Chapter 11  GENE EXPRESSION
Gene Expression in Eukaryotes <ul><li>Gene expression – the activation of a gene that results in the formation of a gene <...
General Mechanisms <ul><li>1. Regulate Gene Expression </li></ul><ul><li>2. Regulate Enzyme Activity </li></ul>
Initiating Transcription
Operon Model <ul><li>Jacob and Monod (1961) - Prokaryotic model of gene control. </li></ul>
Operon Structure <ul><li>1. Regulatory Gene </li></ul><ul><li>2. Operon Area  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Promoter  </li></ul...
Regulatory Gene <ul><li>Makes  Repressor Protein  which may bind to the operator. </li></ul>
Promoter <ul><li>Attachment sequence on the DNA for RNA polymerase. </li></ul>
Operator <ul><li>The &quot;Switch”, binding site for Repressor Protein. </li></ul><ul><li>If blocked, will not permit RNA ...
 
Structural Genes <ul><li>Make the enzymes for the metabolic pathway. </li></ul>
Lac Operon <ul><li>For digesting Lactose. </li></ul><ul><li>Inducible Operon - only works (on) when the substrate (lactose...
If  no  Lactose <ul><li>Repressor binds to operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Operon  is &quot;off”,  no transcription,  no enzym...
If Lactose is absent
If Lactose  is present <ul><li>Repressor binds to Lactose instead of operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Operon is &quot;on”,  tra...
If Lactose is present
Enzymes  <ul><li>Digest Lactose.  </li></ul><ul><li>When enough Lactose is digested, the Repressor can bind to the operato...
Net Result <ul><li>The cell  only  makes the Lactose digestive enzymes when the substrate is  present , saving time and en...
Repressible Operons <ul><li>Are examples of Feedback Inhibition. </li></ul><ul><li>Result - keeps the substrate at a const...
CELL DIFFERENTIATION <ul><li>Development of specialized cells </li></ul><ul><li>Homeotic Genes – determine where certain a...
Gene Expression  and Cancer <ul><li>Cancer - loss of the genetic control of cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance betwe...
 
Proto-oncogenes <ul><li>Normal genes for cell growth and cell division factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic changes may turn...
Proto-oncogenes
Tumor-Suppressor Genes <ul><li>Genes that inhibit cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex - p53, p21 </li></ul>
Cancer Examples <ul><li>p53 - involved with several DNA repair genes and “checking” genes. </li></ul><ul><li>When damaged ...
Carcinogens <ul><li>Agents that cause cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex:  radiation, chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Most work by a...
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Ch 11 gene expression lecture presentation

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  • During development, gene expression must be carefully regulated to ensure that the right genes are expressed only at the correct time and in the correct place. Gene expression in eukaryotes and bacteria is often regulated at the transcription stage. Control of other levels of gene expression is also important. RNA molecules play many roles in regulating eukaryotic gene expressions.
  • When the repressor binds to the operator in blocks the transcription of RNA The trp repressor is the product of a regulatory gene called trpR , which is located at some distance from the operon it controls and has its own promoter. Regulatory genes are transcribed continuously at slow rates, and a few trp repressor molecules are always present in an E. coli cell.
  • By itself, an operon is turned on. RNA polymerase can bind to the promoter and transcribe the genes
  • When an E. coli cell must make tryptophan for itself, all the enzymes are synthesized at one time. The switch is a segment of DNA called an operator. The operator, located between the promoter and the enzyme-coding genes, controls the access of RNA polymerase to the genes.
  • Purple is the DNA which transcribes to make the wiggly line mRNA which translates to make the repressor protein in red which is active. It then binds to the operator so that RNA polymerase can’t bind to the operator and no DNA past the promoter will be transcribed. If the repressor is bonud it becomes inactive, not binding to the operator, and allowing transcription to take place to produce enzymes to break down the substance that bound to the repressor in the first place.
  • Natural selection favors bacteria that express only those genes whose products are needed by the cell. A bacterium in a tryptophan-rich environment that stops producing tryptophan conserves its resources.
  • When lactose is absent, the repressor is active, and the operon is off (operon = promoter, operator, and structural genes). The lac repressor is active on its own, and in the absence of lactose it switches off the operon by binding to the operator.
  • When lactose is present, allolactose (an isomer of lactose) binds to the repressor making it inactive which allows the operon to be on so the enzymes for lactose utilization are induced.
  • The ancient bacteria that could do this had an evolutionary advantage over those that couldn’t.
  • The trp operon is an example of a repressible operon, one that is inhibited when a specific small molecule (tryptophan) binds allosterically to a regulatory protein.
  • Ch 11 gene expression lecture presentation

