Characteristics of life ii
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Characteristics of life ii

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    Characteristics of life ii Characteristics of life ii Presentation Transcript

    • Study of Biology copyright cmassengale
    • What is Biology?
      • Biology is the study of all living things
      • Living things are called organisms
      • Organisms include bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, & animals
      copyright cmassengale
    • All Living Things Share Common Characteristics
      • Basic Unit is the Cell
      • They Reproduce
      • All Based On Universal Genetic Code (DNA)
      • Grow & Develop
      copyright cmassengale
    • Common Characteristics
      • Obtain & Use Materials & Energy
      • Respond To Their Environment
      • Maintain A Stable Internal Environment
      • AS A GROUP , Living Things Evolve , That Is They Change Over Time
      copyright cmassengale
    • Characteristics of Organisms copyright cmassengale
    • All Organisms are made of Cells copyright cmassengale
    • Facts About Cells
      • Cells are the smallest living unit of an organism
      • All cells contain living material called cytoplasm
      • All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane that controls what enters & leaves the cell
      copyright cmassengale
    • More Cell Facts
      • Cells are complex & highly organized
      • Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs
      • e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars
      copyright cmassengale
    • More Cell Facts
      • The simplest cells are called Prokaryotes
      • These cells DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
      • Bacteria are examples
      copyright cmassengale
    • More Cell Facts
      • More complex cells are called Eukaryotes
      • These cells DO have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
      • Plants, animals, protists, & fungi are examples
      copyright cmassengale
    • Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells
      • Unicellular Organisms
        • Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell
      • Multicellular Organisms
        • Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized Cells
      copyright cmassengale
    • Organisms Reproduce to Pass on their Genetic Traits copyright cmassengale
    • Two Types of Reproduction
      • Sexual Reproduction
      • Involves 2 parents
      • Egg fertilized by sperm to make a ZYGOTE
      • Offspring DIFFERENT from parents
      copyright cmassengale
    • Two Types of Reproduction
      • Asexual Reproduction
      • Involves a single organism or cell
      • Cell divides
      • Offspring IDENTICAL to parent
      copyright cmassengale
    • Cells Have a Genetic Code copyright cmassengale
    • Genetic Code
      • DNA ( deoxyribose nucleic acid ) carries the genetic code for all organisms
      • All organisms contain DNA
      • DNA codes for the proteins that make up cells & do all the work
      copyright cmassengale
    • Organisms Grow & Develop copyright cmassengale
    • Growth & Development
      • Organisms grow by producing MORE CELLS & by cell ENLARGEMENT
      • Organisms develop as they mature into an adult organism
      copyright cmassengale
    • Cells Require Food & Energy copyright cmassengale
    • Food Requirements
      • Autotrophs can make their own food
      • Photoautotrophs use sunlight to make food (photosynthesis)
      • Chemoautotrophs use chemicals such as iron & sulfur as their energy
      copyright cmassengale
    • Food Requirements
      • Heterotrophs can NOT make their own food
      • They must consume other organisms
      • Herbivores eat plants
      • Carnivores eat meat
      • Omnivores eat plants & animals
      copyright cmassengale
    • Metabolism
      • Sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism
      • All require energy
      • Sunlight is the ultimate energy for life on Earth
      copyright cmassengale
    • Metabolism
      • Cellular Respiration
        • Cells releasing the chemical energy stored in foods
      • 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
      copyright cmassengale
    • Organisms Respond to Stimuli
      • Organisms Respond to stimuli (Temperature, Water, Food Supplies, etc.) In Order To Survive & Reproduce
      copyright cmassengale
    • Homeostasis
      • Keeping The Internal Environment (Homeostasis) Of The Cell or Organism Within The Ranges Required For Life
      • Stable internal conditions of pH, temperature, water balance, etc .
      copyright cmassengale
    • Living Things Evolve
      • Groups Of Organisms (Not Individuals) Change Over Time In Order To Survive Within Changing Environments.
      • Fossil records show changes in groups of organisms
      copyright cmassengale
    • Life is Organized on Several Levels copyright cmassengale
    • Levels
      • Atoms
      • Molecules
      • Organelles
      • Cells – life starts here
      • Tissues
      • Organs
      • System
      • Organism
      copyright cmassengale
    • Levels
      • Population
      • Community
      • Ecosystem
      • Biosphere
      copyright cmassengale
    • copyright cmassengale
    • copyright cmassengale