Beforethe first Europeans arrived, thereweretwotribes in South Africa: the San and theKhoi-khoi. The Dutch etablished a colonyhere in 1652. By the 18th centurytherewere 15000 Dutch settlers. Theywereknown as Boers or Afrikaaners. Theyspoke a Dutch dialectknown as Afrikaans.
Great Britain wasalsointerested in this part ofAfrica. The British Armyarrivedhere in 1815 togetherwith 5000 immigrants. Theyestablishedthe republic of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The discoveryofdiamonds in 1867 led to a warbetweenthe British and the Boers. The warlasted from 1899 to 1902.
The word apartheid meansseparation. This wasthenameofracialsegregation in South Africa from 1848 to 1989. Blacks and whites did not have the same rights. Theyhad separate education and health care. Theyhadalso separate entrances to shops and public buildings.
The authoritiesmadeabout 1,5 million blacks move from cities to rural townships. The land waspoor and therewere not enough jobs. Blacks had to show a passport to og intothe white area. If theydidn,ttheywerearrested and punished.
Nelson Madelawasthe leader of a black resistancemovementcalledtheAfrican National Congress ( ANC ). The authoritiesbannedthe ANC. In 1964 theysentenced Mandela to life imprisonment. The UN thereforeimposedsanctions on South Africa.
Afteryearsofinternationalpressure, Nelson Mandela wassetfree in 1989. He decided to worktogetherwith President de Klerk to build a multiracialdemocracy in South Africa. Theyreceivedthe Nobel Peace Price for this in 1993. Mandela and the ANC then won the 1994 elections. Mandela became president ofthenew Republic of South Africa