . A t this p o i n t S p a r t a c u s c h a n g e s his m i n d , a n d for s o m e i n e x p l i c a b l e r e a s o n he turned b a c k a n d h e a d e d s o u t h a g a i n . A t o n e j u n c t u r e he c o n t e m p l a t e d a t t a c k i n g R o m e , yet in t h e e v e n t h e r e t u r n e d t o the s o u t h o f the p e n i n s u l a a n d e v e n t u a l l y s p e n t the w i n t e r n e a r T h u r i i i n s t e a d ( A p p i a n Bellum civilia 1 . 1 1 7 ) .62
    • Spartacus n o w p o s e d an e n o r m o u s (and embarrassing) threat to R o m e . Gargano hills of PromontorioH e a n d his s l a v e a r m y h a d s h r e d d e d the a r m i e s o f three p r a e t o r s , t w o c o n s u l s del Gargano, ancient Mount Garganus. It was somewhere inand one proconsul with apparent ease. T h e rebellion h a d b e c o m e war, a n d the shadow of these hills thatw a r to the bitter e n d . Crixus and his followers, Gauls and Germans in the main, met their untimely end. Their nemesis was one of theTHE WAR WITH CRASSUS, 71 BC consular armies, that of Gellius. Despite his advanced yearsM a r c u s L i c i n i u s C r a s s u s , w h o h a d b e e n p r a e t o r in the p r e v i o u s year, w a s (he was in his sixties), thegiven 10 legions, six of t h e m newly raised a n d the rest t a k e n over f r o m consul stubbornly held his own by deploying his twothe d i s g r a c e d c o n s u l s , a n d e n t r u s t e d w i t h the o v e r a l l c o m m a n d o f the w a r legions on high ground.a g a i n s t S p a r t a c u s . A s the rebels w e r e m a k i n g their w a y s o u t h , C r a s s u s t o o k (APT Puglia)u p a p o s i t i o n in the r e g i o n o f P i c e n u m ( p r e s e n t - d a y M a r c h e s ) a n d o r d e r e dhis l e g a t e M u m m i u s t o s h a d o w b u t n o t t o e n g a g e S p a r t a c u s . W h e n a no p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d itself, he d i s o b e y e d the o r d e r a n d a t t a c k e d ; his t w olegions w e r e t r o u n c e d , a n d r e p o r t e d l y a l a r g e n u m b e r o f the t r o o p s r a n f r o mthe battlefield. In t u r n , S p a r t a c u s r e t r e a t e d a c r o s s L u c a n i a t o the s e a . V i o l e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y in w a r , is a c o n f u s e d a n d u n c e r t a i n activity, highlyu n p r e d i c t a b l e a n d d e p e n d i n g o n d e c i s i o n s t a k e n by fallible h u m a n b e i n g s . It isfurthermore a h o t - h e a d e d activity in w h i c h c o m m i t m e n t s a n d r e p u t a t i o n s c a ndevelop a m o m e n t u m of their o w n . C r a s s u s m u s t h a v e feared his o p p o n e n t , forinstead of forcing a decisive battle he p l a n n e d t o t r a p S p a r t a c u s in the t o e o fItaly by m e a n s of a n i m m e n s e trench t h a t stretched f r o m s e a t o s e a , a c r o s s then a r r o w neck of l a n d , for a length of three h u n d r e d s t a d e s (c. 6 0 k m , P l u t a r c hCrassus 1 0 . 5 ) . C r a s s u s then h a d a l o w e a r t h r a m p a r t , t o p p e d w i t h a p a l i s a d ea n d s t u d d e d w i t h turrets, t h r o w n u p a l o n g its entire length. 63
    • TOP Roman amphitheatre at Thurii (Sibari). After the war with Hannibal the Romans repopulated Thurii - by then deserted - thus founding the colony they called Copia. It was in and around this southern settlement that Spartacus and his followers wintered after their long trek back from the north. It was here also that his blacksmiths were amply supplied with iron and copper for weapon production. (Fototeca ENIT) LEFT An extensive part of Lucania (present-day Basilicata) was given up to pasture, and the crazy jumble of lofty peaks that occupied almost the It h a s been d o u b t e d by s o m e t h a t the t r e n c h stretched for the 3 0 0 s t a d e s whole were carpeted witht h a t P l u t a r c h c l a i m s . W a r d ( 1 9 7 7 : 8 9 - 9 0 n. 2 0 ) , for i n s t a n c e , s u g g e s t s t h a t forests. Somewhat sparselyS p a r t a c u s w a s e n c a m p e d o n the S c y l l a e u m p r o m o n t o r y , just n o r t h of R h e g i u m populated, these abounded( R e g g i o di C a l a b r i a ) a n d o v e r l o o k i n g the strait s e p a r a t i n g Italy f r o m Sicily, with wild boars, bears and wolves. Monte Pollinoa n d t h a t C r a s s u s d u g a t r e n c h t h a t t r a v e r s e d this p r o m o n t o r y a n d n o t the (2,248m), shown here, isw h o l e t o e o f Italy. It is t r u e t h a t S p a r t a c u s h a d h o p e d t h a t C i l i c i a n p i r a t e s home still to the wild boarw o u l d t r a n s p o r t h i m a n d his m e n a c r o s s the n a r r o w b u t t r e a c h e r o u s strait t o and bear, though thethe i s l a n d - the S e c o n d S l a v e W a r h a d n o t l o n g e n d e d a n d c o u l d e a s i l y b e Apennine wolf struggles to survive. (Fototeca ENIT)r e k i n d l e d - yet in the e v e n t they t o o k the m o n e y a n d s a i l e d off. B e s i d e s ,Plutarch is quite specific in the details of length a n d a f r a g m e n t of S a l l u s t , the 65
    • TOPLike its northern neighbourLucania, Bruttium (present-dayCalabria) was a mountainousregion whose economy waschiefly based on livestockbreeding and the use of theforests. It was considered bythe Romans as a wildernesswhere decent people hardlydare venture and wherebandits abound. In the 19thcentury the region was stillthe scene of acts of banditry.A view of Largo Arvo, Calabria.(Fototeca ENIT)RIGHTAn oft-forgotten achievementof Crassus was the fortification,some 60km long, which hehad constructed across the toeof Italy to bottle up the slave p o s s i b l e s o u r c e here, tantalizingly m e n t i o n s that p a r t of Italy that stretches o u tarmy. Pinpointing the actualcourse of this barrier, however, in the d i r e c t i o n o f Sicily is e n t e r e d b y a c o r r i d o r t h a t is n o w i d e r t h a n thirty-is an exercise in conjecture. five [ R o m a n ] m i l e s (c. 5 2 k m , Historiae 4 . 2 5 ) . S u c h p a t i e n t feats o f militaryThis is the Calabrian seaside e n g i n e e r i n g w e r e well w i t h i n the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the a r m y of the R e p u b l i c a n d ,town of Pizzo, on Golfo di by w a y o f a c o m p a r i s o n , the s t o n e w a l l o f c o n t r a v a l l a t i o n a n d a c c o m p a n y i n gSanta Eufemia, a possiblecandidate for its western ditch t h a t s e a l e d off N u m a n t i a f r o m the o u t s i d e w o r l d , c o n s t r u c t e d s o m e 6 0terminal. (Fototeca ENIT) y e a r s earlier, r a n for a t o t a l d i s t a n c e of 4 8 s t a d e s (c. 1 0 k m , A p p i a n Iberica 9 0 ) . In a n y event, S p a r t a c u s a n d his a r m y w e r e certainly cut off f r o m the m o r e s u c c u l e n t l a n d s t o the n o r t h , a n d f r o m n o w o n w o u l d h a v e to e n d u r e m u c h a n d live o n little. T h e rebels w e r e i n d e e d c a u g h t in a r a t t r a p . It w a s n o r m a l o f c o u r s e for a n y a n c i e n t a r m y t o live off the l a n d in w a r t i m e c o n d i t i o n s , o r else t o e x a c t a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f r o m l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s t o o p o w e r l e s s t o resist, a n d w i t h the rebels m o v i n g f r o m o n e locale t o another,66
    • TOP Due east of Pizzo, and on Golfo di Squillace, sits Soverato. However, the one major difficulty with locating Crassus barrier between these two towns is that the narrow neck of land that separates them is only some 35km wide, in other words far too narrow a corridor if we follow Plutarchs assertion that the barrier was 300 stades in length. (Fototeca ENIT) LEFT Castrum Petrae Roseti (1260), Roseto Capo Spulico. Just north of Sibari (ancient Thurii), Roseto Capo Spulico is another possible candidate for the eastern terminal of Crassus barrier. Due west, on Golfo di Policastro, is the medieval townwindfall acquisitions m u s t have m a d e u p a large p a r t of requirements. of Maratea. As the crow flies itH e r d s m e n u s e d t o h a b i t u a l l y living off the c o u n t r y w o u l d o b v i o u s l y h a v e is some 65km between the two,k n o w n w h a t t o t a k e for their i m m e d i a t e n e e d s , b u t for the rest o f the a r m y close to Plutarchs 300 stades.it w a s a different matter. C a e s a r w o u l d later s a y t h a t w a r c o u l d feed w a r , a n d However, the terrain in the central part of the corridorhe w a s right; the c o r r e s p o n d i n g F r e n c h a x i o m la guerre nourrit la guerre c a n is particularly mountainous.a l s o be f o u n d in N a p o l e o n s w r i t i n g s (e.g. Correspondance, v o l . I, n o . 4 9 ) . (Fototeca ENIT)M o r e o v e r , a s the w a r g r e w i n t o l o n g c a m p a i g n s d u r i n g difficult w i n t e rm o n t h s , a m o r e efficient m e t h o d o f p r o v i d i n g p r o v i s i o n s w a s d e s i r a b l e ino r d e r t o c o m p l e m e n t the g a i n s o f s i m p l e p l u n d e r i n g . 67
    • DESTRUCTION OF CRIXUS (pp 68-69)Towards the end of 73 BC Crixus and his followers separated from attack by Crixus army. The rebels are beginning their slowSpartacus. The following spring he and his entire force were ascent of the hill, atop of which stand the waiting Romans.destroyed near Mount Garganus (Promontorio del Gargano) in Crixus (1), on foot and looking very much the Gaulish warlord,north-eastern Apulia after being compromised by one of the two is prominent in front; the elderly Gellius (2) w h o was aboutconsular armies sent to quash the slave rebellion, that of Lucius 64 years old, on horseback, is slightly to the rear of the RomanGellius Publicola. It is of interest to note here that in Kubricks (double) battle line. The steep hillside is strewn with the deadSpartacus, contrary to ancient sources, Crixus is always portrayed and the dying. Crixus followers are mainly Gauls (3) or Germansas Spartacus loyal lieutenant, right up to the famous scene after (4), some sporting their native style of dress and weaponry,the final battle when he is one of the first to stand up and call others in a melange of native and Roman equipment, yet othersout, I am Spartacus! looking more like herdsmen (5) than warriors. A few women (6) combatants are evident too.This illustration shows the moment of the third (penultimate)70
    • T h e Pledge of Spartacus, marble statue group in the neoclassical style by Louis- Ernest Barrias, Jardin des Tuileries, Paris. Both Sallust (Historiae 3.91) and Plutarch (Crassus 8.2) praise the great bodily strength and spirit of Spartacus, but here we view the rebel gladiator in defeat. Executed in 1871, Barrias sculpture obviously symbolizes the tumultuous political events that had just shattered Paris, the glittering capital of Europe. (Ancient Art & Architecture) In spite o f t h e s e r e v e r s e s , h o w e v e r , o n e w i l d , w i n t r y n i g h t , w i t h s n o wfalling o n the g r o u n d , S p a r t a c u s a n d a p o r t i o n o f his s l a v e a r m y m a n a g e d t op e n e t r a t e C r a s s u s m a k e s h i f t b a r r i e r b y filling a s e c t i o n o f the t r e n c h w i t hboth m a t e r i a l s (earth, w o o d , b r a n c h e s ) a n d c a r r i o n ( h u m a n , cattle, a n d h o r s e ) .A g a i n S p a r t a c u s w a s s o o n at l a r g e in the o p e n c o u n t r y o f the m a i n l a n d . A g a i nC r a s s u s p u r s u e d . N o m e n t i o n is m a d e in o u r s o u r c e s o f the fate o f t h o s e w h odid n o t b r e a k o u t , t h o u g h it is p o s s i b l e t h a t these w e r e the rebels u n d e r thec o m m a n d of C a s t u s a n d G a n n i c u s - l e a d e r s p r e v i o u s l y u n h e a r d o f - w h o fellvictim to a s u r p r i s e a t t a c k (Plutarch Crassus 1 1 . 2 - 3 , F r o n t i n u s Strategemata1.5.20, 2.4.7, 5.34, Orosius 5.24.6).THE TRAP CLOSES: RIVER SILARUS, 71 BCM e a n w h i l e the S e n a t e , b e c o m i n g i m p a t i e n t , c a l l e d u p o n P o m p e y , w h o w i t hhis v e t e r a n l e g i o n s w a s r e t u r n i n g h o m e b y l a n d f r o m I b e r i a , a n d M a r c u s 71
