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Reduction-Division Genetic Recombination
<ul><li>The form of  cell division   by which  GAMETES ,  with  HALF  the number of  CHROMOSOMES ,  are produced. </li></u...
<ul><li>Sex cells divide to produce  GAMETES   (sperm or egg) . </li></ul><ul><li>Gametes have  HALF  the # of chromosomes...
2n=46 human sex cell diploid (2n) n=23 n=23 Meiosis I n=23 n=23 n=23 n=23 sperm haploid (n) Meiosis II
Polar Bodies (die) 2n=46 human sex cell diploid (2n) n=23 n=23 Meiosis I n=23 egg Haploid  (1n) Meiosis II
<ul><li>Similar to  mitosis  interphase . </li></ul><ul><li>CHROMOSOMES   replicate in the  S phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Eac...
<ul><li>Nucleus and nucleolus  visible . </li></ul>nuclear membrane nucleolus cell  membrane chromatin
<ul><li>Cell division  that reduces the  chromosome number  by  one-half. </li></ul><ul><li>Four phases : </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Longest  and  most complex phase (90%). </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes  condense. </li></ul><ul><li>Synapsis  occur...
Homologous chromosomes sister chromatids sister chromatids Tetrad
<ul><li>Pair of  chromosomes  ( maternal  and  paternal ) that are  similar in shape and size . </li></ul><ul><li>Homologo...
Paternal Maternal eye color locus eye color locus hair color locus hair color locus
<ul><li>Crossing over  may occur between non-sister  chromatids  at sites called  chiasmata . </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing o...
variation nonsister chromatids chiasmata: site of crossing over Tetrad
XX chromosome - female XY chromosome - male
<ul><li>Homologs separate </li></ul>Meiosis I
<ul><li>Nucleus & Nucleolus  disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle  forms </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes  coil  &  Synapsis  ...
<ul><li>Shortest   phase </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrads   align on the metaphase plate  ( equator ). </li></ul><ul><li>Independ...
metaphase plate OR metaphase plate
<ul><li>In terms of  Independent Assortment  -how many different combinations of sperm could a  human   male  produce?  </...
<ul><li>Formula:  2 n </li></ul><ul><li>Human chromosomes: 2n = 46 </li></ul><ul><li>n = 23 </li></ul><ul><li>2 23  = ~8 m...
<ul><li>Homologous chromosomes  separate and move towards the poles. </li></ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids  remain attached ...
Homologs  separate
<ul><li>Each pole now has  haploid  (1n) set of  chromosomes . </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis  occurs and two haploid daugh...
cytokinesis
<ul><li>Autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ...
<ul><li>1 gamete </li></ul><ul><li>2 gametes </li></ul><ul><li>3 gametes </li></ul><ul><li>4 gametes </li></ul><ul><li>2 n...
<ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Oogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Binary fission </li></ul>0...
<ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>23 </li></ul><ul><li>46 </li></ul><ul><li>50 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ...
<ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>23 </li></ul><ul><li>46 </li></ul><ul><li>50 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ...
<ul><li>Sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bodies </li></ul>0 1 2 3...
<ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids </li></ul><ul><li>Centromeres </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetochores  </li></ul>0...
<ul><li>Chromosome number halved </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome number doubled </li></ul><ul><li>4 new cells </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Synapsis </li></ul><ul><li>Chiasma </li></ul><ul><li>Haploidism </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing over </li></ul>0 1 2 3 ...
<ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 ...
<ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 ...
<ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 ...
<ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 ...
<ul><li>Sister Chromatids Separate </li></ul>Meiosis II
<ul><li>No Interphase II  or very short </li></ul><ul><li>No DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: Meiosis II is sim...
<ul><li>Same as  Prophase  in mitosis </li></ul>
<ul><li>Same as  Metaphase  in mitosis </li></ul>metaphase plate metaphase plate
<ul><li>Same as  Anaphase  in  mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>SISTER CHROMATIDS separate </li></ul>
<ul><li>Same as  Telophase  in mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei and Nucleoli  reform. </li></ul><ul><li>CYTOKINESIS  occu...
2n=4 sex cell diploid (2n) n=2 n=2 meiosis I n=2 n=2 n=2 n=2 sperm haploid (n) meiosis II
<ul><li>Also known as  GENETIC RECOMBINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Important to population as the raw material for  NATURAL SE...
<ul><li>What are the  3  sources of  genetic recombination  or variation?  </li></ul>
<ul><li>CROSSING OVER  (prophase I) </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT  (metaphase I) </li></ul><ul><li>RANDOM FERTI...
<ul><li>A cell containing  20 chromosomes   (diploid)   at the beginning of meiosis would, at its completion, produce cell...
