CULTURE AND SUBCULTURECONSUMER BEHAVIOUR BY TASLEEM ALI MBA(PRIST) BATCH-2010-12 MSRIM Bangalore
CULTUREThe sum total of learned beliefs,values,and customs thatserve to direct the consumer behavior of members of aparticular society.
Characteristics of culture Culture is a learned response. Culture includes inculcated values. Culture is a social phenomenon. Culture is gratifying and continues for a long time. Cultures are similar and yet different. Culture prescribes the ideal standards of behavior.
The beliefs, values customs Influence of culture1- ON cultural values systems.- Ethics-good, moral, immoral.- Aesthetics-beautiful, ugly, pleasant, unpleasant.- Doctrine- political, social, ideological.
2-Culture exist & reveals at different levels.- Supranational level- Reflects different dimensions of multiple cultures/ different society of nations- National level- dimensions of culture of country and national characters.- Group level- Held with in a country with various sub-divisions of the society like family, reference group, & other closely held group.
A theoretical model of cultures influence of consumer behavior Cognitive Beliefs Personality Attitude Traits Behavioral PracticesBehavior Intension Subjective culture: Regional, Social Ethics, norms Religious, Values national, professional Organizational, group
Culture and consumer behavior Culture satisfies needs: -culture exists to satisfy the need of the people within society. -Satisfy needs of people by guidance, suggestion, Standard practices, physiological, personal, and social needs etc. -Ex. Tell us about food habits, dress code, worship, rituals about birth, death & social occasions. -culture is generally consistent & enduring & followed as long as it satisfies needs of people. -It changed/replaced as and when it does not solve its very purpose.
Culture & consumer behavior Culture is learned: -Culture I learned at childhood itself from the social environment. Often we are children play and enact the real life situation of social & culture ritual. Three distinct forms of culture learning. Formal learning: what the elder family member teach the younger one how to behave.
Cont.……….. Informal learning: what the child learns primarily by imitating the behavior of selected others such as family, friend, or TV heroes. Technical learning: In which teacher instruct the child in an educational environment about what should be done, how it should be done, and why it should be done.
Culture Is Learned Issues Enculturation: the learning of one’s own culture. Acculturation: The learning of a new or foreign culture. Language and symbols: Marketers must choose appropriate symbols in advertising. Ritual: A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps (multiple behavior) occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time. Rituals extend over the human life cycle Marketers realize that rituals often involve products.
Culture & consumer behavior Sharing of culture: Culture is transferred through family, schools, houses of worship, and media Culture is dynamic:- Change occur due to Technology, Migration, Population shift, Resource shortages, wars, Changing values etc.- Also known as ‘ TREND’ . ( Ex, Fashion, Automobile, Foods, Entertainment, L ifestyles, women work outside the home are few Hot object to study.
Diversity by Indian Railways Indian village by AmulEmerging Culture Ritual & Tradition
Culture & consumer behavior Measurement of culture: The attitude measurement techniques used by social psychologists and sociologists are relatively popular tools in study of culture. 1-content analysis 2-consumer fieldwork 3-value measurement instruments.
Content analysis: A method for systematicallyanalyzing the content of verbal and or pictorialcommunication. The method is frequently used todetermine prevailing social values of a society.Consumer field work : A culture measurementtechnique that takes place within a naturalenvironment that focuses on observingbehavior.(sometimes without the subjectsawareness).
Value measurement survey instruments: A variety of value measurement instruments have been used in consumer behavior studies. Rokeach value survey: Two different list of 18 values ( Terminal & Instrumental) are studied. Terminal values: The first part consists of 18 terminal value item. EX. Personal goals, Freedom, Equality, social recognition. Instrument values: The second part consists of 18 instrumental value item. EX. Ambition, responsibility, Intellect, etc.
List of Values (LOV): A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey Values and Lifestyles (VALS): A value measurement based on two categories: self- definition and resources
Indian Core Values Family orientation Saving orientation Festivities Shopping as a ritual Mythology Food Habits
Changing cultural trends inIndian urban markets Achievement orientation Work Ethic Material Success Middle of the road approach to tradition Impulse Gratification Use of hi-tech products
SUBCULTURE Sub-culture is defined as a distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society. Ex. Nationality, socialclass, Religion, Language, Age, Gender.
Divisions of Sub-culture Nationality subculture: with in a particular country like in India- Anglo Indians-A person of mixed English and Indian descent Parsees-The Parsis came to India sometime around the 10th century A.D. to escape Arab persecution in Persia which began in the 7th century.
Cont.…….Mughals- Mogul Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857.The dynasty was founded by Babur .who came fromFarghana, now in Uzbekistan.Pathans-Pathans came from Afghanistan As avendor and businessmen. They had living incommunity different area in India.
Divisions of Sub-culture Religious sub-culture : Based on different faiths, Beliefs, & Religion. Like. Muslims Sikhs Christians Hindus Buddhists
Subculture & consumer behavior Geographic & Religious sub-culture; Ex. South Indians, North Indians, North-east Indians. Racial sub-culture: In Caucasians, Africans, Asian, American & American Indians.
Subculture & consumer behavior Age sub-culture : Generation Generation Baby Boomer Older Y market X market market Customer Gender as subculture- All societies have assigned different traits & roles for Males females, like breadwinners for Males & Homemakers for females etc.
Marketers focus Marketers focus on satisfying traditional tastes & preferences. Companies are now focusing more on Age sub-culture & gender subculture. For Ex. 1) Lifestyle 2) Levies 3) Upcoming segment of Unisexual saloons. 4) Automobiles like TVS- Scotty & Bajaj-pulsar etc.