Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Behavioral vs. cognitive views  of learning
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Behavioral vs. cognitive views of learning

16,451

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
16,451
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
96
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Behavioral vs. Cognitive Views of LearningThese traditions in learning theory have existed for decades.They give different answers to the fundamental question,“What is learned” when learning takes place? Behaviorists say: Cognitivists say: “Specific actions” “Mental representations” For example, in a “Skinner Box”, a rat may receive a food reward every time he presses the bar. He presses faster and faster. What has he learned?
  • 2. Behavioral vs. Cognitive Views of LearningThese traditions in learning theory have existed for decades.They give different answers to the fundamental question,“What is learned” when learning takes place? Behaviorists say: Cognitivists say: “to press the bar.” “that pressing produces food.” For example, in a “Skinner Box”, a rat may receive a food reward every time he presses the bar. He presses faster and faster. What has he learned?
  • 3. Behavioral vs. Cognitive Views of Learning Behaviorism (“learns to”)1. Learning involves the formation of associations betweenspecific actions and specific events (stimuli) in theenvironment. These stimuli may either precede or follow theaction (antecedents vs. consequences).2. Many behaviorists use intervening variables to explainbehavior (e.g., habit, drive) but avoid references to mentalstates.3. RADICAL BEHAVIORISM (operant conditioning/behaviormodification/behavior analysis): avoids any interveningvariables and focuses on descriptions of relationshipsbetween behavior and environment (“functional analysis”).
  • 4. Behavioral vs. Cognitive Views of Learning Cognitivism (“learns that”)1. Learning takes place in the mind, not in behavior. Itinvolves the formation of mental representations of theelements of a task and the discovery of how these elementsare related.2. Behavior is used to make inferences about mental statesbut is not of interest in itself (“methodological behaviorism”).3. EXAMPLE: Tolman & Honzik’s experiment on latentlearning. Tolman, a pioneer of cognitive psychology, arguedthat when rats practice mazes, they acquire a “cognitive map”of the layout—mental representations of the landmarks andtheir spatial relationships.
  • 5. Response Vs. Place Learning (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) Start 2This maze had no walls orroof so that rats could see“landmarks” in the room suchas a window, door, or lamp.On a random half of the trials,the rats started from Start Goal 2 Goal 1Box 1, and on the other halfthey started from Start Box 2. Start 1GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1.GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when theystarted from Start Box 1 but received food inGoal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.
  • 6. Response Vs. Place Learning (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) Start 2Cognitive theory predictedthat GROUP P would learnfaster because they only hadto learn one cognitive map.Behavior theory predictedGROUP R would learn faster Goal 2 Goal 1because they only had tolearn one sequence ofmovements at the choicepoint—a right turn. Start 1GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1.GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when theystarted from Start Box 1 but received food inGoal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.
  • 7. Response Vs. Place Learning (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) Start 2 What’s YOUR prediction?Are you a behaviorist or a cognitivist? GROUP GROUP P R Goal 2 Goal 1 Start 1 GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.
  • 8. Response Vs. Place Learning (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) Start 2 What’s YOUR prediction? Are you a behaviorist or a cognitivist? GROUP GROUP P RGroup P learnedfaster. But Goal 2 Goal 1 Later studies found that if the maze had a roof so the rats couldn’t see things in the room, response learning was faster. Start 1 GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.
  • 9. Response Vs. Place Learning (Tolman, Ritchie & Kalish, 1946) Start 2 What’s YOUR prediction? Are you a behaviorist or a cognitivist? GROUP GROUP P RGroup P learnedfaster. Goal 2 Goal 1 Both response and place learning occur. Which type is faster depends on what cues are available. So both the cognitive and behavioral views turned out to be right! Start 1 GROUP P always found food in Goal Box 1. GROUP R found food in Goal Box 1 when they started from Start Box 1 but received food in Goal Box 2 when they started from Start Box 2.

×