<ul><li>10  chromosomes (haploid or 1n) </li></ul>
<ul><li>A n  organized picture  of the chromosomes of a human  arranged in pairs by size  from largest to smallest. </li><...
Female - XX
Female - XX Down Syndrome – Trisomy 21
<ul><li>The fusion of a  sperm  and  egg  to form a  zygote . </li></ul><ul><li>A zygote is a  FERTILIZED EGG </li></ul>n=...
<ul><li>A cell containing  40 chromatids   at the beginning of meiosis would, at its completion, produce cells containing ...
<ul><li>10 chromosomes </li></ul>
<ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids </li></ul>20...
<ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous populations </li></ul><ul><li>Isolatio...
<ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1...
<ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>25 </li></ul><ul><li>50 </li></ul><ul><li>100 </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1...
<ul><li>Somatic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cells </li><...
<ul><li>Embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Zygote </li></ul><ul><li>Haploid cell </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation  </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 ...
Meiosis gamete production with turning point
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Meiosis gamete production with turning point

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  • Formula: 2 n Human chromosomes: 2n = 46 n = 23 2 23 = ~8 million combinations
  • What are they? Crossing over in prophase I independent assortment in metaphase I random fertilization
  • Transcript of "Meiosis gamete production with turning point"

    1. 1. Reduction-Division Genetic Recombination
    2. 2. <ul><li>The form of cell division by which GAMETES , with HALF the number of CHROMOSOMES , are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>DIPLOID (2n)  HAPLOID (n) </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis is SEXUAL reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>TWO divisions ( MEIOSIS I and MEIOSIS II ). </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Sex cells divide to produce GAMETES (sperm or egg) . </li></ul><ul><li>Gametes have HALF the # of chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs only in GONADS (testes or ovaries). </li></ul><ul><li>Male: SPERMATOGENESIS </li></ul><ul><li>Female: OOGENESIS </li></ul>
    4. 4. 2n=46 human sex cell diploid (2n) n=23 n=23 Meiosis I n=23 n=23 n=23 n=23 sperm haploid (n) Meiosis II
    5. 5. Polar Bodies (die) 2n=46 human sex cell diploid (2n) n=23 n=23 Meiosis I n=23 egg Haploid (1n) Meiosis II
    6. 6. <ul><li>Similar to mitosis interphase . </li></ul><ul><li>CHROMOSOMES replicate in the S phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Each duplicated chromosome consist of two identical sister CHROMATIDS attached at their CENTROMERES . </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRIOLE pairs also replicate. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Nucleus and nucleolus visible . </li></ul>nuclear membrane nucleolus cell membrane chromatin
    8. 8. <ul><li>Cell division that reduces the chromosome number by one-half. </li></ul><ul><li>Four phases : </li></ul><ul><li>a. prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>b. metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>c. anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>d. telophase I </li></ul>Prophase I
    9. 9. <ul><li>Longest and most complex phase (90%). </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes condense. </li></ul><ul><li>Synapsis occurs: homologous chromosomes come together to form a tetrad . </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrad is two chromosomes or four chromatids (sister and non-sister chromatids). </li></ul>
    10. 10.
    11. 11. Homologous chromosomes sister chromatids sister chromatids Tetrad
    12. 12. <ul><li>Pair of chromosomes ( maternal and paternal ) that are similar in shape and size . </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous pairs ( tetrads ) carry genes controlling the same inherited traits . </li></ul><ul><li>Each locus (position of a gene) is in the same position on homologues. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes: </li></ul><ul><li>a. 22 pairs of autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>b. 1 pair of sex chrom osomes </li></ul>LOCI
    13. 13. Paternal Maternal eye color locus eye color locus hair color locus hair color locus
    14. 14. <ul><li>Crossing over may occur between non-sister chromatids at sites called chiasmata . </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing over : segments of nonsister chromatids break and reattach to the other chromatid . </li></ul><ul><li>Chiasmata (chiasma) are where chromosomes touch each other and exchange genes ( crossing over .) </li></ul>
    15. 15. variation nonsister chromatids chiasmata: site of crossing over Tetrad
    16. 16.