    • ROMAN UNITS A 10 legions under Crassus REBEL UNITS 1 Slave army under Spartacus EVENTS1 Having constructed their marching camps nearthe banks of the Silarus, some of Crassus soldiersare detailed to dig a trench. Meantime, Spartacushas deployed his forward outposts.2 The final battle turns out to be a spontaneous affair,starting as a minor altercation between the Roman CRASSUSwork-parties digging the trench and some of therebels on picket duty.3 More and more men get involved as Roman cover-parties come to the diggers aid, and other rebels jumpinto the fray. The skirmish rapidly escalates into a full-blown battle.4 Spartacus now deploys his whole army in battle order.5 Crassus quickly follows suit with his ten legions,deploying them in the traditional triplex acies.6 After a protracted struggle, the Romans get the betterof the rebels.7 Spartacus rushes at Crassus, but never reaches him.He is probably killed in the fighting, as his forces areovercome. A terrible fate awaits those that survivethe Roman onslaught.THE SILARUS RIVER, 71 BCSpartacus forces are annihilated by Marcus Licinius Crassus in the upper reaches of the Silarus (Sele) Riverin south-western Italy, bringing the slave rebellion to an end.72
    • Note: the gridlines are shown at intervals of 1 km/1,093 yds xxxxSPARTACUS
    • The Sele (Silarus) originatesfrom Monte Paflagone, MontiPicentini range, just aboveCalabritto, and flows intothe Golfo di Salerno in theTyrrhenian Sea just northof Paestum, a length of some64km. Its main tributaries arethe Tanagro (Tanagrus) andthe Calore (Calor), whichjoin it from the south. It wassomewhere along the Sele,probably near its source,that Spartacus fought hisfinal battle. (Fototeca ENIT) T e r e n t i u s V a r r o L u c u l l u s (cos. 7 3 B C ) , the y o u n g e r o f the t w o L u c u l l i a n d p r o c o n s u l of M a c e d o n i a , t o a s s i s t C r a s s u s in t e r m i n a t i n g the war. O n learning o f t h i s , S p a r t a c u s set o u t for B r u n d i s i u m (Brindisi) in o r d e r t o e s c a p e by sea t o E p e i r o s , b u t w h e n he d i s c o v e r e d the p o r t w a s g a r r i s o n e d , p r o b a b l y w i t h the s o l d i e r s o f L u c u l l u s , he a b a n d o n e d the a t t e m p t . T h e s a n d s o f t i m e w e r e r u n n i n g o u t . C r a s s u s w a s far a w a y , b u t he w a s s t e a d i l y c l o s i n g the d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n h i m s e l f a n d S p a r t a c u s . After a series o f e s c a l a t i n g c l a s h e s , S p a r t a c u s w a s finally b r o u g h t t o heel in n o r t h - w e s t e r n L u c a n i a by the d o g g e d C r a s s u s . A t his b a c k , for b o t h p o l i t i c a l a n d p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s , C r a s s u s m u s t h a v e h e a r d t i m e s w i n g e d c h a r i o t h o v e r i n g near. It t a k e s little effort for u s t o i m a g i n e a C r a s s u s w h o w o u l d h a v e b e g u n to fear P o m p e y s r e t u r n , a m o v e t h a t w o u l d steal his thunder. S o m e t i m e in the s p r i n g o f 7 1 BC a m a j o r b a t t l e w a s f o u g h t n e a r the s o u r c e of the R i v e r Silarus (Sele) in n o r t h - w e s t e r n L u c a n i a , a n d S p a r t a c u s w a s d e f e a t e d a n d slain. T h e w o r d s o f P l u t a r c h p r o v i d e u s w i t h o n e v e r s i o n o f the final m o m e n t s of this heroic figure:Slingshot (Paestum, MuseoArcheologico) found underthe pavement of the Basilicaat Paestum. Believed to dateto the time of the Spartacanrebellion, these examples areof baked clay. Such purpose-made projectiles allowed avery high consistency of sizeand shape that would aid rangeand accuracy. Of course theywere easy to mass-producein large quantities too.(Fields-Carre Collection)74
    • Then pushing his way towards Crassus himself, through many flying weapons and wounded men, he did not indeed reach him, but slew two centurions who fell upon him together. Finally, after his companions had taken to flight, he stood alone, surrounded by a multitude of foes, and was still defending himself when he was cut down. (Plutarch Crassus 11.6-7) A n d s o perished the heroic gladiator, eventually defeated b u t neverd i s g r a c e d . A s A p p i a n n o t e s , T h e b o d y o f S p a r t a c u s w a s never f o u n d (Bellumcivilia 1 . 1 2 0 ) . O f c o u r s e , it c a n b e a r g u e d t h a t if t h e b o d y w a s never f o u n dthere is n o p r o o f t h a t S p a r t a c u s d i d n o t s u r v i v e t h e c a r n a g e . B u t w h a t o f t h eprice o f this c a r n a g e a n d the u g l i n e s s c o n n e c t e d w i t h it? In all probability, a l o n g with S p a r t a c u s , 6 0 , 0 0 0 o f his f o l l o w e r s w e r e slainthat fateful day, while the R o m a n losses a m o u n t e d t o a b o u t 1 , 0 0 0 m e n (LivyPeriochae 9 7 , A p p i a n Bellum civilia 1 . 1 2 0 ) . Yet victory h a d its o w n price t o o ;three years of devastation, especially in the s o u t h , a n d 5 0 , 0 0 0 a d d i t i o n a l recruitslevied t o help q u a s h the rebellion. All this o n t o p of a butchers bill that included,as far a s w e c a n tell, 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 a m o n g the servile p o p u l a t i o n o f the p e n i n s u l a a n dt h o u s a n d s of R o m a n s (Brunt 1 9 8 8 : 1 0 7 ) . T h e conflict h a d d i s p a t c h e d c o u n t l e s speople, rebel survivors a n d p e a s a n t s alike, w h o p r e s u m a b l y resorted t o banditry,the only alternative in p o o r preindustrial societies, t h o u g h for the free p o o r therew a s a l w a y s the o p t i o n o f joining the army.
    • SPARTACUS RUSHES AT CRASSUS (pp 76-77)A n d so it came about, in the springtime of 71 BC, that Spartacus but as a gladiator in an arena. Thus ended the battle by the Riverdied on his feet fighting, surrounded by Romans. Not far away Silarus, w h e n the Spartacan rebellion went down into the dust ofwas a grassy knoll whereupon Crassus stood and watched. Roman history.O n that fateful day instead of meeting the enemy on horseback, This illustration, in some respects, is reminiscent of a scene fromSpartacus refused to mount his horse, a symbol of aristocratic the arena. Spartacus (1) has just cut down one of the centurionsgeneralship, w h e n it was led up to him. Dramatically proclaiming (2) and is about to e n g a g e the second (3). In the background,that he would have plenty of horses to ride if he w o n and no m u c h like a spectator at the Roman games, stands Crassus (4).need of one if he lost, he then plunged his sword into the Meanwhile round and about, almost a blur in fact, rages the finalmagnificent animal. Then, bloody sword in hand, he plunged battle between the slaves and the masters. As for Spartacusfearlessly into the fray o n foot and almost cut his way to Crassus arms and armour, he wields the gladius (5) and scutum (6) of anbefore he was cut d o w n . He did, however, kill two centurions ordinary Roman legionary, and likewise wears a legionarys mailthat came to Crassus rescue. He died not as a general of an army, shirt, the lorica hamata (7). He is bareheaded and battle scarred.78
    • AFTERMATH T h e V i a A p p i a , c a l l e d by the p o e t S t a t i u s (Silvae 4 . 3 ) the regina viarum, w a s b e g u n d u r i n g the c e n s o r s h i p o f A p p i u s C l a u d i u s C a e c u s ( 3 1 2 B C ) , m a k i n g it e a s y for R o m a n t r o o p s t o m o v e b e t w e e n R o m e a n d the n e w c o n q u e s t o f C a p u a . F o l l o w i n g the a p p r o x i m a t e line o f a n earlier t r a c k w a y t o the A l b a n hills at B o v i l l a e , it w a s p a v e d w i t h b a s a l t f r o m the P o r t a C a p e n a , a g a t e in the S e r v i a n w a l l n e a r the C i r c u s M a x i m u s , t o the t e m p l e o f M a r s , the initial mille passus o r R o m a n m i l e ( 2 9 6 B C ) , then all the w a y t o B o v i l l a e ( 2 9 3 B C ) , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y e x t e n d e d a c r o s s the m a l a r i a - i n f e s t e d paludes Pomptinae, the m o u n t a i n s b e t w e e n F u n d i a n d F o r m i a e , a n d the ager Campanus, thus running a t o t a l o f 1 3 2 R o m a n miles t o C a p u a . A further 3 2 - m i l e e x t e n s i o n w o u l d t a k e it o n t o B e n e v e n t u m , the r o a d p a s s i n g n e a r the n o t o r i o u s defile o f C a u d i u m , site o f the b a t t l e o f the C a u d i n e F o r k s ( 3 2 1 B C ) , a n d t h e n c e b y V e n u s i a t o T a r e n t u m , t h e r e b y a d d i n g a n o t h e r 2 0 2 R o m a n m i l e s , a n d finally B r u n d i s i u m . A n i m p o r t a n t aspect of R o m e s a b s o r p t i o n of c o n q u e r e d territory w a s to c o n s t r u c t r o a d s l i n k i n g n e w c o l o n i e s t o R o m e . In Italy itself, a s the V i a A p p i a ideally illustrates, the m a j o r arterial r o a d s t e n d e d t o f o l l o w R o m e s c o n q u e s t s b o t h in t i m e a n d s p a c e . Yet R o m e s first g r e a t h i g h w a y , the Q u e e n o f R o a d s herself, w a s a b o u t t o b e c o m e the r o u t e o f the d a m n e d . CRUCIFIXION W i t h S p a r t a c u s d e a d , the r e m n a n t s o f his s l a v e a r m y w e r e q u i c k l y h u n t e d d o w n a n d terrible e x a m p l e s m a d e o f t h e m . R o m a n l a w s a n c t i o n e d the m o s t brutal of d e a t h penalties, the summa supplica - t h r o w i n g t o the b e a s t s , b u r n i n g a l i v e , a n d c r u c i f i x i o n - a s s a v a g e r i e s t h a t w e r e n e c e s s a r y t o set a p u b l i c e x a m p l e (Digesta 4 8 . 1 9 . 1 6 . 1 0 ) . C r u c i f i x i o n , w h i c h w e n t b a c k well i n t o the e a r l y y e a r s o f the R e p u b l i c , w a s a n a g g r a v a t e d c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the d u a l a n d i n t e r r e l a t e d t h r e a t s o f servile r e b e l l i o n a n d b a n d i t r y . U s e d earlier in t h e N e a r E a s t a n d p r o b a b l y d e v i s e d in P e r s i a , crucifixion at R o m e seems to have developed f r o m a f o r m of p u n i s h m e n t (the p u b l i c c a r r y i n g o f a c r o s s , b e i n g b o u n d t o it, a n d w h i p p e d ) t o a f o r m o f e x e c u t i o n (being a t t a c h e d t o a c r o s s a n d s u s p e n d e d ) . V i c t i m s of c r u c i f i x i o n died slow, a g o n i z i n g d e a t h s , a n d they w e r e g u a r d e d . Usually, t o p r o l o n g the m e s s a g e o f d e t e r r e n c e , c o r p s e s w e r e then s i m p l y left t o suffer c o n s u m p t i o n by c a r r i o n b i r d s , w i l d a n i m a l s a n d n a t u r a l d e c o m p o s i t i o n . E a c h s t e p o f c r u c i f i x i o n w a s d e s i g n e d t o b e , in every s e n s e o f the t e r m , e x c r u c i a t i n g (Latin excruciatus, literally o u t o f the crucified). H u n g f r o m nails 79
