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ccna summer training ppt ( Cisco certified network analysis) ppt.  by Traun khaneja (09034406598)
 

ccna summer training ppt ( Cisco certified network analysis) ppt. by Traun khaneja (09034406598)

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ccna summer training ppt ( Cisco certified network analysis) ppt. by Traun khaneja (09034406598)

ccna summer training ppt ( Cisco certified network analysis) ppt. by Traun khaneja (09034406598)

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    ccna summer training ppt ( Cisco certified network analysis) ppt.  by Traun khaneja (09034406598) ccna summer training ppt ( Cisco certified network analysis) ppt. by Traun khaneja (09034406598) Presentation Transcript

    • TRAINED BY –Ravinder kumar (Gurukul Technical Institute) SUBMITTED BY –Tarun Khaneja ROLL NO. -2110045 contact no. - 09034406598 PRESENTATION ON CCNA
    • INTRODUCTION  CCNA stands for Cisco Certified Network Associate  It gives the information about networking ,its types and its application .  Networking is very important as it provides communication.  It is also very useful as it helps in resource sharing.  Thus , overall it is a cost saving technique.
    • TYPES OF NETWORKING  LAN – It stands for local area network. Eg: network within a campus .  MAN – It stands for metropolitan area network. Eg: network connecting various cities.  WAN – It stands for wide area network. Eg : internet on a whole world.
    • Networking Devices LAN card BRIDGE HUB SWITCH ROUTER
    • Subnetting and Supernetting About subnetting & Supernetting In subnetting, a network is divided into several smaller subnetwork with each subnetwork(or subnet) having its own subnetwork address. In supernetting, an organization can combine several class C addresses to create a larger range of addresses(supernetwork). SUBNETTING Class A, B, C in IP addressing are designed with two levels of hierarchy. The organization has two-level hierarchical addressing, but it cannot have more than one physical network./ The host cannot be organized into groups, and all of the hosts are at the same level./ The organization has one network with many hosts. One solution to this problem is subnetting, the further division of a network into smaller networks called subnetworks.
    • EXAMPLE OF SUBNETTING ( Example / Class A) An organization with a class A address at least 1,000 subnetworks. Find the subnet mask and configuration of each subnetwork. (Solution) 1. There is a need for at least 1,000 subnetworks.(we need at least 1,002 subnetworks to allow for the all-1s and all-0s subnetids) 2. This means that the minimum number of bits to be allocated for subnetting should be 10, (29 < 1,002 < 210). 3. 14 bits are left to define the hostids. Subnet mask (11000000 = 192).
    • Range of addresses
    • Subnetworks in example
    • Classless Interdomain Routing(CIDR) Supernetting means assigning a set of class C addresses to an organization that needs more than 254 host addresses. However , when these class C addresses are entered into the routing table, each occupies one entry in the routing table./ 256 entries in the routing table. The classless interdomain routing(CIDR) technique is devised to reduce the number of routing table entries. In this technique, instead of entering each single class C address with its corresponding default mask(255.255.255.0), the router can use the supernet mask and the lowest network address in the group.
    • CIDR
    • Hubs vs. switches Hubs – less expensive, used in a very small LAN where low throughput is OK Switches – segments collision domains, interconnects network segments, more expensive, but performance makes it cost effective.
    • It is a layer 3 or network layer device. In this there is no broadcast. It is WAN technology device. It is useful to connect different networks. Packet filtering & it finds the best path selection. ROUTERS
    • Router Configuration  Router always has two configurations:  Running configuration  In RAM, determines how the router is currently operating  Is modified using the configure command  To see it: show running-config  Startup confguration  In NVRAM, determines how the router will operate after next reload  Is modified using the copy command  To see it: show startup-config
    • Router Access Modes  User EXEC mode - limited examination of router – Router>  Privileged EXEC mode - detailed examination of router, debugging, testing, file manipulation – Router#  ROM Monitor - useful for password recovery & new IOS upload session  Setup Mode – available when router has no startup- config file
