soil compaction in Agriculture


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soil compaction in Agriculture

  1. 1. 'Terminal heat stress in barley' Tassadduq Rasool 2007-ag-2092 Ph.D 2nd Semester University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan +92-3023426583 Supervisor Name: Prof. Dr. Riaz Ahmad
  2. 2. Introduction  Barley is a rabbi cereal grain crop  Ranked 4th in cereal  Locally called ‘jao’(Urdu)  Old English word “Beare”  Latin word farina "flour"
  3. 3. Crop Botany  Family Poaceae  Self pollinated  Monocot  Diploid with 14 chromosome  Inflorescence is spike  Has short duration than wheat Source:
  4. 4. Classification • Hordeum distichum L. • Two-rowed barley • Non shattering spikes • Hordeum vulgare L. • Six-rowed barley • Non shattering spikes Source:
  5. 5. Source:
  6. 6. Importance • Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) prescribed barley (talbina) for seven diseases. (Hadith. Volume 7, Book 71, Number 593: (Narrated 'Ursa)) • Animal feed • Health food • Bakery products • Beverages
  7. 7. Barley Production in Pakistan
  8. 8. Top Barley producing countries
  9. 9. A-biotic stresses Drought Abiotic stresses Salinity Freezing Chilling Heat
  10. 10. Definition Heat stress is defined as the rise in temperature beyond a threshold level for a period of time sufficient to cause irreversible damage to plant growth and development (Wahid et al. 2007) .
  11. 11. Review • Heat stress due to high ambient temperatures is a serious threat to crop production worldwide (Hall, 2001). • High temperature reduces duration of grain filling stages thereby lowering the grain yield (Tiwari and Tripathy, 1999). • Gawith (1999) reported optimal temperatures for grain filling as residing between 19.3◦C and 22.1◦C.
  12. 12. • Despite impressive increases in wheat production after the Green Revolution, terminal heat caused by high temperatures during kernel development has emerged as a major threat to wheat production (Rane et al., 2007). • The staple cereal crops can tolerate only narrow temperature ranges, which if exceeded during the flowering phase can damage fertilization and seed production, resulting in reduced yield (Porter, 2005). • Furthermore, high temperatures during grain filling can modify flour and bread quality and other physico-chemical properties of grain crops (Wardlaw et al., 2002).
  13. 13. • Rising temperatures may lead to altered geographical distribution and growing season of agricultural crops by allowing the threshold temperature for the start of the season and crop maturity to reach earlier (Porter, 2005).
  14. 14. Reason • Plants may be damaged by high day or high night temperatures and by either high air or high soil temperatures. • Global warming • Global mean temperature will rise 0.3 0C per decade (Intergovernmental panel on climate change, IPCC)
  15. 15. Morphological Symptoms of Heat stress • Necrosis on leaves • Scorchy appearance of leaves • Reduction in leaf size • White spots due to chlorophyll destruction • Leakage of sap make more prone to pathogen attack • Sunburn on leaves, stems and branches • Fruits discoloration and damage • Wilting
  16. 16. Phenological changes Reproductive stages  Flowers abortion  Impairment of pollen and anther development  Earlier heading  Temperature can modify flour and bread quality
  17. 17. Physiological changes • Photosynthesis • Leaf senescence • Water relations • Grain growth and development • Grain quality
  18. 18. Mechanism of Injury • Protien denaturation • Respiration (Doubles for every 10 0C) • Photosynthesis (In C3 plants affected above 350C) • Production of ROS • Heat induced Drought • Starvation (More respiration than Photosynthesis) (Wahid et al., 2007)
  19. 19. How Photosynthesis affected Farooq et al., 2011:Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 30:491–507, 2011
  20. 20. Definition • Heat tolerance is generally defined as the ability of the plant to grow and produce economic yield under high temperatures.
  21. 21. Mechanism of Heat tolerance • Transpiration as a coolant • Structural adaptation • Molecular basis • Antioxidant
  22. 22. Agronomic management strategies • Practices that conserve water • Fertilization during critical growth stages and timing of sowing • Time of sowing: Early planting may avoid terminal heat stress
  23. 23. References • Wahid. T., S. Gelani, M. Ashraf, M.R. Foolad. 2007. Heat tolerance in plants: An overview. Environ. Exp. Bot. 61: 199-223. • Hall, A.E., 2001. Crop Responses to Environment. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida. • Tewari, A.K. and B.C. Tripathy, 1999. Acclimation of chlorophyll biosynthetic reactions to temperature stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Planta, 208: 431–437. • • Streck, N.A., 2005. Climate change and agroecosystems: the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on crop growth, development and yield. Ciência Rural, 35: 730–740. • Asthir, B. R. Thapar, M.Farooq and N.S. Bains. 2013.Exogenous application of thiourea improves the performance of late ssown wheat by inducing terminal heat stress. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 15: 1337-1342.
  24. 24. References • Porter, J.R., M. Gawith. 1999. Temperatures and the growth and development of wheat: a review. European Journal of Agronomy 10: 23–36. • Gate, P., Brisson, N., 2010. Advancement of phenological stages and shortening of phases. In: Brisson, N., Levrault, F. (Eds.), Climate change, agriculture and forests in France: simulations of the impacts on the main species. The Green Book of the CLIMATOR project (2007–2010). ADEME, Angers, France, 65–78. • Rane, J., Pannu, R.K., Sohu, V.S., Saini, R.S., Mishra, B., Shoran, J., Crossa, J., Vargas, M., Joshi, A.K., 2007. Performance of yield and stability of advanced wheat geno-types under heat stressed environments of Indo-Gangetic plains. Crop Sci. 47,1561–1573. • Joshi, M. 2007. Performance of yield and stability of advanced wheat geno-types under heat stressed environments of Indo-Gangetic plains. Crop Sci. 47, 1561– 1573. • Porter, J.R., 2005. Rising temperatures are likely to reduce crop yields. Nature . 436: 174. • Hadith. Volume 7, Book 71, Number 593: (Narrated 'Ursa)
  25. 25. References • Kobata, T., Palta, J. A., and Turner, N. C. 1992. Rate of development of post anthesis water deficits and grain filling of spring wheat. Crop Sci. 32: 1238–1242. • Streck, N. A. 2005. Climate change and agroecosystems: the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on crop growth, development and yield. Ciencia Rural35: 730–740. • Yang, J., Sears, R. G., Gill, B. S., and Paulsen, G. M. 2002. Geno-ypic differences in utilization of assimilate sources during maturation of wheat under chronic heat and heat shock stresses.Euphytica125: 179–188. • Zhao, H., Dai, T. B., Jing, Q., Jiang, D., and Cao, W. X. 2007. Leaf senescence and grain filling affected by post-anthesis high temperatures in two different wheat cultivars. Plant Growth Regul.51:149–158.
  26. 26. Barley Aurical without hair Wheat Aurical With Wilde Oat without Aurical hair
  27. 27. Temperature Thresholds Lethal limits • -17.2 (1.2) • +47.5 (0.5)