    • the victim w o u l d suffer in the e x t r e m e , eventually d y i n g w i t h fractured l i m b s a n d b l a c k e n e d t o n g u e . F o r e x e m p l a r y effect, crucifixions were held at well- travelled p u b l i c r o a d w a y s , offering a stark c o n t r a s t t o the h a l l o w e d burials of g o o d citizens nearby. C r u c i f i x i o n w a s C r a s s u s choice of punishment. H e o r d e r e d a r o w of w o o d e n c r o s s e s to be set u p o n either side of the Via A p p i a , lining the 132-mile r o u t e of his m a r c h f r o m C a p u a , w h e r e the rebellion h a d b e g u n , to the very gates of R o m e , as a g r u e s o m e w a r n i n g t o e v e r y b o d y p a s s i n g a l o n g it. T h e 6 , 0 0 0 rebel slaves w o u l d h a n g at r e g u l a r intervals in a n uninterrupted s e q u e n c e . T h e a g o n i z i n g p r o c e s s for e a c h o f the r e b e l s w o u l d n o d o u b t h a v e been the s a m e . T h e c r o s s for e a c h r e b e l , h u r r i e d l y h e w n o u t of fresh n e w p i n e , w a s p l a c e d o n the g r o u n d . T h e rebel w a s q u i c k l y t h r o w n b a c k w a r d s w i t h his s h o u l d e r s a g a i n s t the r o u g h w o o d o f the patibulum, a horizontal beam a t t a c h e d t o the vertical b e a m t h a t w o u l d s o o n be set in the g r o u n d . A R o m a n s o l d i e r felt for the d e p r e s s i o n a t the f r o n t of the rebels w r i s t , b e f o r e forcefully driving a heavy, s q u a r e wrought-ironThe Via Appia, which nail s o m e 1 2 - 1 8 c m l o n g t h r o u g h the m a n s flesh d e e p i n t o the soft w o o d .connected Rome with T h e soldier w o u l d then m o v e q u i c k l y t o the other side a n d r e p e a t the p r o c e s s ,Campania, Lucania and b e i n g c a r e f u l n o t p u l l t h e a r m s t o o tightly, b u t t o a l l o w s o m e flex a n dApulia, was the first andmost spectacular of the m o v e m e n t . T h e c r o s s w a s then r a i s e d slightly. T h e left f o o t o f the rebel w a sconsular roads. As far as p r e s s e d b a c k w a r d s a g a i n s t his r i g h t , a n d w i t h b o t h feet e x t e n d e d , t o e s d o w n ,Terracina, a distance of a nail w o u l d be driven t h r o u g h the a r c h of e a c h into the vertical b e a m , leaving62 Roman miles, it ran in the k n e e s f l e x e d . T h e c r o s s w a s then fully r a i s e d a n d set into the g r o u n d .an almost entirely straightline, even through the Alban A s he s l o w l y s a g g e d d o w n , m o r e o f the rebels w e i g h t w a s p l a c e d o n theHills, where the gradients are n a i l s p i e r c i n g the w r i s t s , c a u s i n g e x c r u c i a t i n g p a i n t o s h o o t a l o n g the fingerssteep. Here we see the well- a n d u p t h e a r m . A s he p u s h e d h i m s e l f u p w a r d t o a v o i d this t o r m e n t , hepaved stretch just beyond the w o u l d p l a c e his full w e i g h t o n the nail p i e r c i n g his feet. A g a i n he w o u l d feelTomb of Cecilia Metella, ParcoRegionale dellAppia Antica. the s e a r i n g a g o n y o f the n a i l t e a r i n g t h r o u g h flesh a n d b o n e . A s the a r m s(Fields-Carre Collection) t i r e d , c r a m p s w o u l d s w e e p t h r o u g h his m u s c l e s , c a u s i n g t h e m t o k n o t . W i t h these c r a m p s c a m e the inability t o p u s h himself u p w a r d s t o b r e a t h e . Air c o u l d b e d r a w n i n t o the l u n g s , b u t n o t e x h a l e d . H e w o u l d fight t o r a i s e himself in o r d e r t o c a t c h o n e s m a l l b r e a t h . A s c a r b o n d i o x i d e a c c u m u l a t e d in his b l o o d s t r e a m , the c r a m p s w o u l d p a r t i a l l y s u b s i d e . S p a s m o d i c a l l y , he w o u l d be a b l e t o p u s h himself u p w a r d t o e x h a l e a n d g a i n o x y g e n . H o u r s of p a i n , cycles o f c r a m p s , intermittent a s p h y x i a t i o n lay a h e a d . T h e n a n o t h e r t o r m e n t w o u l d b e g i n : c r u s h i n g p a i n in the c h e s t a s the p e r i c a r d i u m s l o w l y filled w i t h fluid a n d b e g a n t o c o m p r e s s the h e a r t . T h e l o s s o f b o d i l y fluids w o u l d r e a c h a critical level, the h e a r t s t r u g g l i n g t o p u m p t o r p i d b l o o d , a n d the lungs m a k i n g f r a n t i c efforts t o f u n c t i o n . T h e rebel w o u l d n o w be feeling the chill of d e a t h . T h e j o u r n e y h o m e f r o m C a p u a for C r a s s u s a n d his t r o o p s w a s t o be a s p e c t a c l e the like o f w h i c h h a d n e v e r b e e n s e e n b e f o r e . T h e i r r e t u r n w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e o n e l o n g t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n . It is s i m p l e t o s a y t h a t the p u n i s h m e n t fits the c r i m e , b u t the deliberate cruelties of p r o p e r t y a n d privilege a r e i n v a r i a b l y m o r e f i e n d i s h t h a n the h o t - h e a d e d r e v e n g e s o f p o v e r t y a n d o p p r e s s i o n ; C r a s s u s p r i s o n e r s d i e d horribly.80
    • In a d d i t i o n t o the 6 , 0 0 0 r e b e l s c r u c i f i e d b y C r a s s u s , a n o t h e r 5 , 0 0 0 o f Early 11th-century mosaicS p a r t a c u s f o l l o w e r s , a s t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o flee n o r t h w a r d s , fell in w i t h on a gold ground, narthex of katholikon, Osios LoukasP o m p e y , w h o p r o m p t l y e x t e r m i n a t e d every l a s t o n e . P o m p e y , a l w a y s o n e t o Monastry showing Jesust a k e his o w n c h a r m a n d a u t h o r i t y for g r a n t e d , t h e n p e n n e d a brief d i s p a t c h Christ and Him crucified.t o the S e n a t e , c l a i m i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h C r a s s u s h a d d e f e a t e d the g l a d i a t o r s in A foot support has beena p i t c h e d b a t t l e , he h a d e x t i n g u i s h e d the w a r t o its v e r y r o o t s ( P l u t a r c h added to prolong the ordeal. The nails are shown piercingPompey 2 1 . 5 ) . P o m p e y s s e l f - p r o m o t i o n h e l p e d t o m a k e h i m a p o p u l a r h e r o . the hands, not the wrist asC r a s s u s h u r t c a n o n l y be i m a g i n e d . per normal practice, while each foot is nailed as opposed to the feet being nailed oneTHE RETURN TO ORDER on top of the other. (Fields-Carre Collection)T h e a r m i e s o f C r a s s u s a n d P o m p e y c o n v e r g e d o n R o m e in a m o o d o f m u t u a lhostility, yet b o t h m e n l o o k e d for a c o n s u l s h i p a n d t o g a i n it e a c h n e e d e d thes u p p o r t of the other. C r a s s u s a s s e t s w e r e t h a t he w a s f a b u l o u s l y r i c h , a n dn u m e r o u s s e n a t o r s w e r e i n d e b t e d t o h i m ; P o m p e y s t h a t he w a s the idol o f thep e o p l e . S o they set their differences a s i d e , p r o v i s i o n a l l y linked a r m s , a n d w e r eduly elected t o the c o n s u l s h i p s for the f o l l o w i n g year. T h e y t h e n d i s b a n d e dtheir w a r - w e a r y v e t e r a n s . O n t h e p r e t e x t t h a t t h e y w e r e a w a i t i n g theirt r i u m p h s , the p a i r h a d m a i n t a i n e d their a r m i e s a n d t h e n h a d m e n a c i n g l ypitched u p a t the very g a t e s o f the c a p i t a l . We s h o u l d n o t o v e r l o o k the fact t h a t P o m p e y r e c e i v e d a t r i u m p h fordefeating Sertorius in Iberia. T h i s w a s rather irregular a s S e r t o r i u s h a d been aR o m a n citizen a n d P o m p e y h a d yet t o h o l d p u b l i c office a n d enter the S e n a t e ,b o t h of w h i c h he w a s to d o o n 2 9 D e c e m b e r 7 1 BC, the very d a y he r o d e ing l o r i o u s t r i u m p h a l o n g the V i a S a c r a . T h e l e g i t i m a t e C r a s s u s , o n the o t h e rh a n d , w a s only voted a lesser t r i u m p h , a n ovatio or o v a t i o n , a s the v a n q u i s h i n gof S p a r t a c u s a n d his slave a r m y w a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h y o f the full g l o r y o f 81
    • a full-scale t r i u m p h . In the s e c o n d - r a t e victory p a r a d e , however, he did w e a r a c r o w n of laurel rather t h a n the c u s t o m a r y myrtle, which m a y h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d a s a s p e c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n for the o t h e r w i s e bitterly d i s a p p o i n t e d C r a s s u s ( C i c e r o In Pisonem 5 8 , Pliny Historia Naturalis 1 5 . 1 2 5 , P l u t a r c h Crassus 11.8, Aulus Gellius Nodes Atticae 5 . 6 . 2 3 ) . A s for their y e a r of c o o p e r a t i o n , u n s u r p r i s i n g l y vanities c l a s h e d . P o m p e y , c o n c e i t e d a n d u n s c r u p u l o u s , tried to treat C r a s s u s like a j u n i o r c o l l e a g u e , a s the a p p r e n t i c e t o the s o r c e r e r he e x p e c t e d a d m i r a t i o n a n d d e f e r e n c e . W h e r e a s C r a s s u s , conceited and superior, w o u l d look d o w n on P o m p e y a s his s o c i a l inferior, little m o r e t h a n a v u l g a r p a r v e n u (Sallust Historiae 4 . 4 8 , P l u t a r c h Crassus 1 2 , Pompey 2 2 ) . O n e m o r e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s t o be a n s w e r e d , in truth the m o s t r e a l i s t i c a n d m o s t p r e g n a n t q u e s t i o n o f all: d i d S p a r t a c u s r e b e l l i o n ever h a v e the s l i g h t e s t c h a n c e o f s u c c e s s ? It is p o s s i b l e t o a r g u e that, at least initially, n o t e n o u g h slaves h a d j o i n e d S p a r t a c u s t o m a k e his victory p o s s i b l e . At o n e p o i n t or another, S p a r t a c u s m u s t h a v e realized that the m a s s e s o f s l a v e s w h o toiled in Italy w o u l d n o t or c o u l d n o t rise u p a n d j o i n h i m , a n d , m u c h like H a n n i b a l b e f o r e h i m , n o m a t t e r h o w m a n y times he k n o c k e d o u t a R o m a n a r m y , a n o t h e r w o u l d s t u b b o r n l y t a k e its p l a c e . A s the c i n e m a t i c S p a r t a c u s s a y s t o his wife V a r i n i a , n o m a t t e r h o w m a n y t i m e s w e b e a t t h e m , they a l w a y s s e e m t o h a v e a n o t h e r a r m y t o s e n d a g a i n s t u s . A n d another. A l s o , e x t r e m e m e a s u r e s t o p r e s e r v e unity m i g h t h a v e been theCrassus chief rival at the only w a y to keep the chances for future victory alive. Any b r e a k a w a ytime was already popular m o v e m e n t s b y p o r t i o n s o f the s l a v e a r m y w o u l d a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t owith the Roman masses - disaster, a s it u l t i m a t e l y d i d . In a n a r m y , n o s u b o r d i n a t i o n n o d i s c i p l i n e , a n dCnaeus Pompeius Magnus,proud, pompous and n o d i s c i p l i n e n o a r m y . O f c o u r s e , it is the privilege of h i s t o r i a n s t o be w i s epretentious. As a young after the e v e n t , a n d the m o r e f o o l i s h the h i s t o r i a n the w i s e r he u s u a l l y a i m soutsider he had won to be.spectacular victories for R e v e r b e r a t i o n s o f the w a r c o n t i n u e d after the final d e f e a t of S p a r t a c u s .the Sullan regime in Sicilyand Africa, and more recently D u r i n g the C a t i l i n a r i a n c r i s i s o f 6 3 BC the S e n a t e d e c r e e d the t r o u p e s o fin Iberia, for which he was to g l a d i a t o r s in R o m e w e r e t o b e r e m o v e d t o C a p u a a n d o t h e r C a m p a n i a nearn his second triumph. This t o w n s in o r d e r t o relieve the c a p i t a l o f the p o t e n t i a l d a n g e r s their p r e s e n c emarble bust (Paris, Musée du r e p r e s e n t e d . In 4 9 BC, a s civil w a r b e g a n , C a e s a r h a d 5 , 0 0 0 g l a d i a t o r s l o c a t e dLouvre, Ma 999), dated to 70 BC,represents the up-and-coming in C a p u a , a b o d y t h a t t h e P o m p e i a n c o n s u l L u c i u s C o r n e l i u s L e n t u l u sPompey. (Fields-Carre c o n t e m p l a t e d u s i n g a s t r o o p s b u t w h o s e m e m b e r s w e r e , in the w o r d s o fCollection) C i c e r o , very s e n s i b l y d i s t r i b u t e d b y P o m p e y a m o n g the p o p u l a t i o n , t w o per household(Epistulae ad Atticum 7 . 1 4 . 2 ) . S o m e s u r v i v o r s f r o m the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n even m a n a g e d t o r e m a i n at l a r g e for n i g h o n a d e c a d e after C r a s s u s c e l e b r a t e d his ovatio by h i d i n g o u t n e a r T h u r i i , p e r h a p s in the s a m e m o u n t a i n h a u n t s they h a d o n c e s h a r e d with S p a r t a c u s himself. A n d s o s m a l l guerrilla-like b a n d s o f p e a s a n t s , h e r d s m e n a n d s l a v e s w e r e still b e i n g q u a s h e d by R o m a n f o r c e s in s o u t h e r n Italy in the late s i x t i e s BC. O n e o f the m o s t n o t a b l e e x a m p l e s o f a m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n of this k i n d m u s t be t h a t o f the p r o p r a e t o r C a i u s O c t a v i u s , father o f A u g u s t u s , the first e m p e r o r o f R o m e ( S u e t o n i u s Divus Augustus 3.2, 7.1).82