    17. 17. XX chromosome - female XY chromosome - male
    18. 18. <ul><li>Homologs separate </li></ul>Meiosis I
    19. 19. <ul><li>Nucleus & Nucleolus disappear </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle forms </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes coil & Synapsis (pairing) occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrads form & Crossing over Occurs </li></ul>TETRAD centrioles spindle fiber aster fibers
    20. 20. <ul><li>Shortest phase </li></ul><ul><li>Tetrads align on the metaphase plate ( equator ). </li></ul><ul><li>Independent assortment occurs – chromosomes separate randomly </li></ul><ul><li>Formula: 2 n </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 2n = 4 </li></ul><ul><li>then 1n = 2 thus 2 2 = 4 combinations </li></ul>Gametes
    21. 21. metaphase plate OR metaphase plate
    22. 22. <ul><li>In terms of Independent Assortment -how many different combinations of sperm could a human male produce? </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Formula: 2 n </li></ul><ul><li>Human chromosomes: 2n = 46 </li></ul><ul><li>n = 23 </li></ul><ul><li>2 23 = ~8 million combinations </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Homologous chromosomes separate and move towards the poles. </li></ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids remain attached at their centromeres . </li></ul>
    25. 25. Homologs separate
    26. 26. <ul><li>Each pole now has haploid (1n) set of chromosomes . </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis occurs and two haploid daughter cells are formed. </li></ul>
    27. 27. cytokinesis
    28. 28. <ul><li>Autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
    29. 29. <ul><li>1 gamete </li></ul><ul><li>2 gametes </li></ul><ul><li>3 gametes </li></ul><ul><li>4 gametes </li></ul><ul><li>2 new cells </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    30. 30. <ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Oogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Binary fission </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    31. 31. <ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>23 </li></ul><ul><li>46 </li></ul><ul><li>50 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    32. 32. <ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>23 </li></ul><ul><li>46 </li></ul><ul><li>50 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    33. 33. <ul><li>Sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bodies </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    34. 34. <ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids </li></ul><ul><li>Centromeres </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetochores </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    35. 35. <ul><li>Chromosome number halved </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome number doubled </li></ul><ul><li>4 new cells </li></ul><ul><li>Preparations for meiosis II </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    36. 36. <ul><li>Synapsis </li></ul><ul><li>Chiasma </li></ul><ul><li>Haploidism </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing over </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    37. 37. <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    38. 38. <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    39. 39. <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    40. 40. <ul><li>Prophase I </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase I </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase I </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
    41. 41. <ul><li>Sister Chromatids Separate </li></ul>Meiosis II
    42. 42. <ul><li>No Interphase II or very short </li></ul><ul><li>No DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: Meiosis II is similar to mitosis </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>Same as Prophase in mitosis </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Same as Metaphase in mitosis </li></ul>metaphase plate metaphase plate
    45. 45. <ul><li>Same as Anaphase in mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>SISTER CHROMATIDS separate </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>Same as Telophase in mitosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei and Nucleoli reform. </li></ul><ul><li>CYTOKINESIS occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: FOUR HAPLOID DAUGHTER cells are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Called GAMETES (eggs and sperm) </li></ul>1n Sperm cell fertilizes 1n egg to form 2n zygote
    47. 47.
    48. 48. 2n=4 sex cell diploid (2n) n=2 n=2 meiosis I n=2 n=2 n=2 n=2 sperm haploid (n) meiosis II
    49. 49.
    50. 50. <ul><li>Also known as GENETIC RECOMBINATION </li></ul><ul><li>Important to population as the raw material for NATURAL SELECTION. </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are NOT alike </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest “ most fit” survive to reproduce & pass on traits </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>What are the 3 sources of genetic recombination or variation? </li></ul>
    52. 52. <ul><li>CROSSING OVER (prophase I) </li></ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT (metaphase I) </li></ul><ul><li>RANDOM FERTILIZATION </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>A cell containing 20 chromosomes (diploid) at the beginning of meiosis would, at its completion, produce cells containing how many chromosomes ? </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>10 chromosomes (haploid or 1n) </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>A n organized picture of the chromosomes of a human arranged in pairs by size from largest to smallest. </li></ul><ul><li>P airs 1-22 called AUTOSOMES </li></ul><ul><li>L ast pair are SEX CHROMOSOMES </li></ul>Male - XY
    56. 56. Female - XX
    57. 57. Female - XX Down Syndrome – Trisomy 21
    58. 58. <ul><li>The fusion of a sperm and egg to form a zygote . </li></ul><ul><li>A zygote is a FERTILIZED EGG </li></ul>n=23 egg sperm n=23 2n=46 zygote
    59. 59. <ul><li>A cell containing 40 chromatids at the beginning of meiosis would, at its completion, produce cells containing how many chromosomes ? </li></ul>
    60. 60. <ul><li>10 chromosomes </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatids </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    62. 62. <ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    63. 63. <ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    64. 64. <ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    65. 65. <ul><li>Prophase II </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase II </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase II </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    66. 66. <ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous populations </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    67. 67. <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 20
    68. 68. <ul><li>10 </li></ul><ul><li>25 </li></ul><ul><li>50 </li></ul><ul><li>100 </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    69. 69. <ul><li>Somatic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Autosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle cells </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    70. 70. <ul><li>Embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Zygote </li></ul><ul><li>Haploid cell </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
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