    1. 1. Chapter 11 GENE EXPRESSION
    2. 2. Gene Expression in Eukaryotes <ul><li>Gene expression – the activation of a gene that results in the formation of a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription causes expression </li></ul><ul><li>Important for cellular control and differentiation. </li></ul>
    3. 3. General Mechanisms <ul><li>1. Regulate Gene Expression </li></ul><ul><li>2. Regulate Enzyme Activity </li></ul>
    4. 4. Initiating Transcription
    5. 5. Operon Model <ul><li>Jacob and Monod (1961) - Prokaryotic model of gene control. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Operon Structure <ul><li>1. Regulatory Gene </li></ul><ul><li>2. Operon Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Promoter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Operator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Structural Genes </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Regulatory Gene <ul><li>Makes Repressor Protein which may bind to the operator. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Promoter <ul><li>Attachment sequence on the DNA for RNA polymerase. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Operator <ul><li>The &quot;Switch”, binding site for Repressor Protein. </li></ul><ul><li>If blocked, will not permit RNA polymerase to pass, preventing transcription. </li></ul>
    10. 11. Structural Genes <ul><li>Make the enzymes for the metabolic pathway. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Lac Operon <ul><li>For digesting Lactose. </li></ul><ul><li>Inducible Operon - only works (on) when the substrate (lactose) is present. </li></ul>
    12. 13. If no Lactose <ul><li>Repressor binds to operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Operon is &quot;off”, no transcription, no enzymes made </li></ul>
    13. 14. If Lactose is absent
    14. 15. If Lactose is present <ul><li>Repressor binds to Lactose instead of operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Operon is &quot;on”, transcription occurs, enzymes are made. </li></ul>
    15. 16. If Lactose is present
    16. 17. Enzymes <ul><li>Digest Lactose. </li></ul><ul><li>When enough Lactose is digested, the Repressor can bind to the operator and switch the Operon &quot;off”. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Net Result <ul><li>The cell only makes the Lactose digestive enzymes when the substrate is present , saving time and energy. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Repressible Operons <ul><li>Are examples of Feedback Inhibition. </li></ul><ul><li>Result - keeps the substrate at a constant level. </li></ul>
    19. 20. CELL DIFFERENTIATION <ul><li>Development of specialized cells </li></ul><ul><li>Homeotic Genes – determine where certain anatomical structures such as appendages will occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex HOX genes –control position front/back/top/bottom </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Gene Expression and Cancer <ul><li>Cancer - loss of the genetic control of cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between growth-stimulating pathway (accelerator) and growth-inhibiting pathway (brakes). </li></ul>
    21. 23. Proto-oncogenes <ul><li>Normal genes for cell growth and cell division factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic changes may turn them into oncogenes (cancer genes). </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Gene Amplification, Translocations, Transpositions, Point Mutations </li></ul>
    22. 24. Proto-oncogenes
    23. 25. Tumor-Suppressor Genes <ul><li>Genes that inhibit cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex - p53, p21 </li></ul>
    24. 26. Cancer Examples <ul><li>p53 - involved with several DNA repair genes and “checking” genes. </li></ul><ul><li>When damaged (e.g. cigarette smoke), can’t inhibit cell division or cause damaged cells to apoptose. </li></ul>
    25. 27. Carcinogens <ul><li>Agents that cause cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: radiation, chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Most work by altering the DNA, or interfering with control or repair mechanisms. </li></ul>
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