    • THE LEGACY OF SPARTACUST h e m y t h o f the h e r o is n o t i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e u s w i t h i c o n s t o a d m i r e , b u tis d e s i g n e d t o t a p into the vein o f h e r o i s m w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s . M y t h m u s t l e a dt o i m i t a t i o n o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , n o t p a s s i v e c o n t e m p l a t i o n , a n d t h e r e is n odoubting that S p a r t a c u s determination to win f r e e d o m remains as vividlyalive t o d a y a s w h e n his r e b e l l i o n b e g a n . B e f o r e the final b a t t l e in S t a n l e yK u b r i c k s epic film Spartacus ( 1 9 6 0 ) , C r a s s u s tells his g a t h e r e d officers t h a this c a m p a i g n w a s to kill the l e g e n d o f S p a r t a c u s . In this he w a s a n y t h i n g b u tv i c t o r i o u s . S p a r t a c u s the g l a d i a t o r w a s t o c o n q u e r d e a t h a n d b e c o m e a m y t h ,a n icon o f s o m a n y s c a t t e r e d a n d fiercely held h o p e s . U s u a l l y i n d i v i d u a l s w h o figure in h i s t o r y d o s o b e c a u s e a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a lc h o o s e s t o r e c o u n t their d e e d s for p o s t e r i t y . R e m e m b r a n c e is a r e a l a n dv a l u e d f o r m o f i m m o r t a l i t y . H o m e r i m m o r t a l i z e d A c h i l l e s , a s d i d Virgil forA e n e a s , P l a t o , a l o n g w i t h the u n p r e t e n t i o u s X e n o p h o n , p r e s e r v e d t h em e m o r y of S o k r a t e s . C a e s a r n a t u r a l l y t o o k c a r e o f his o w n r e p u t a t i o n . B u tw h a t of S p a r t a c u s ? T h e w a r a g a i n s t S p a r t a c u s w a s c o m m o n l y r i d i c u l e d a n d d e s p i s e d a t firsta s merely a m a t t e r of g l a d i a t o r s a n d s l a v e s . T a k e F l o r u s , for i n s t a n c e , w h ov i e w e d the r e b e l l i o n n o t s o m u c h a s a m o n u m e n t a l s t r u g g l e for f r e e d o m b u ta s a d i s g r a c e f u l u n d e r t a k i n g , p e r p e t r a t e d by s l a v e s a n d led by g l a d i a t o r s , thef o r m e r m e n o f the h u m b l e s t , the l a t t e r m e n o f t h e w o r s t , c l a s s (Epitome3 . 2 0 . 2 ) . Cicero, a c o n t e m p o r a r y of S p a r t a c u s , once sarcastically referred toa t r o u p e of g l a d i a t o r s a s i m p r e s s i v e , n o b l e , a n d m a g n i f i c e n t (Pro Sestio 1 3 4 ) ,a n d w a s e q u a l l y s c a t h i n g a b o u t the r e b e l s . L i k e o t h e r s o f the l a n d o w n i n g eliteof the t i m e , C i c e r o v i e w e d S p a r t a c u s a n d t h o s e w h o f o l l o w e d h i m a s sinisteri n s u r g e n t s w h o d e s e r v e d their fate a n d w h o w e r e t o b e d e s p i s e d a s servilep e o p l e (e.g. Philippics 3.21, 4.15, 13.22). M a n y of t h o s e like C i c e r o , b e c a u s e of their p r o p e r t y interests, t e n d e d t obe dismissive of the terrible threat S p a r t a c u s p o s e d , thinking he w o u l d best beforgotten or at least c o n s i g n e d to a s m a l l , albeit n i g h t m a r i s h , f o o t n o t e in thep a g e s of R o m a n history. T h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n o f R o m a n s w o u l d be c o m f o r t e dby the t h o u g h t that S p a r t a c u s h a d t a k e n his p l a c e a s o n e of R o m e s c a n o n i c a lfoes of the p a s t , r a n k i n g a l o n g s i d e H a n n i b a l n o less, a p r o f e s s i o n a l b u t c h e rturned o u t l a w m u r d e r e r w h o o n c e threatened the very stability of the R o m a nruling order, b u t h a d been r e d u c e d t o a nursery-rhyme b o g e y m a n , a n a m e w i t hw h i c h t o h u s h children. T h u s , in the p o l i s h e d m e t a l o f H o r a c e , S p a r t a c u s ischronicled in the line, nor C a p u a s rival strength, n o r the fierceness of S p a r t a c u s (Epodes 1 6 . 5 ) , a n d a g a i n in the lines, a n d w i n e , that k n e w the M a r s i a n war, ifr o v i n g S p a r t a c u s h a d s p a r e d a single j a r (Carmina 3 . 1 4 . 1 8 - 2 0 ) . A n d s o the
    • s o u r c e s o n the S p a r t a c a n rebellion were not only w r i t t e n by t h o s e w h o o w n e d a n d h a t e d slaves, b u t c o n s i s t s o f n o m o r e t h a n a few p a s s a g e s in Livy, Plutarch, A p p i a n a n d Florus, less than 4 , 0 0 0 w o r d s all told. It s e e m s the w h o l e e p i s o d e w a s so humiliating that the less said a b o u t it the better. T h e o n e e x c e p t i o n s e e m e d to h a v e been Sallust. S o S p a r t a c u s w a s t o o m e n a c i n g a figure for the R o m a n s t o c o n s i d e r a w o r t h y o p p o n e n t let a l o n e s o m e o n e w o r t h r e m e m b e r i n g . Besides he w a s a s l a v e , g l a d i a t o r , a n d rebel, s o m e o n e w h o h a d n o business running a r o u n d being an epic-style h e r o . H o w e v e r , later g e n e r a t i o n s a n d cultures w o u l d n o t s h a r e this dismissive attitude. In 1 7 6 9 , t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e the fall of the Bastille to the Parisian m a s s e s , Voltaire m a d e one of the first specific references to S p a r t a c u s in the c o n t e x t o f the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a r m e d resistance t o u n j u s t o p p r e s s i o n . In w o r d s that w o u l d later be e c h o e d in the A m e r i c a n D e c l a r a t i o n of I n d e p e n d e n c e , Voltaire referred t o the rebellion led by S p a r t a c u s a s a just war, indeed the only j u s t w a r in h i s t o r y (Correspondance generale 4 6 1 - 6 3 , Letter 2 8 3 , 5 . 4 . 1 7 6 9 ) . A s leader of the Pbilosophes, Voltaires b a t t l e cry, w h i c h heMarxs attention had been s o m e t i m e s u s e d i n s t e a d o f his s i g n a t u r e o n letters, w a s Ecrasez linfame!,drawn to Spartacus by two C r u s h the i n f a m o u s ! T h e I n f a m o u s , t o h i m , w e r e t h o s e w h o e x e r c i s e dsignificant events of his own i n t o l e r a n c e a n d p e r s e c u t i o n , bigotry, unfair privilege, believed in superstitions,time, namely the AmericanCrisis, as the civil war was a n d p u r s u e d the e m p t y folly o f war. A t the t i m e , the so-called A g e of R e a s o n ,referred to in Europe, and m e n w h o w e r e n o t t h e m s e l v e s s l a v e s a n d h a d never been o p p r e s s e d orGiuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82), d o w n t r o d d e n let a l o n e s l a v e s , in other w o r d s the w e l l - m e a n i n g intellectuals ofthe romantic rebel who was the d a y , u s e d the i m a g e o f the a r m e d rebel s l a v e S p a r t a c u s t o think a b o u t ,engaged in liberating Sicilyand southern Italy from foreign d e b a t e , a n d p r o m o t e their o w n v i s i o n s of liberty for the freeborn citizens ofdomination. This is his bust in the n e w l y risen n a t i o n - s t a t e s .the public garden at the foot Yet the m o s t striking e x a m p l e o f this s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p h e n o m e n o n m u s t beof Torre di Federico ll°, Enna. t h a t f u r n i s h e d b y S a i n t D o m i n g u e , the F r e n c h c o l o n y t h a t o c c u p i e d the(Fields-Carre Collection) w e s t e r n p a r t o f the C a r i b b e a n i s l a n d o f H i s p a n i o l a , w h e r e rebel slaves a n d f r e e d m e n led b y T o u s s a i n t L O u v e r t u r e w e r e a b l e t o a c h i e v e r e v o l u t i o n a r y f r e e d o m by c r e a t i n g a n e w state fully i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m E u r o p e a n d o m i n a t i o n . A s e l f - e d u c a t e d s l a v e freed s h o r t l y b e f o r e the u p r i s i n g in 1 7 9 1 , the utterly e x t r a o r d i n a r y T o u s s a i n t j o i n e d the b l a c k rebellion t o liberate the slaves a n d b e c a m e its o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g e n i u s . H e h a d r e a d C a e s a r s commentarii, for i n s t a n c e , w h i c h h a d g i v e n h i m s o m e i d e a of politics a n d the military art a n d the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m . First defeating the S p a n i s h , a n d then siding with t h e m t o t r o u n c e the B r i t i s h , T o u s s a i n t finally f o r c e d the F r e n c h t o the n e g o t i a t i n g t a b l e , a n d t h u s H a i t i , a s it w a s n o w c a l l e d , b e c a m e the first i n d e p e n d e n t b l a c k state o u t s i d e A f r i c a . In 1 8 0 7 , only three y e a r s after H a i t i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e , the British ( a n d A m e r i c a n s ) e n d e d their A t l a n t i c s l a v e t r a d e . T o u s s a i n t h i m s e l f , h o w e v e r , w a s n o t t o e n j o y the fruits o f his l a b o u r s . T r e a c h e r o u s l y s e i z e d a n d b u n d l e d off t o F r a n c e b o u n d like a c o m m o n c r i m i n a l , he w a s t o die m i s e r a b l y in a d u n g e o n a t F o r t - d e - J o u x high in the Jura Mountains.84
    • It w a s K a r l M a r x ( 1 8 1 8 - 8 3 ) w h o b r o u g h t S p a r t a c u s i n t o the c e n t r e s t a g eof R o m a n history, a n d it w a s the O c t o b e r R e v o l u t i o n t h a t e l e v a t e d h i m i n t oa c o n s c i o u s r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r w i t h a definite s o c i a l p r o g r a m m e . F r o m t h a td a t e h i s t o r y t o o k h i m u p , never t o let h i m g o . R e v o l u t i o n , s a y s M a r x , is thel o c o m o t i v e o f history. E v e n in its n e a t e s t s e n s e , r e v o l u t i o n a r y w a r referst o the c o n q u e s t o f p o l i t i c a l p o w e r b y the u s e o f a r m e d f o r c e . If it f a i l s , itr o u t i n e l y b e c o m e s , in the j a r g o n o f v i c t o r y , a r e v o l t o r a r e b e l l i o n .R e v o l u t i o n is the s o u r c e of legal r i g h t , b u t r e b e l l i o n is a d i s o r d e r p r o m o t e dby a g r o u p of d i s s a t i s f i e d p e r s o n s in o r d e r t o g r a b , f r o m t h o s e in p o w e r , b o t hthe political s i n e c u r e s a n d the e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s . T h e c o m m o n o u t c o m eis n o m o r e t h a n a c h a n g e o f h a n d s in the d i v i d i n g u p o f p r e r o g a t i v e s a n dp e r k s . Yet a s a fully d e v e l o p e d c o n c e p t r e v o l u t i o n is a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n tp h e n o m e n o n largely b e c a u s e it is s o c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t w o a s p e c t s o fm o d e r n i t y - i n d u s t r i a l i s m a n d i m p e r i a l i s m . In every cult t h e r e is a n e l e m e n tof the u n t r u e a n d the i r r a t i o n a l . In the c a s e o f S p a r t a c u s , t h a t e l e m e n t is theidentification o f his r e b e l l i o n w i t h a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t a t s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n .Before S p a r t a c u s j o i n e d the p a n t h e o n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r o e s (or entered i n t o Francois Dominique Toussaintthe c o n s u m e r m a r k e t p l a c e , for t h a t m a t t e r ) , he w a s a s l a v e , a g l a d i a t o r , a LOuverture (c. 1744-1803),rebel a n d a n i n s p i r a t i o n a l leader. Haitian patriot and martyr, T h e R o m a n slave w a r s , w h i c h b e l o n g t o the s e c o n d a n d first centuries BC, the black Spartacus whop r o b a b l y reflect the big c h a n g e s g o i n g o n in the R o m a n e c o n o m y a n d of c o u r s e led his people to freedom and independence. Takingsociety at the t i m e . C e r t a i n l y these three w a r s s h o w a m a s s i v e e x p l o s i o n o f heart from the Frenchslave discontent, but they were n o t revolutionary m a s s m o v e m e n t s in a n y sense, Revolution, the concepts ofthe o p p r e s s e d slaves a n d free p r o l e t a r i a t fighting for their o w n political s p a c e Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite werein civil society as it w e r e . M a r x e x p l a i n e d a n d predicted all social conflicts w e r e manifest in Toussaints political make-up. Little known in theenduring class w a r s , b u t it w a s Lenin w h o actually d e v e l o p e d the idea of a class Anglo-Saxon world, his valiantstruggle in antiquity between slave a n d m a s t e r - subsequently repeated by Stalin life and tragic death are thebut, ironically, a view n o t a l w a y s s h a r e d by M a r x . Yet of g r e a t significance is topic of one of Wordsworthsthe fact that n o o n e m a r c h e d under the b a n n e r d o w n with slavery d u r i n g these finest sonnets. (Ancient Art & Architecture)w a r s , o n the c o n t r a r y they w e r e r e b e l l i o n s a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l m a s t e r s o rrebellions by individuals w h o n o longer w a n t e d t o be e n s l a v e d . In t r u t h , thehave-not slaves a n d p r o l e t a r i a t did n o t rise u p t o get their s h a r e . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s the l e f t - w i n g n o v e l i s t H o w a r d F a s t , w h o w a si m p r i s o n e d for his p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , s a w S p a r t a c u s a s the a f f i r m a t i o n o f m a n sability in all e r a s to resist d e h u m a n i z a t i o n . G r e a t l y e n c o u r a g e d by the w r i t i n g sof R o s a L u x e m b u r g , w h o h a d very definite views a b o u t f r e e d o m , theu n d e r l y i n g t h e m e o f F a s t s 1 9 5 1 n o v e l Spartacus is s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , n a m e l yt h a t n o tyranny, r e g a r d l e s s of its p o w e r , c a n u l t i m a t e l y p r e v a i l o v e r the f o r c eof m a n s p a s s i o n for f r e e d o m . U s i n g the little t h a t w a s k n o w n a b o u t S p a r t a c u s a s a b a s i s , e v e n g o i n g s ofar a s t o t e a c h h i m s e l f L a t i n (pity for h i m the m a i n s u r v i v i n g s o u r c e s w e r ewritten in G r e e k ) , H o w a r d F a s t m o u l d e d the g l a d i a t o r rebel i n t o a m y t h i c a lh e r o , a m e s s i a n i c f i g u r e e n g a g e d in a n e p i c r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e t oo v e r t h r o w R o m e in o r d e r t o r e s t o r e a l e g e n d a r y G o l d e n A g e o f p r i m i t i v etribal c o m m u n i s m s a i d t o h a v e e x i s t e d in s o m e d i s t a n t e p o c h p r i o r t o thea d v e n t of h u m a n e x p l o i t a t i o n . T h e m o d e r n r e a d e r h a s a d e v e l o p e d , scientificv i e w of history, t h a t is t o say, w e a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o v e all w i t h w h a t a c t u a l l yh a p p e n e d . T h e s t o r y o f the G o l d e n A g e , a very e a r l y a n d a l m o s t u n i v e r s a lm y t h of a lost p a r a d i s e , w h e n p e o p l e lived in h u m b l e c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h n otechnology, n o art or c u l t u r e , a n d n o w a r , w a s never i n t e n d e d t o be h i s t o r i c a l .F o r F a s t , h o w e v e r , strict a d h e r e n c e t o t h e k n o w n h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s w a s lessi m p o r t a n t t h a n the t i m e l e s s m o r a l t r u t h t h a t w a s i m p l i c i t in the l e g e n d o f 85
    • S p a r t a c u s . A m y t h , after all, d o e s n o t i m p a r t f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t is p r i m a r i l y a g u i d e t o i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r - it e x p l o r e s o u r d e s i r e s , o u r fears, our longings, a n d provides a narrative that r e m i n d s u s w h a t it m e a n s t o be h u m a n . It is n o t yet o u t o f d a t e . Yet b e c a u s e m o s t o f u s n o l o n g e r u s e m y t h , O c c i d e n t a l m o d e r n i t y being the child of r e a s o n , m a n y o f u s h a v e lost all sense of w h a t it is. C o m p a r e d with Fasts upbeat novel, where S p a r t a c u s is the e m b o d i m e n t o f the l o v e o f life h o w e v e r a w f u l life i s , A r t h u r K o e s t l e r s n o v e l takes a rather m o r e melancholic approach. K o e s t l e r , w h o w a s b o r n in B u d a p e s t in 1 9 0 5 , h a d b e e n a n a c t i v e m e m b e r o f the C o m m u n i s t Party a n d h a d f o u g h t in the S p a n i s h C i v i l War, b e i n g c a p t u r e d by F r a n c o s r e b e l s a t o n e p o i n t a n d i m p r i s o n e d under sentence of death. H e w a s d i s i l l u s i o n e d a n d e m b i t t e r e d b y the s h o w trials a n d left the Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (or K P D , C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f G e r m a n y ) , the s u c c e s s o r o f the Spartakusbund. H i s n o v e l , The Gladiators, w h i c h w a s written a t the t i m e his c o m r a d e s w e r e b e i n g s e n s e l e s s l yOn April Fools Day 1865, p u r g e d , is a b o u t h o w r e v o l u t i o n s t u r n b a d . M a n s inability t o unite is divinelyMarxs eldest daughter, Jenny, o r d a i n e d a n d i n e v i t a b l e , a n d t h u s S p a r t a c u s is p o r t r a y e d a s b e i n g f o r c e d bypresented her father with a c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o sell o u t . A g r a m m a r i a n a n d a r h e t o r i c i a n c a l l e d Z o z i m o s issurvey asking him his likes anddislikes; favourite food (fish), given a cynical speech:favourite colour (red), etc. Tothe question about his heroes, And I tell you, it is dangerous to combine so much power in the fist, and soMarx replied Spartacus and many lofty reasons in the head, of one single person. In the beginning the headKepler. Yet the philosophersadmiration for the gladiator will always order the fist to strike from lofty reasons; later on the fist strikeswas a modern sentiment- of its own accord and the head supplies the lofty reasons afterwards; and thefreedom for him entailed person does not even notice the difference. Thats human nature my lad. Manyrelease from commercial a man has started out a friend of the people and ended up as a tyrant; butlabour. (Ancient Art &Architecture) history gives not a single example of a man starting out as a tyrant and ending up as a friend of the people. Therefore I tell you again: there is nothing so dangerous as a dictator who means well. (The Gladiators, 1999, p. 204) In o t h e r w o r d s , the e n d r e s u l t w a s a l w a y s the s a m e , n a m e l y a n a u t o c r a t i c , centralized g o v e r n m e n t , h e a d e d u p by a ruthless dictator. T h e dictator, m a k i n g a m o c k e r y o f e l e m e n t a r y h u m a n r i g h t s , h a d t o be o b e y e d , n o m a t t e r w h a t he t o l d s o m e b o d y t o d o . A s w i t h all d i c t a t o r s h i p s , it w a s o n l y all right for t h o s e at the t o p . B u t S p a r t a c u s h a d t o o m u c h c o m p a s s i o n for his followers t o t a k e s u c h a r o u t e , s o he d o o m s his r e v o l u t i o n t o c e r t a i n d e f e a t . T h e failure o f a r e v o l u t i o n s o often d e r i v e s a s m u c h f r o m the w e a k n e s s a n d m i s t a k e s of the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a s it d o e s f r o m the s t r e n g t h o f their o p p o n e n t . We leave t o the p o l i t i c a l p u n d i t s o f c y n i c a l w i s d o m the d u b i o u s p l e a s u r e o f p o i n t i n g o u t ( f r o m the h i n d s i g h t o f the 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e ) t h a t p e r e n n i a l c h e s t n u t t h a t r e v o l u t i o n s a l w a y s e a t u p their c h i l d r e n . F a s t m a y h a v e believed in the nobility o f the h u m a n spirit, n o t s o J a m e s L e s l i e M i t c h e l l . M i t c h e l l f o u n d a n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n t o the s t o r y o f the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n a n d , w r i t i n g u n d e r his S c o t t i s h p s e u d o n y m o f L e w i s86
    • G r a s s i c G i b b o n , he p r o d u c e d Spartacus in 1 9 3 3 a t theheight o f the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n . A s a D i f f u s i o n i s t ,M i t c h e l l believed civilization w a s a blight, o v e r t a k i n goriginally free a n d h a p p y h u m a n i t y f r o m the E g y p t i a npyramid-builders o n w a r d s , bringing to p e o p l e w h o w e r ea l r e a d y living full a n d i m a g i n a t i v e lives s e t t l e m e n t ,culture, a s well a s p r o p e r t y , c o m p u l s i o n , w a r , t y r a n n y ,religion, a n d m e n t a l e n s l a v e m e n t . T h e n o v e l is a tellingindictment of mens inhumanity to those over w h o mthey h a v e t o t a l c o n t r o l . Since the c o n s e n s u s o f o u r a n c i e n t a u t h o r s is t h a tS p a r t a c u s d i e d in b a t t l e , his e l e v a t i o n t o the c r o s s c a nhave no p u r p o s e other than to evoke c o m p a r i s o n witht h a t other f a m o u s f r e e d o m fighter, the N a z a r e n e . S l a i nby o p p r e s s o r s , his d e a t h t h u s a c q u i r e s a n a u r a o fsanctity a n d he h i m s e l f b e c o m e s a s o r t o f p r o t o - C h r i s t ,a secular M e s s i a h . In this r e s p e c t it is interesting t o n o t ethat G i b b o n s n o v e l b e g i n s a n d e n d s o n the s a m e n o t e :It w a s the S p r i n g t i m e in Italy, a h u n d r e d y e a r s b e f o r ethe c r u c i f i x i o n o f C h r i s t . In d e a t h t h e g a u n t a n dbearded Che Guevara bore an uncanny resemblance toa sacrificed C h r i s t , w h i c h h e l p e d create a n i m a g e o f h i mas a m a r t y r a n d p r o p h e t . L i k e S p a r t a c u s , C h e G u e v a r ab e c a m e a m o r e p o t e n t s y m b o l in d e a t h t h a n he h a d everbeen in life. M e n ( a n d w o m e n , for t h a t m a t t e r ) d o n o tdie w h e n their life a n d e x a m p l e c a n s e r v e a s a g u i d eto others. For James Leslie Mitchell T h e intelligentsia of the Soviet U n i o n h a d a n e a r - o b s e s s i o n w i t h S p a r t a c u s (Lewis Grassic Gibbon), a lifelong follower of Marx andas a world revolutionary figure. T h e t w o decades between 1 9 3 3 a n d 1 9 5 3 a successful historian of earlyf o r m e d a p e r i o d w h e n the c o l l e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g o f the S o v i e t civilization, Spartacus allowedintelligentsia, f o l l o w i n g l e a d e n hints in directives i s s u e d by C o m r a d e S t a l i n , him to focus on his fiercely heldw a s d o m i n a t e d by the d o c t r i n e t h a t the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n h a d b e e n a c l a s s beliefs in the nature of society, the freedom of the individual,struggle b e t w e e n the o p p r e s s e d a n d their o p p r e s s o r s , a conflict b e t w e e n the and the inevitable collapse ofslave-owner class and politically-aware slaves. Then along c a m e J o s e p h civilization. He publishedV o g t a n d a b a n d of fellow G e r m a n a c a d e m i c s f l a u n t i n g a n anti-Soviet banner. Spartacus in 1933, two yearsO b v i o u s l y f i n d i n g fault w i t h the S t a l i n i s t v i e w t h a t S p a r t a c u s led a before his sudden death at ther e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m e d s t r u g g l e t h a t o v e r t u r n e d the d o m i n a t i o n o f the c l a s s age of 34. (The Grassic Gibbon Centre)s y s t e m of the t i m e , V o g t a n d his n a t i o n a l i s t c h u m s w e r e k e e n t o p r e s e n t am o r e s y m p a t h e t i c v i e w o f s l a v e r y ; t h o u g h the institution w a s m o r a l l y w r o n g ,w a s it really that b a d after all? S u c h c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s fitted in nicely w i t h thec o n t e m p o r a r y climate of C o l d - W a r rhetoric a n d helped c o m b a t the c o m m u n i s tuse of the S p a r t a c a n rebellion a s a m e a n s o f e n n o b l i n g a n d e n c o u r a g i n g theclass struggle a g a i n s t m o d e r n c a p i t a l i s m . O n his side o f the I r o n C u r t a i n V o g tt u r n e d a w a y f r o m the nastier a s p e c t s o f s l a v e r y by highlighting the p r a c t i c e o fm a n u m i s s i o n , w e t - n u r s i n g , p a t r i a r c h a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d the like. S t a n d i n g a g a i n s t this a n t i - c o m m u n i s t - c u m - h u m a n i s t i c a p p r o a c h w a sM o s e s Finley w h o a n n o u n c e d , in his t y p i c a l l y u n c o m p r o m i s i n g f a s h i o n , t h a tin the final a n a l y s i s the s l a v e w a s a p i e c e o f m o v a b l e p r o p e r t y a n d e v e n ifgranted certain privileges these were unilateral grants f r o m an individualm a s t e r a n d n o t a right t h a t r e c o g n i z e d the s l a v e a s a h u m a n b e i n g . T o u s e theh a p p i n e s s o f s o m e t o offset the m i s e r y o f o t h e r s (surely the v a s t m a j o r i t y )w a s pointless. 87
