Characteristics of life ii
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Characteristics of life ii

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Characteristics of life ii Characteristics of life ii Presentation Transcript

  • Study of Biology copyright cmassengale
  • What is Biology?
    • Biology is the study of all living things
    • Living things are called organisms
    • Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals
    copyright cmassengale
  • All Living Things Share Common Characteristics
    • Basic Unit is the Cell
    • They Reproduce
    • All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)
    • Grow & Develop
    copyright cmassengale
  • Common Characteristics
    • Obtain & Use Materials & Energy
    • Respond To Their Environment
    • Maintain A Stable Internal Environment
    • AS A GROUP , Living Things Evolve , That Is They Change Over Time
    copyright cmassengale
  • Characteristics of Organisms copyright cmassengale
  • All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale
  • Facts About Cells
    • Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism
    • All cells contain living material called cytoplasm
    • All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell
    copyright cmassengale
  • More Cell Facts
    • Cells are complex & highly organized
    • Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs
    • e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars
    copyright cmassengale
  • More Cell Facts
    • The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes
    • These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
    • Bacteria are examples
    copyright cmassengale
  • More Cell Facts
    • More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
    • These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
    • Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples
    copyright cmassengale
  • Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells
    • Unicellular Organisms
      • Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell
    • Multicellular Organisms
      • Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells
    copyright cmassengale
  • Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale
  • Two Types of Reproduction
    • Sexual Reproduction
    • Involves 2 parents
    • Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE
    • Offspring DIFFERENT from parents
    copyright cmassengale
  • Two Types of Reproduction
    • Asexual Reproduction
    • Involves a single organism or cell
    • Cell divides
    • Offspring IDENTICAL to parent
    copyright cmassengale
  • Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale
  • Genetic Code
    • DNA ( deoxyribose nucleic acid ) carries the genetic code for all organisms
    • All organisms contain DNA
    • DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work
    copyright cmassengale
  • Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale
  • Growth & Development
    • Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT
    • Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism
    copyright cmassengale
  • Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale
  • Food Requirements
    • Autotrophs can make their own food
    • Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis)
    • Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy
    copyright cmassengale
  • Food Requirements
    • Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food
    • They must consume other organisms
    • Herbivores eat plants
    • Carnivores eat meat
    • Omnivores eat plants & animals
    copyright cmassengale
  • Metabolism
    • Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism
    • All require energy
    • Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth
    copyright cmassengale
  • Metabolism
    • Cellular Respiration
      • Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods
    • 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
    copyright cmassengale
  • Organisms Respond to Stimuli
    • Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce
    copyright cmassengale
  • Homeostasis
    • Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life
    • Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc .
    copyright cmassengale
  • Living Things Evolve
    • Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments.
    • Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms
    copyright cmassengale
  • Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale
  • Levels
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
    • Organelles
    • Cells – life starts here
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • System
    • Organism
    copyright cmassengale
  • Levels
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biosphere
    copyright cmassengale
  • copyright cmassengale
  • copyright cmassengale