    • Logging Into The Router  Connect router to console port or telnet to router – router> – router>enable – password – router# – router#?  Configuring the router – Terminal (entering the commands directly) – router# configure terminal – router(config)# USER MODE PROMPT PRIVILEDGED MODE PROMPT
    • Deleting Your router’s Configuration To delete your router’s configuration  Router#erase startup-config OR  Router#write erase  Router#reload  Router will startup again, but in setup mode, since startup-config file does not exists
    • ROUTING Routing is the exchange of routes between different networks . There are three types of routing: 1. Default routing 2. Static routing 3. Dynamic routing
    •  A routing protocol is the communication used between routers.  A routing protocol allows one router to share information with other routers.  The information a router gets from another router, using a routing protocol, is used to build & maintain a routing table. Examples of routing protocols: 1. RIP [ROUTING INFORMATION PROTOCOL] 2. EIGRP[ENHANCED INTERIOR GATEWAY ROUTING PROTOCOL] 3. OSPF[OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST] DYNAMIC ROUTING
    • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) • RIP is a distance vector routing protocol • Hop count is used as the metric for path selection • If the hop count is greater than 15, the packet will be discarded • By default, routing updates are broadcast every 30 seconds • RIP has evolved over the years from a Classful Routing Protocol, RIP Version 1 (RIP v1), to a Classless Routing Protocol, RIP Version 2 (RIP v2). • Configuring RIP Router(config)#router rip
    • Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) • Really just an enhanced version of IGRP • A Cisco proprietary routing protocol • Called a hybrid protocol, but really just an advanced distance vector protocol. • Fast convergence • Variable length subnet masks • Partial updates - only when the metric for a route changes (bounded updates) • Multiple network layer support - IP, IPX, and AppleTalk • A router running EIGRP stores all its neighbor’s routing tables so that it can quickly adapt or alternate routes.
    • Features of EIGRP  Classless Routing Protocol (VLSM, CIDR)  Faster convergence times and improved scalability  Multiprotocol support: TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, Appletalk – There is no IPX/SPX or Appletalk in CCNA or CCNP  Rapid Convergence and Better handling of routing loops – (DUAL)  Efficient Use of Bandwidth – Partial, bounded updates: Incremental updates only to the routers that need them. – Minimal bandwidth consumption: Hello packets and by default uses no more that 50% of link’s bandwidth EIGRP packets.  PDM (Protocol Dependent Module) – Keeps EIGRP modular – Different PDMs can be added to EIGRP as new routed protocols are enhanced or developed: IPv4, IPv6, IPX, and AppleTalk
    • OSPF  Open Shortest Path First  Dynamic IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)  Use within your own network  Link state algorithm Shortest Path First A B C D 15 3 4 4 7
    • WhaT IS ACL? Routers provide basic traffic filtering capabilities, such as blocking Internet traffic, with access control lists (ACLs). An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny statements that apply to addresses or upper-layer protocols. This module will introduce standard and extended ACLs as a means to control network traffic, and how ACLs are used as part of a security solution.
    • VLAN • VLAN stands for virtual local area network. • Devices on different VLAN must have a router to communicate with each other. • If devices are on the same VLAN, then they can communicate through a switch.
    • INTER VLAN ROUTING  A VLAN is a broadcast domain and unique ip subnet  Switches operate at layer2 (Data link Layer)  VLANS cannot communicate without L3 (Network Layer)  The L3 communication is called inter- vlan routing  Inter-vlan routing is a process of forwarding network traffic from one vlan to another using a router  The Subnets of your network facilitate the routing process.  Router interfaces can be connected to separate vlans.  Devices on vlans send traffic through the router(L3) to other vlans.
    • How to configure EIGRP with RIP on same network In this article we will discuss how can two routing protocols exist in same network? We have discussed basic of both EIGRP and RIP in our previous article. Now we will go in more depth by including both RIP and EIGRP in same network. Scenario You are the administrator at abc.com. Company network is given below