    • A GUIDE TO PRIMARY SOURCES T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t written s o u r c e s for a n y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the S p a r t a c a n rebellion are the a c c o u n t s by the R o m a n historian Sallust, the G r e e k biographer P l u t a r c h , a n d the G r e e k h i s t o r i a n A p p i a n . Plutarchs Life of Crassus (8-11) p r o v i d e s the f o l l o w i n g s k e l e t o n of events: • T h e g a r r i s o n o f C a p u a is o v e r c o m e . • T h e p r a e t o r G l a b e r ( P l u t a r c h s i m p l y calls h i m C l o d i u s ) w i t h 3 , 0 0 0 t r o o p s is d e f e a t e d . • V a r i n i u s enters the s t o r y : his l e g a t e F u r i u s is r o u t e d (with 2 , 0 0 0 m e n ) a s is his f e l l o w p r a e t o r C o s s i n i u s ( s u r p r i s e d by S p a r t a c u s ) , then V a r i n i u s himself. • S p a r t a c u s t a k e s V a r i n i u s h o r s e . M e a n w h i l e G e l l i u s , o n e o f the c o n s u l s , falls o n a c o n t i n g e n t ( P l u t a r c h s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l l s it the G e r m a n c o n t i n g e n t ) f r o m the s l a v e a r m y a n d d e s t r o y s it. • L e n t u l u s , the o t h e r c o n s u l , is in t u r n d e f e a t e d by S p a r t a c u s , w h o sets off for the A l p s , w h e r e he c o n f r o n t s a n d r o u t s C a s s i u s (with 1 0 , 0 0 0 m e n ) the g o v e r n o r o f G a l l i a C i s a l p i n a . • C r a s s u s , d e c i m a t i n g the s u r v i v o r s o f M u m m i u s l e g i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e s firm l e a d e r s h i p w h i l e S p a r t a c u s h e a d s s o u t h for L u c a n i a a n d the s e a ; b a r g a i n s w i t h C i l i c i a n p i r a t e s b u t is b e t r a y e d by t h e m . • S p a r t a c u s e s t a b l i s h e s h i m s e l f in B r u t t i u m ; C r a s s u s t r a p s the s l a v e a r m y w i t h a fortified t r e n c h ; d i s s e n t in the s l a v e c a m p . • C r a s s u s b e g i n s t o fear the r e t u r n o f P o m p e y . M e a n w h i l e , S p a r t a c u s e s c a p e s w i t h o n e - t h i r d o f his a r m y t h r o u g h C r a s s u s b a r r i e r o n a s n o w y , s t o r m y night. T h e s l a v e s , internally d i v i d e d a n d w e a k e n e d by d e s e r t i o n , a r e b e a t e n o n c e (Plutarch m e n t i o n s the force u n d e r C a s t u s a n d G a n n i c u s , the latter he calls C a i u s C a n i c i u s ) a n d h e a d for the m o u n t a i n s o f Petelia. • S p a r t a c u s t u r n s o n his p u r s u e r s a n d r o u t s t h e m , s e r i o u s l y w o u n d i n g the q u a e s t o r S c r o f a (Skropbas in P l u t a r c h s G r e e k ) . • T h e final b a t t l e in L u c a n i a ; S p a r t a c u s is c u t d o w n w h i l e trying t o r e a c h a n d kill C r a s s u s . B y u s i n g a d d i t i o n s a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n s f r o m S a l l u s t a n d A p p i a n , a fuller, m o r e v i b r a n t picture of the rebellion is feasible. Sallusts Historiae, for instance, p r o v i d e s a n insight i n t o the r e l e v a n c e of the rebellion t o the m a c h i n a t i o n s of the S e n a t e a n d its i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s , v o l a t i l e a t b e s t e s p e c i a l l y s o w h e n w e
    • c o n s i d e r the c l a s h of e g o s t h a t w e r e C r a s s u s a n d P o m p e y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y foru s , h o w e v e r , the Historiae, c o m p o s e d s o m e 3 5 y e a r s after the e v e n t , a n dt h u s a r g u a b l y the m o s t o r i g i n a l s o u r c e o n the r e b e l l i o n , r e m a i n s o n l y intantalizing f r a g m e n t s . B u t then A p p i a n s Bellum civilia, his b o o k s d e a l i n g w i t hthe civil w a r s o f the R e p u b l i c , a r e i n t a c t a n d offer u s ( 1 . 1 1 6 - 1 2 1 ) s o m ed r a m a t i c details: • T h e occupation of M o u n t Vesuvius. • T h e n a m e s of O e n o m a u s a n d C r i x u s . • T h e sacrifice o f R o m a n p r i s o n e r s t o the manes o f d e a d C r i x u s . • T h e n e a r - a t t a c k o n R o m e ( n o t in P l u t a r c h ) i n e x p l i c a b l y a b a n d o n e d . M o r e o v e r , A p p i a n s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the b r e a k o u t f r o m C r a s s u s t r a p inB r u t t i u m is full a n d v i g o r o u s . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the final b a t t l e , w h i c h c o s tS p a r t a c u s his o w n life, is a l s o vivid. T h e r e a g a i n , b e f o r e the c o n c l u d i n g c l i m a xPlutarch h a s S p a r t a c u s sacrifice his s u p e r b w h i t e stallion. O f c o u r s e the t w oG r e e k writers c o m p o s e d their a c c o u n t s a b o u t t w o centuries after the rebelliono c c u r r e d , while all three c a m e f r o m the privileged elites o f their day. S a l l u s tw a s a R o m a n s e n a t o r retired f r o m active politics, Plutarch a n d A p p i a n w e a l t h yG r e e k a r i s t o c r a t s w i t h c l o s e political ties t o the i m p e r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a n dnaturally n o n e of t h e m h a d m u c h s y m p a t h y for s l a v e s . Indeed, we m u s t r e m e m b e r that these writers viewed the S p a r t a c a nrebellion a s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a h i c c u p in the g r a n d s c h e m e o f t h i n g s . N o to n e a c c o u n t w a s w r i t t e n by a s l a v e or a f o r m e r s l a v e , a n d b e c a u s e the r e b e l sh a v e left n o s t a t e m e n t s of their a s p i r a t i o n s a n d i n t e n t i o n s , their v i e w o f eventsm u s t r e m a i n i r r e c o v e r a b l e . T h u s it h a s t o b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o nw e h a v e c o m e s f r o m n o n - s l a v e s o u r c e s , m e n w h o r a t i o n a l i z e d the b e h a v i o u rof the rebel s l a v e s in their o w n w a y , a n d , a s in all t h i n g s h u m a n , f r o m a f a revents are i m a g i n e d m o r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d less i n t e r t w i n e d , yet everythingl o o k s different c l o s e t o . O n l y o u r three m a i n a u t h o r s a r e listed in the p a g e s t h a t follow. F u r t h e rdetails a b o u t these a u t h o r s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t other s o u r c e s , is m o s tconveniently available in The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd edition). In thefollowing notes Penguin d e n o t e s Penguin C l a s s i c s , a n d L o e b d e n o t e s L o e bClassical Library. T h e L o e b editions, which are published by H a r v a r d UniversityPress, display a n English t r a n s l a t i o n of a text n e x t t o the original l a n g u a g e .APPIAN (b. A D 95)A p p i a n ( A p p i a n u s ) w a s a n A l e x a n d r i a n G r e e k w h o r o s e t o h i g h office in hisnative city, a n d a p p e a r s t o h a v e p r a c t i s e d l a w in R o m e , w h e r e he p l e a d e dc a s e s b e f o r e the e m p e r o r s H a d r i a n a n d A n t o n i n u s P i u s . H e c o m p o s e d hisRoman Affairs (Romaika) s o m e t i m e d u r i n g the reign o f A n t o n i n u s P i u s , a tthe height o f the p e r i o d t h a t E d w a r d G i b b o n a p t l y l a b e l l e d the g o l d e n a g eof the A n t o n i n e s . A p p i a n s t a r g e t a u d i e n c e w a s the c u l t u r e d G r e e k - s p e a k i n gprivileged elite o f the e a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n , w h o h a d l o n g b e e n n o t m e r e l yaffected by R o m a n r u l e , b u t a l s o d e e p l y i n v o l v e d w i t h its w o r k i n g s . S o m e o fits m e m b e r s h a d a l r e a d y b e c o m e R o m a n s e n a t o r s a n d e v e n c o n s u l s , w h i l em a n y m o r e , like A p p i a n himself, h a d benefited f r o m i m p e r i a l p a t r o n a g e . B u ta l t h o u g h R o m e h a d e s t a b l i s h e d a s e c u r e w o r l d order, it r e m a i n e d a f o r e i g np o w e r , its h i s t o r y g e n e r a l l y little u n d e r s t o o d o r a p p r e c i a t e d by m e n w h o h a d
    • b e e n b r o u g h t u p o n the G r e e k c l a s s i c s a n d did n o t s u b s c r i b e t o quite the s a m ev a l u e s a s their p o l i t i c a l m a s t e r s . T w e n t y - f o u r b o o k s in l e n g t h , A p p i a n s a c c o u n t o f R o m a n h i s t o r y isessentially a narrative of conquest and struggle, and therefore a narrativeo f w a r . H i s f u n d a m e n t a l a i m is t o p a i n t a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i po f the R o m a n s t o the v a r i o u s n a t i o n s w h o m they b r o u g h t u n d e r their sway.T h i s l e a d s h i m t o b r e a k u p his n a r r a t i v e in s u c h a w a y t h a t e a c h b o o k d e a l sw i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n o f R o m e a n d a p a r t i c u l a r ethnic g r o u p . N o n e t h e l e s s , hef o l l o w s a fairly c l e a r c h r o n o l o g i c a l s c h e m e , p l a c i n g the b o o k s in the o r d e r inw h i c h the v a r i o u s p e o p l e s first c l a s h e d w i t h the R o m a n s . T h e r e is a L o e bt r a n s l a t i o n o f w h a t s u r v i v e s o f A p p i a n s w o r k a s a w h o l e , while a P e n g u i ne d i t i o n e n t i t l e d The Civil Wars a d m i r a b l y c o v e r s the p e r i o d f r o m 1 3 3 BCd o w n t o 3 5 B C , t h a t is, f r o m the t i m e w h e n T i b e r i u s G r a c c h u s w a s c l u b b e dt o d e a t h b y his p o l i t i c a l o p p o n e n t s t o the terrible civil conflicts f o l l o w i n g them u r d e r o f C a e s a r b y his s o - c a l l e d f r i e n d s , a n d t h u s i n c l u d e s the c h a p t e r sd e a l i n g w i t h the S p a r t a c a n r e b e l l i o n .PLUTARCH (c. A D 46-120)F r o m C h a i r o n e i a in B o i o t i a , the h u g e l y l e a r n e d a n d prolific P l u t a r c h ( L u c i u s[?] M e s t r i u s P l u t a r c h u s ) w a s a n a r i s t o c r a t i c G r e e k w h o m o v e d in the culturedR o m a n circles o f his d a y , a n d m a y h a v e held s o m e i m p e r i a l p o s t s u n d e r thee m p e r o r s T r a j a n a n d H a d r i a n . H e a l s o s e r v e d a s a m e m b e r of the college ofp r i e s t s a t D e l p h i . G r e e c e w a s t h e n a c o m f o r t a b l e , d e m i l i t a r i z e d b a c k w a t e r ofthe R o m a n e m p i r e a n d A t h e n s itself, w h e r e he s t u d i e d p h i l o s o p h y a s a y o u n gm a n , a self-satisfied u n i v e r s i t y t o w n a n d c u l t u r a l c e n t r e . N o m a t t e r they h a db e e n d e a d for c e n t u r i e s , A t h e n s w a s still the city o f P l a t o a n d A r i s t o t l e , a n dfor a n y p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y a n d a c a d e m i c a l l y inclined s t u d e n t it h a d s t a t u s , c l a s s ,a n d a r e p u t a t i o n t h a t o t h e r p l a c e s o f l e a r n i n g c o u l d never e q u a l . H i s Parallel Lives (Bioi paralleloi) is a n e x t r e m e l y useful s o u r c e forR o m a n ( a n d G r e e k ) h i s t o r y , a s he c o l l e c t e d m u c h d e t a i l a n d v a r i o u st r a d i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , P l u t a r c h c a n b e fairly u n c r i t i c a l . H i s m a i n a i m is t om o r a l i z e a b o u t the n a t u r e o f t h e m a n , this k e e n i n t e r e s t in i n d i v i d u a lp s y c h o l o g y b e i n g c o u p l e d w i t h a n e q u a l l y k e e n eye (as S h a k e s p e a r e w a s t oa p p r e c i a t e ) for a d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n . Yet it s h o u l d b e s a i d t h a t P l u t a r c h d o e sm a k e a fair s t a b in s o m e o f the Lives, w h i c h w e r e w r i t t e n in p a i r s o f G r e e k sa n d R o m a n s o f s i m i l a r e m i n e n c e a n d then a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n the t w o , atp r o d u c i n g s o m e s o r t o f h i s t o r y . T h u s , for i n s t a n c e , A g e s i l a o s is c o m p a r e dw i t h P o m p e y a n d N i k i a s w i t h C r a s s u s . T h e Lives, o f w h i c h there are 2 3 p a i r sa n d f o u r t h a t h a v e b e e n left u n p a i r e d , a r e a v a i l a b l e in v a r i o u s P e n g u i n a n dLoeb volumes.SALLUST (86-c. 35 B C )S a l l u s t ( C a i u s S a l l u s t i u s C r i s p u s ) , w h o held v a r i o u s p u b l i c offices in R o m ea n d later a g o v e r n o r s h i p in A f r i c a , w a s a p a r t i s a n o f C a e s a r a n d a n o p p o n e n to f P o m p e y . H e w a s b o r n in A m i t e r n u m , a p r o v i n c i a l t o w n in the S a b i n eh i g h l a n d s o f c e n t r a l Italy, a n d d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s of his political career heb e c a m e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e populares, a m o n g w h o m C a e s a r w a s the m o s tp r o m i n e n t . A popularis w a s an aristocratic populist w h o tended to bypass
