Wright Gts2005


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(c) Lloyd Wright, GTZ Senior Advisor

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Wright Gts2005

  1. 1. Sustainable urban transport Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright, GTZ Senior Advisor
  2. 2. The transport paradox “Transport is unique as the only development sector that worsens as incomes rise. While sanitation, health, education and employment tend to improve through economic development, traffic congestion tends to worsen.” Lloyd Wright
  3. 3. What type of city do we want? Lloyd Wright Alex MacLean Parking lots in central Houston (USA) Car-free area in Tokyo (Japan) Land use and transport decisions say much about what type of city we want
  4. 4. GTZ’s Sustainable Urban Transport Project GTZ’s SUTP web page GTZ’s Sustainable www.sutp.org Transport Sourcebook
  5. 5. Part I: The trends Vehicle ownership and usage 3,000 Millions of passenger 2,500 2,000 vehicles Non-OECD 1,500 OECD 1,000 500 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Year Source: IEA/SMP, 2004 Today, there are 982 million motorised vehicles in the world. By 2050, there will be 2.6 billion.
  6. 6. The race is on towards motorisation
  7. 7. Air contaminants Seven of the world’s ten most polluted cities are in Asia: Bangkok Beijing Delhi Jakarta Katmandu Manila Mumbai Swiss Contact Source: WRI/WHO Residents risk lung infections, heart disease, and premature death
  8. 8. Obesity and health in Asia The WHO estimates that Asian countries are about 1 decade between North America in terms of obesity Study of Beijing residents 32% suffer from coronary heart disease, hypertension, or obesity 47% rarely or never undertook exercise 18% of secondary school students qualify as “obese” Source: Beijing Centre for Disease Control and Prevention
  9. 9. Induced traffic Expanding roadways to accommodate traffic is a bit like combatting obesity by buying larger pants
  10. 10. Jakarta: Budget priorities Swiss Contact From 1990 through 1998 the city of Jakarta directed 88% of its urban transport budget to roads even though only 12% of the population had access to private motorised vehicles. Source: Cervero, 2002
  11. 11. Bangkok developed an extensive roadway network, but road construction could not keep up with demand. Road building is an expensive way of dealing with travel demand. Karl Fjellstrom
  12. 12. Density and urban form Amount of land required for the same population size Source: Sievert 1997, p. 25
  13. 13. Efficient use of urban space The amount of space required to transport the 60 persons by different modes
  14. 14. Developing-city footpaths Michael King Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Mexico City Johannesburg Bangkok Buenos Aires Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Bucharest Kuala Lumpur Jaipur Vientiane
  15. 15. Pedestrian conditions Lloyd Wright Obstructed footbridges Karl Fjellstrom Lloyd Wright Motorcycles driving on footpaths Lack of crossings
  16. 16. Part II. Sustainable solutions Bogotá Curitiba Copenhagen Freiburg Portland Seoul Singapore All of these successes featured an integrated and packaged approach: 1. High-quality public transport 2. Improved conditions for walking and bicycling 3. Effective integration of modes 4. Supportive land-use policies 5. Car-restriction measures
  17. 17. Bus Rapid Transit Trams US$ 5 – 15 million / km BRT is an attempt to achieve a metro-level of transit quality using Light rail bus technology US$ 12 – 30 million / km Urban rail US$ 25 – 50 million / km Metro Bus Rapid Transit US$ 50 million – 320 million / km US$ 0.5 - 10 million / km Lloyd Wright
  18. 18. Systems at the same cost How much transit does Bt 43 billion (US$ 1 billion) buy? 426 kilometres of BRT 14 kilometres of elevated rail (BTS) 7 kilometres of subway (MRTA)
  19. 19. Bus rapid transit (BRT) Kangming Xu Taipei, Taiwan Beijing, China Nagoya, Japan Seoul, South Korea Rouen, France Brisbane, Australia
  20. 20. Bogota, Colombia Bogotá’s TransMilenio BRT system provides high- quality transit in a mega- city A single corridor on TransMilenio moves over 42,000 passengers per hour per direction TransMilenio SA
  21. 21. Jakarta, Indonesia ITDP Initial corridor of 12.9 km completed in January 2004 Other corridors under construction ITDP
  22. 22. Bangkok’s BRT vision
  23. 23. What do customers want? Low cost Rapid journey Convenience Comfort Frequent service Safety Security Customer service Public transport should be designed around the customer and not around a technology
  24. 24. Quality public space Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Loose chairs, benches, pavement tiles, signage, water, art, lighting, and vegetation Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright
  25. 25. High-quality pedestrian infrastructure Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Singapore’s Boat Quay Osaka’s Dotomburi Lloyd Wright Tokyo’s Shinjuku Hong Kong
  26. 26. Covered walkways / grade-separated walkways Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright
  27. 27. Bicycle infrastructure Lloyd Wright Cycle ways, parking facilities, signage, dedicated traffic signals Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright
  28. 28. High-technology bicycle taxis The zero emission option for public transport Lloyd Wright Lloyd Wright Berlin Nagoya New York Tokyo Velo Taxi ITDP Paris Tokyo Agra
  29. 29. Reclaiming public space 1 Cities that have destroyed roadways San Francisco Milwaukee New York Portland Toronto Seoul
  30. 30. Seoul, South Korea SDI SDI Before After Seoul’s Cheonggyecheon restoration project
  31. 31. Part III. Conclusions Transport is not a technical problem, It is not an infrastructure problem It is not even a financial problem, Most often, it is a political problem. Lloyd Wright
  32. 32. Paying for mistakes Cities in OECD nations are often spending large amounts of money to achieve what most Asian cities already have: Higher mode shares of walking, bicycling, and/or public transport Lloyd Wright “And the end of all our exploring, Will be to arrive where we started, And know the place for the first time” - TS Eliot, Poet
  33. 33. Divergent paths Many developing Asian cities are trying to replicate what OECD nations are trying to correct: Rampant motorisation and expensive road networks “Experience is the ability to recognise a mistake when you make it again”
  34. 34. Leadership World’s best systems Enrique Penalosa were developed with Former mayor of Bogota high levels of political support With strong political will, anything is possible Lee Myung-bak Mayor of Seoul Jaime Lerner Former mayor of Curitiba
  35. 35. Thank you www.sutp.org sutp@sutp.org