    • R0 Port IP address Connected to F0/0 80.0.0.1 R1 F0/1 F1/0 90.0.0.1 R2 F0/1 F1/1 100.0.0.1 R3 F0/1 R1 Port IP address Connected to F0/0.10 10.0.0.1 S1 F0/24 F0/0.20 20.0.0.1 S1 F0/24 F0/1 80.0.0.2 R0 F0/0 S0/0/0 30.0.0.1 R2 S0/0
    • R2 Port IP address Connected to F0/1 90.0.0.2 R0 F1/0 S0/0 30.0.0.2 R1 S0/0/0 F0/0 40.0.0.1 WR1 0/1 S0/1 50.0.0.1 R3 S0/0/1 R3 Port IP address Connected to F0/1 100.0.0.2 R0 F1/1 S0/0/1 50.0.0.2 R2 S0/1 F0/0.60 60.0.0.1 S1 G0/1 F0/0.70 70.0.0.1 S1 G0/1
    • Configuration of R0 First we will configure R0. To configure double click on R0 select CLI and configure it as given below To configure and enable RIP as backup routing on R0 follow these commands exactly. R0>enable R0#sh ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 80.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet1/0 90.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet1/1 100.0.0.1 YES manual up up R0#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R0(config)#router rip R0(config-router)#network 80.0.0.0 R0(config-router)#network 90.0.0.0 R0(config-router)#network 100.0.0.0 R0(config-router)#exit R0(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console R0#copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration... [OK] R0# We need not to configure EIGRP on it as its only going to be a backup route
    • Configuration of R1 Now configure R1. On R1 we need to configure both RIP and EIGRP. RIP for backup and EIGRP for main route. R1>enable R1#show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 unassigned YES manual up up FastEthernet0/0.10 10.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet0/0.20 20.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet0/1 80.0.0.2 YES manual up up Serial0/0/0 30.0.0.1 YES manual up up Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down Vlan1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down R1#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
    • R1(config)#router rip R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 30.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 80.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#exit R1(config)#router eigrp 1 R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#network 30.0.0.0 R1(config-router)#exit R1(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console R1#copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? Building configuration... [OK] R1#
    • Configuration of R2 To configure and enable eigrp with rip routing on R2 follow these commands exactly. Router>enable R2#show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 40.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet0/1 90.0.0.2 YES manual up up Serial0/0 30.0.0.2 YES manual up up Serial0/1 50.0.0.1 YES manual up up R2#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R2(config)#router rip R2(config-router)#network 30.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 40.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 50.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 90.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#exit R2(config)#router eigrp 1 R2(config-router)#network 30.0.0.0 R2(config-router)# R2(config-router)#network 40.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#network 50.0.0.0 R2(config-router)#exit R2(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console R2#
    • Configuration of R3 To configure and enable eigrp with rip routing on R3 follow these commands exactly. Router>enable R3#show ip interface brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 unassigned YES manual up up FastEthernet0/0.60 60.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet0/0.70 70.0.0.1 YES manual up up FastEthernet0/1 100.0.0.2 YES manual up up Serial0/0/0 unassigned YES manual administratively down down Serial0/0/1 50.0.0.2 YES manual up up Vlan1 unassigned YES manual administratively down down R3#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R3(config)#router rip R3(config-router)#network 50.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#network 60.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#network 70.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#network 100.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#exit R3(config)#router eigrp 1 R3(config-router)#network 50.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#network R3(config-router)#network 60.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#network 70.0.0.0 R3(config-router)#exit R3(config)#exit %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console R3#
    • Testing of EIGRP with RIP Now we have configured both RIP and EIGRP in this network. To test this network double click on PC-PT PC0 and select command prompt tracert 70.0.0.3