    • the S e n a t e by enlisting the s u p p o r t o f the t r i b u n e s o f the p e o p l e a n d t h r o u g ht h e m of the p e o p l e a t l a r g e . H e p a s s e d t h r o u g h the j u n i o r m a g i s t r a t e s o f as e n a t o r i a l career, b e c o m i n g a q u a e s t o r a r o u n d 5 5 B C , a n d , in 5 2 B C , he w a selected a s o n e o f the t r i b u n e s o f the p e o p l e . T w o y e a r s later he w a s e x p e l l e df r o m the S e n a t e by the c e n s o r s for a l l e g e d i m m o r a l i t y ; m u c h t h a t w a s s a i da b o u t h i m b y his e n e m i e s w a s m e r e m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p . A y e a r o r s o later,h o w e v e r , the i n f l u e n c e o f C a e s a r e n a b l e d h i m t o b e e l e c t e d t o a s e c o n dq u a e s t o r s h i p a n d t o re-enter the S e n a t e . S a l l u s t c r o s s e d the R u b i c o n w i t h C a e s a r , a n d d u r i n g the y e a r s 4 9 t o 4 5 BC A recently resurfaced sectionhe loyally s e r v e d h i m a s a n officer in v a r i o u s c a m p a i g n s o f the civil w a r , w a s of the Via Appia in Rome,elected p r a e t o r , a n d w a s installed by the d i c t a t o r a s g o v e r n o r o f A f r i c a N o v a , photographed in the 1950s. Built on a monumental scale,a p r o v i n c e j u s t f o r m e d f r o m the k i n g d o m o f t h e p r o - P o m p e i a n I u b a o f Roman roads combinedN u m i d i a . S a l l u s t is s a i d t o h a v e fleeced the p r o v i n c i a l s i g n o m i n i o u s l y a n d t o practical utility with visuallyh a v e b e e n s a v e d f r o m c o n v i c t i o n o n l y b y the g o o d g r a c e o f his p a t r o n , t o impressive statements ofw h o m he a p p a r e n t l y g a v e a s i z e a b l e b a c k h a n d e r . C e r t a i n l y he d i d very well power. They also provided direct, well-maintained routesby C a e s a r , o w n i n g a g r a n d villa a t T i b u r ( T i v o l i ) a n d a s p l e n d i d p a r k a t along which the legions couldR o m e , the c e l e b r a t e d horti Sallustiani, w h i c h the h i s t o r i a n l a v i s h l y move with ease.e m b e l l i s h e d f r o m his o w n p u r s e . (Library of Congress)
    • A s a h i s t o r i a n S a l l u s t is b e s t k n o w n for his t w o s u r v i v i n g m o n o g r a p h s , the Bellum Iugurthinum, w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the w a r b e t w e e n R o m e a n d the N u m i d i a n k i n g I u g u r t h a f r o m 1 1 2 t o 1 0 5 BC, a n d the Bellum Catilinae, w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the u n s u c c e s s f u l r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the R o m a n R e p u b l i c in 6 3 BC. In the late forties BC, h a v i n g set a s i d e the s w o r d for the p e n after t h e d e a t h o f C a e s a r , S a l l u s t a l s o w r o t e a c o n t i n u o u s h i s t o r y o f R o m e in five b o o k s , w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e e v e n t s f r o m the r e b e l l i o n o f M a r c u s A e m i l i u s L e p i d u s in 7 8 BC a t least d o w n t o the y e a r 6 7 BC if n o t 6 0 BC, the y e a r the o p p o r t u n i s t i c coalition b e t w e e n P o m p e y , C r a s s u s , a n d C a e s a r , the so-called first t r i u m v i r a t e , w a s f o r m e d . It is k n o w n t h a t the S p a r t a c a n rebellion w a s included, but unfortunately o n l y a f e w set s p e e c h e s a n d letters a n d a q u a n t i t y of s h o r t n a r r a t i v e f r a g m e n t s o f the Historiae survive. T h e r e a r e all s o r t s o f r e a s o n s w h y t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r b i t s a n d p i e c e s r a t h e r t h a n a n y o t h e r s s u r v i v e the centuries, a m o n g s t them pure chance. S a l l u s t m a y h a v e p r o v e d t o be a p o o r soldier, but he w a s c e r t a i n l y t o b e c o m e f a m o u s a s a writer o f influential style. K e e n t o illustrate t o his r e a d e r s h i p the decline a n d c o r r u p t i o n of the R o m a n s t a t e , w h i c hAnother of Sanesis illustrations he a s c r i b e s t o the r e f i n e m e n t a n d r i c h e s c r e a t e d by the w a r s of the s e c o n dfor Giovagnolis Spartaco, this c e n t u r y BC, S a l l u s t w r i t e s in a highly i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o m e w h a t artificial style,time depicting Spartacus m o s t l y in s h o r t , terse s e n t e n c e s , p a c k e d full o f i d e a s t h a t he s e e m s i m p a t i e n tsacrificing his horse before thefinal showdown with Crassus. t o e x p r e s s . H e is f o n d o f a n t i t h e s i s , i m i t a t i n g here the G r e e k style o fFrequently reprinted after its T h u c y d i d e s , w h o m he g r e a t l y a d m i r e d , b u t a v o i d s s y m m e t r y a n d s m o o t h n e s s ,initial publication, as well as even t o the p o i n t o f a b r u p t n e s s .translated into many otherlanguages, this historicalmasterpiece also providedthe basis for the first cinematicportrayals of Spartacus,produced in the fledglingnation of Italy just prior toWorld War I. (Reproducedfrom R. Giovagnoli, Spartaco,Rome, 1874)92
    • BIBLIOGRAPHYAdcock, E E . , Marcus Crassus: Millionaire (Cambridge: Heffer & Sons, 1966)Bradley, K.R., Slavery and Rebellion in the Roman World, 140 BC - 70 BC (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1 9 8 9 , 1998)Brown, S., Spartacus (Nottingham: Warhammer Historical Wargames, 2 0 0 4 )Brunt, P.A. Italian Manpower 225 BC - AD 14 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1 9 7 1 , 1987)Brunt, P.A. The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988)Cohen, G.A. Karl Marxs Theory of History: A Defence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978)Gabba, E. (trans. P.J. Cuff) Republican Rome: The Army and Allies (Oxford: Blackwell, 1973)Garnsey, P.D.A. and Sailer, R.P. The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture (London: Duckworth, 1987)Grant, M . Gladiators (London: Penguin, 1 9 6 7 , 2 0 0 0 )Greene, K. The Archaeology of the Roman Economy (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986, 1990)Fields, N . The Roman Army: The Civil Wars 88-31 BC (Oxford: Osprey - Battle Orders 34, 2008)Finley, M.I. Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology (Princeton, N J : M a r k u s Weiner, 1980, 1998)Finley, M.I. The Ancient Economy (London: University of California Press, 1999, 2nd ed.)Harris, W.V. Spartacus, in M . C . Carnes (ed.), Bast Imperfect: History according to the Movies (New York: Henry Holt, 1996), pp. 4 0 - 4 3Hopkins, K. Conquerors and Slaves (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978)James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins (London: Penguin, 1 9 3 8 , 2 0 0 1 )Katzenberger, E. (ed.) First World, Ha Ha Ha! The Zapatista Challenge (San Francisco: City Light Books, 1995)Marshall, B.A. Crassus: A Political Biography (Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1976)Rice Holmes, T. The Roman Republic (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1923)Rubinsohn, W.Z. (trans. J . G . Griffith) Spartacus Uprising and Soviet Historical Writing (Oxford: O x b o w Books, 1983)Shaw, B.D. Bandits in the R o m a n Empire, Past & Present, 105 (1984), pp. 3 - 5 2Shaw, B.D. (ed.) Spartacus and the Slave Wars: A Brief History with Documents (Boston & N e w York: Bedford/St Martins Press, 2 0 0 1 )Stockton, D.L. Cicero: A Political Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971)Sullivan, J.P. (ed.) Marxism and the Classics, Arethusa, 8:1 (1975), pp. 5 - 2 2 5Trow, M.J. Spartacus: The Myth and the Man (Stroud: Sutton, 2 0 0 6 )Urbainczyk, T. Spartacus (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2 0 0 4 )Vogt, J . (trans. T.E.J. Wiedemann) Ancient Slavery and the Ideal of Man (Oxford: Blackwell, 1974)Ward, A . M . Marcus Crassus and the Late Republic (Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1977)Welch, K. The Roman arena in late republican Italy: A new interpretation, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 7 (1994), pp. 5 9 - 8 0Winkler, M . M . Spartacus: Film and History (Oxford: Blackwell, 2 0 0 7 )Wisdom, S. Gladiators 100 BC- AD 200 (Oxford: Osprey - Warrior 3 9 , 2 0 0 1 )Yavetz, Z . Slaves and Slavery in Ancient Rome (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988)Ziegler, K. Die Herkunft des Spartacus, Hermes, 83 (1955), pp. 2 4 8 - 5 0
    • GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONSAedile Annually elected junior Munus/munera Obligation - gladiatorial fight. magistrate (two plebeian and Pala/palae Spade. two curule or patrician) Patera/paterae Bronze mess tin. responsible for public works and Passus/passuum One-pace - 5 Roman games. feet (1.48m).As/asses Copper coin, originally worth Pilum/pila Principal throwing weapon l/10th of denarius (q.v.), but of legionaries. retariffed at 16 to the denarius Pilum muralis Wooden stake for marching at the time of Gracchi. camp defences.Aquila/aquilae Eagle - standard of legio (q.v.). Pugio/pugiones Dagger carried by legionaries.Aquilifer/aquiliferi Eagle-bearer - standard-bearer Scutum/scuta Shield carried by legionaries. who carried aquila (q.v.). Sesterce/sestertii Brass coin worth 1/4 ofCapite censi Head count - Roman citizens denarius (q.v.). owing insufficient property to Signum/signa Standard of centuria (q.v.). qualify for military service. Talent Fixed Greek weight of silverCenturio/centuriones Officer in command of centuria equivalent to 60 minae (q.v.). (Attic-Euboic talanton = 26.2kg,Centuria/centuriae Sub-unit of cohors (q.v.). Aiginetan talanton = 43.6kg),Cohors/cohortes Standard tactical unit of legio the mina being a unit of weight (q.v.). equivalent to 100 Attic drachmaeContubernium Tentful - mess-unit of eight or 70 Aiginetan drachmae. legionaries, ten per centuria Trulleus Bronze cooking pot. (q.v.). Quaestor Annually elected juniorDenarius/denarii Ten as piece - silver coin, magistrate principally now worth 16 asses (q.v.). responsible for financialDilectus Choosing - levying of troops. matters.Dolabra/dolabrae Pickaxe. Vilicus/vilici Bailiff.Eques/equites Member of equestrian order.Furca/furcae T-shaped pole carried Abbreviations by legionaries. AE LAnnee EpigraphiqueGladius/gladii Cut-and-thrust sword carried (Paris, 1888-) by legionaries. CIL T. Mommsen et al., CorpusImpedimenta Baggage animals. Inscriptionum LatinarumLegio/legiones Principal unit of Roman army. (Berlin, 1862-)Lorica bamata Mail armour. ILS H. Dessau, InscriptionesMagister pecoris Head herdsman. Latinae SelectaeManipulus/manipuli Handful - tactical unit (Berlin, 1892-1916) of manipular legion of MMR II T.R.S. Broughton, The middle Republic. Magistrates of the RomanMille passus One-thousand paces - Republic, Vol. II (New York, Roman mile (1.48km). 1952)94
    • INDEXFigures in bold refer to illustrations. entrapment of 6 3 , 6 5 - 6 , 6 6 , 6 7 , 6 7 , armour/dress 2 0 , 2 4 , 2 4 , 2 5 , 4 8 , 7 1 , 8 8 , 89 5 6 - 7 , 58agricultural slaves (mancipa rustica) 15, final defeat of 7 1 , 7 4 , 7 6 - 7 , 7 8 , 8 1 - 2 combat 2 4 - 5 , 28, 51 18-19, 35, 37-8 Crixus (rebel leader) 2 4 , 3 0 , 5 2 , 5 5 , 89 equipment/weaponry 2 0 , 2 4 , 2 4 , 3 1 , 3 2 ,Agrigentum 9, 9 death of 4 8 , 5 0 , 5 9 , 6 2 , 63 48, 5 6 - 7 , 58amphitheatres 2 3 , 4 7 , 6 5 fighting force feeding and training of 2 5 , 5 6 - 7 , 58Antiochos (slave king) 8 c o m p o s i t i o n 5 0 , 5 4 , 5 5 , 6 3 , 6 8 - 9 , 70 harsh treatment of 5 2 , 58Appian (historian) 2 8 , 8 8 - 9 0 dress and w e a p o n r y 6 8 - 9 , 7 0 prisoners as 2 4 , 2 7 , 3 0 , 3 1 , 4 8 , 6 2 pirate operations 2 0 final battle 5 5 , 5 9 , 6 3 , 6 8 - 9 , 70 rebellion in C a p u a 5 2 , 5 6 - 7 , 58 sacrifice of prisoners 4 8 movements (72 BC) 3 6 Grassic G i b b o n , Lewis 8 6 - 7 , 8 7 slave army/rebellion 3 0 , 3 1 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 7 , and Spartacus 5 0 , 5 4 , 5 5 , 7 0 grave markers 3 0 , 3 1 , 3 2 5 3 , 5 5 , 6 2 , 7 5 , 84, 89 crucifixion (prisoners) 4 8 , 7 9 - 8 0 , 8 1 G u e v a r a , Ernesto C h e 5 , 6, 8 7armour 2 0 , 2 2 , 2 5 , 3 9 , 4 4 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 5 , 4 8 , 7 6 - 7 , 78 decimation (as punishment) 3 2 , 88 H e r a , Temple of 5 9Athenaios 19-20,28 Delos 16, 16 house slaves (mancipa urbana) 15Athenion (slave king) 9-10 Demeter, Temple of 6, 7 h u m a n sacrifices 2 0 - 1 , 2 2 , 4 8 D i o d o r o s 7, 8, 9, 4 0Batiatus, Cnaeus Lentulus 5 2 , 58 D o u g l a s , Kirk 51 Iberia/Iberians 31,32,37Bithynia 28,30 Iugurtha, King of N u m i d i a 4 3 , 9 2Brundisium 7 4 , 7 9 Enna (Sicily) 5 , 5 , 6, 6, 7, 8Bruttium 2 5 - 6 , 6 6 , 6 6 eques 14, 3 5 kitchen equipment 4 4 , 5 6 - 7 , 58 and slave army 5 4 , 8 8 , 89 equites 14, 2 0 , 33 Kleon (slave) 8,9busts/statues 8, 3 3 , 3 5 , 3 7 , 7 1 , 8 2 , 84 ergastula (work barracks) 3 5 , 3 8 , 3 9 Kubrick, Stanley 5 1 , 5 8 , 7 0 , 83 Eunus (slave) 8, 8Caesar, Julius 7, 3 3 , 4 6 , 4 8 , 9 0 , 9 1 , 9 2 Licinia (Vestal Virgin) 32-3 elected as military tribune 4 4 fasces 42 Lilybaeum ( M a r s a l a ) 8, 10, 10 importance of gladiators 2 4 , 82 First Punic War 7 Livy on slave rebellion 3 0 , 5 3 , 5 5 , 84 ownership of slaves 19 First Slave War 6, 7, 8 - 9 , 4 0 , 5 0 LOuverture, Francois 8 4 , 85 and slave army 2 7 - 8 Florus on slave rebellion 2 5 , 3 0 , 4 8 , 5 3 , Lucania/Lucanians 2 5 - 6 , 6 5 , 80C a m p a n i a 2 2 , 2 5 , 2 6 , 5 2 , 80 5 9 , 8 3 , 84 attacks on Greece 2 5 - 6C a p u a 2 5 , 7 9 , 8 0 , 88 Frontinus on slave rebellion 3 8 , 4 5 , 53 duels as competition 21 gladiatorial training school 2 8 , 4 0 , 4 7 , funerary m o n u m e n t s 2 1 , 4 3 , 4 4 and slave rebellion 3 7 , 5 4 , 7 4 , 8 8 , 89 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 5 6 - 7 , 5 8 , 82 Furius, C a i u s (legate) 5 4 , 88 Lucullus, M a r c u s Terentius VarroCastello di L o m b a r d i a 5 , 7, 8 (proconsul) 7 1 , 74Castrum Petrae Roseti 6 7 Gallia Cisalpina 4 8 , 6 2 , 88 ludus, configuration/purpose of 5 2 , 5 2 ,Castus (rebel leader) 3 0 , 4 5 , 5 0 , 7 1 , 88 Gannicus, C a i u s (rebel leader) 3 0 , 5 0 , 7 1 5 6 - 7 , 58C a t o and battle at G a r g a n u s 59 defeat of 4 5 , 88 Luxemburg, Rosa 5, 85C a t o the Elder 9 - 1 0 , 18, 2 8 , 59 G a r g a n o hills 6 3 , 6 3 on use of slaves 15,18,19 G a r g a n u s , battle at (72 B C ) 5 5 , 5 9 , Macedonia 28,30,43Cicero (historian) 5 , 3 7 6 8 - 9 , 70 M a g n u s , C n a e u s Pompeius 82 Caius Verres 8,48,50 Gaul/Gauls M a r i u s , C a s s i u s (consul) 31 gladiatorial c o m b a t 2 3 , 2 4 - 5 , 8 2 , 83 provision of slaves 3 5 , 3 7 and R o m a n army 4 1 , 4 2 - 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 proletarii (commoners) 14 and slave army 3 0 , 3 5 , 3 7 , 5 0 , 5 4 , 5 5 , M a r s (war-god) 4 4 justness of slavery 8 62, 63, 6 8 - 9 , 70 M a r x , Karl 8 4 , 8 5 , 8 6 , 8 6 R o m a n army 3 4 , 4 4 prisoners as gladiators 1 7 , 2 4 , 4 8 , 5 2 , on freedom/revolution 8 5 , 86 Sicily 7, 8 5 6 - 7 , 58 on S p a r t a c u s 6, 8 4 , 8 5 , 86 slave rebellion 5 0 , 5 3 , 83 weaponry 39 Metapontum 54, 59, 62Cilician pirates 10,20 Gellius, Lucius (consul) 5 9 , 6 3 , 6 8 - 9 , 7 0 Mithridates IV, King 2 0 , 2 8 , 3 0 betrayal of Spartacus 6 5 , 88 defeats slave army contingent 5 5 , 5 9 , 6 3 , M o n t e Pollino (Lucania) 6 5consuls 9, 2 4 , 3 1 , 5 9 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 8 - 9 , 70 6 8 - 9 , 7 0 , 88 mosaics 4 0 , 8 1Cossinius, Lucius (praetor) 4 0 , 5 4 , 88 Germans/Germany 43 M o u n t Vesuvius 5 3 , 5 4 , 5 5Crassus, Marcius Licinius (praetor) 2 7 , in slave army 3 5 , 5 0 , 5 4 , 5 5 , 6 3 , rebel slaves on 3 0 , 5 0 , 5 3 , 5 8 , 89 3 1 - 3 , 33, 44, 88, 90, 92 6 8 - 9 , 70 M u m m i u s (legate) businessman 3 1 , 3 2 - 3 , 81 Glaber, C a i u s Claudius (praetor) defeat by slave army 6 3 , 88 character traits 3 2 - 3 , 82 defeat of by slave army 4 0 , 5 3 , 88 hostility towards Pompey 3 2 , 3 3 , 7 4 , gladiatorial contests 2 1 - 2 , 2 2 , 2 4 Octavianus (Augustus) 2 0 , 4 7 8 1 , 8 2 , 8 8 , 89 amphitheatres used 2 3 , 4 7 , 6 5 O e n o m a u s (slave leader) 3 0 , 5 0 , 5 2 , 5 4 , 89 military c o m m a n d e r 3 1 , 3 2 , 3 3 , 5 1 , 6 3 , development/popularity 2 2 , 2 3 - 4 , 2 5 Orosius 30,48,53,62 80, 8 1 - 2 , 88 role of lanistae 22 O s c a n speakers (groupings of) 25-6 political ambitions 3 1 , 3 3 , 8 1 , 82 gladiatorial training school 2 8 , 4 0 , 4 7 , 5 2 , and slave army/rebellion 31,32,33, 5 3 , 5 6 - 7 , 58 Paestum 21,25-6,59,74 45,51 gladiators (bustarii) 2 0 - 5 , 2 7 , 8 2 , 83 palaestra 52 95
    • Perusia, fall of 2 0 role/rule of Senate 4 1 legal definition of 16, 1 7 - 1 8Pizzo (Calabria) 6 6 as slave society 15-20 master-slave relationship 16-17Plutarch (historian) 8 8 , 8 9 , 9 0 and slave uprisings 5 , 7, 8 - 9 treatment of 15,16-17 cost of slaves 19 threat of attack on 4 8 , 6 2 - 3 Social War ( 9 1 - 8 8 BC) 2 4 , 26 Crassus 27, 33, 63, 6 5 , 67, 90 R o s e t o C a p o Spulico 6 7 Soverato (Calabria) 6 7 legionarys equipment 4 5 Spartacus see also slave army/rebellion Pompey 90 Sallust (historian) 6 6 , 8 8 , 8 9 , 9 0 - 2 brutality of 4 8 , 5 9 , 6 2 , 89 rebel slaves/slave army 4 8 , 5 3 , 5 5 , 6 2 , decline of R o m a n state 9 2 clashes with R o m a n armies 3 2 , 4 7 , 5 3 , 8 4 , 89 R o m a n army 4 1 , 4 3 , 4 8 5 4 , 6 2 , 6 6 , 7 1 , 7 6 - 7 , 7 8 , 8 2 , 88, 8 9 , 92 slave herdsmen 3 9 , 54 slave rebellion 3 8 , 4 7 , 5 0 , 5 3 , 5 5 , 7 1 , c o m p a s s i o n for followers 86 Spartacus 6, 2 7 , 2 8 , 3 1 , 4 0 , 4 8 , 6 2 , 7 1 , 84,88-9 death of 7, 7 4 - 5 , 7 6 - 7 , 7 8 , 87, 88, 89 74-5 Salvius (slave king: Tryphon) 9, 10 depiction of 7 1Pompeii 2 3 , 2 8 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 5 4 Samnites 2 0 , 2 2 , 2 4 , 2 5 - 6 , 2 7 , 3 2 cinematic 5 1 , 5 1 , 5 8 , 8 2 , 8 3 , 9 2Pompey 2 0 , 2 7 , 2 8 , 3 1 , 7 4 , 9 0 , 9 2 Second Punic War 7, 4 3 graffito 28 character traits 8 1 , 8 2 Second Slave War 9 - 1 0 , 4 8 , 5 0 , 6 5 literature 5 1 , 8 5 - 6 , 8 7 , 9 2 hostility t o w a r d s C r a s s u s 3 2 , 3 3 , 8 1 , Senate/senators 9, 10, 3 1 , 9 1 mythological/revolutionary hero 5 - 6 , 8 2 , 89 enrolment of capite censi 41,42 4 7 , 5 0 , 8 3 - 6 , 87 and rebel slaves/slave army 7 1 , 8 1 , 8 2 exclusivity/prestige of 14 proto-Christ/secular Messiah 87 p o p u l a r support for 8 1 , 88 and gladiatorial spectacles 2 4 in R o m a n service 2 7 , 3 0 , 3 4 , 5 0 , 6 2Porta Collina, battle of (82 B C ) 3 2 pursuit of Spartacus 5 1 , 6 2 , 7 1 , 74 as gladiator 2 4 , 2 7 , 2 8 , 2 8 , 30praetors, role of 9 Sicily 4 , 5 , 6, 7, 9, 1 0 , 84 leadership skills 30-1,47provincial governors, role of 9 agricultural prosperity of 7, 9 legacy of 83-7Pydna, battle of (168 B C ) 4 3 use of slaves 7, 8, 3 7 , 4 8 movements of ( 7 3 - 7 1 BC) 2 0 , 2 9 , 36, 4 8 , R o m a n rule 7, 8 - 9 , 10, 4 8 , 5 0 4 9 , 5 0 , 5 5 , 5 8 , 6 2 , 6 3 , 6 4 , 6 5 , 74, 88q u a e s t o r s , role of 8, 1 0 , 9 1 and slave army 4 8 , 5 0 , 6 5 relationship with Crixus 5 0 , 5 4 , 55 slave uprisings 6, 7, 8 - 1 0 , 4 0 , 4 8 , 5 0 , 6 5 Romes reaction to 6 - 7 , 5 1 , 8 3 , 84reliefs 1 7 , 2 0 , 2 2 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 8 slave army/rebellion see also Spartacus sacrifices white stallion 7 8 , 8 9 , 9 2River Silarus (Sele) 7 4 , 7 4 , 78 47, 50, 53, 65, 82 strength and spirit 71R o c c a di Cerere (Enna) 5 , 6 assaults on towns 5 4 , 5 9 , 5 9 Thracian origins 2 8 , 3 0 , 3 0R o m a n army chances of success 8 2 , 86 training of new recruits 5 4 , 6 2 composition/elements of 4 2 - 4 , 4 6 clashes with R o m a n armies 3 2 , 3 4 , 6 2 , weakness of position 5 0 aquilifer (standard-bearer) 45 6 6 , 6 8 - 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 7 6 - 7 , 92 Spartakusbund 5 , 86 centurions 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 7 6 - 7 , 78 defeats and losses 5 5 , 5 9 , 6 3 , 6 8 - 9 , S p a r t o k o s I, King of Thrace 2 7 hastati (spearmen) 4 2 , 4 3 70, 7 1 , 74, 75, 7 6 - 7 , 78, 7 9 - 8 2 , Stoicism and slavery 17 impedimenta (baggage train) 4 4 8 8 , 89 Strode, Woody 5 1 legionnaires 9, 3 4 , 4 4 - 5 , 4 4 victories 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 7 , 5 3 , 5 4 , 6 3 , Sulla, Lucius Cornelius 2 0 , 3 1 , 3 2 M a r i a n faction/legion 3 1 , 3 2 , 4 1 , 7 5 , 88 4 2 - 4 , 4 5 , 46 c o m m u n i c a t i o n s within 34-5 Tertullian 2 1 - 2 cost of to support 3 1 - 2 , 4 2 composition and strength 3 4 , 3 5 , 3 7 - 8 , Thrace/Thracian tribes 3 0 defeats 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 7 , 5 3 , 5 4 , 6 3 , 39, 52, 54 auxiliaries for R o m a n forces 2 8 , 3 0 7 5 , 88 cost of putting d o w n 7 5 and slave army 3 5 , 6 2 mess-unit (contubernium) 45 desire for freedom 50 prisoners as gladiators 2 4 , 3 0 , 3 1 , 5 2 , primus pilus (first spear) 4 5 division a m o n g s t leaders 5 0 , 5 4 , 5 5 , 5 6 - 7 , 58 principes (chief men) 4 2 , 4 3 8 2 , 88 slaves for Italy 3 5 signifier (standard-bearer) 43 intended dispersal of 4 8 Thrax people 3 0 , 3 0 , 3 1 slave-volunteers 41-2 m a k i n g use of prisoners 5 9 Thurii, and slave army 5 4 , 5 9 , 6 2 , 6 5 , triarii (third-rank men) 4 2 , 4 3 movements of ( 7 3 - 7 1 B C ) 2 0 , 2 9 , 6 5 , 82 velites (light-armed troops) 4 2 36, 48, 49, 50, 55, 58, 62, 63, dress/uniforms 4 3 , 4 4 6 4 , 6 5 , 7 4 , 88 Varinia (Spartacus wife) 4 0 , 82 enlistment/recruitment 4 2 , 4 5 , 4 6 provisions for 3 7 , 4 7 , 4 8 , 5 0 , 6 6 - 7 Varinius, Publius (praetor) 3 8 , 5 0 age of the citizen-soldier 41-2 role of w o m e n in 3 5 , 4 0 - 1 defeat by slave army 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 54, 88 and capite censi 4 1 , 42, 45, 46 Senate reaction to 5 1 , 5 4 , 83 Varro, M a r c u s Terentius 1 5 , 16, 18, 2 8 , and property qualification 4 1 , 4 2 , 4 4 suicide to avoid capture 3 5 35,37,38 rewards of service 4 5 , 4 6 threat to R o m e 4 8 , 6 2 - 3 , 89 Verres, Caius (governor of Sicily) 7, 8, equipment 4 4 - 5 , 4 5 training of new recruits 5 4 , 6 2 1 7 - 1 8 , 4 8 , 50 esprit de corps 46 weaponry 3 9 - 4 0 , 39, 59, 6 5 , 6 8 - 9 , Via Appia (Queen of R o a d s ) s t a n d a r d s , adoption/use of 4 5 - 6 7 0 , 74 construction of 7 9 , 8 0 , 8 0 , 9 1 tactical organization 3 4 , 4 2 - 4 , 4 5 , 5 5 slave herdsmen (pastores) 8, 9, 3 5 , 3 7 , crucified rebels along 79-80 victories 5 5 , 5 9 , 6 3 , 6 8 - 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 , 7 4 , 38, 39, 40, 54 vilicus (bailiff) 9 - 1 0 , 38 7 6 - 7 , 7 8 , 8 1 - 2 , 88 join slave army 3 7 - 8 , 3 9 , 5 4 , 6 7 , 6 8 - 9 , 70 weaponry 4 3 , 43, 44, 44, 45 use of w a t c h d o g s 3 9 , 4 0 wall paintings 54Rome slave owners 1 5 , 1 6 - 1 7 weaponry 2 0 , 2 2 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 3 9 , 4 0 , 4 2 , and class (classis) 14, 4 6 slavery/slaves 1 7 , 1 8 , 2 0 , 3 5 , 8 7 43, 43, 44, 44, 4 5 , 4 5 , 48, 6 8 - 9 , 70, citizen assemblies of 14 cost of 19 7 4 , 7 6 - 7 , 78 h u m a n sacrifice 2 1 as sign of wealth 18,20 production of 3 8 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 6 596
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    • Accounts of historys greatest conflicts, detailing the commandstrategies, tactics and battle experiences of the opposingforces throughout the crucial stages of each campaignSPARTACUS AND THESLAVE WAR 73-71 BCA gladiator rebels against RomeItaly in 73 BC saw a slave-societys worst nightmare - a slaveinsurrection. Gladiators, led by the Thracian Spartacus, broke outof a gladiatorial training school and formed an army, made up ofrunaway slaves and others with little to lose. With some 70,000 men,Spartacus rampaged throughout Campania, assaulting the prosperouscities of Cumae, Nola, and Nuceria, and defeating two consular armies.Spartacus now posed a grave threat to Rome, and M. Licinius Crassuswas given the job of destroying him. In a major battle near the sourceof the river Silarus, Spartacus was defeated and slain, and his armywas crushed. As a warning to others, Crassus crucified 6,000 prisonersalong the road from Capua - where the revolt had begun - to thevery gates of Rome.Full colour battlescenes _ Illustrations _ 3-dimensionalbirds-eye-views _ Maps US$19.95 UK£14.99 CAN $22.95 IS B N 978-1-84603-353-7 OSPREY 519 9f PUBLISHING 9 781846 033537