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David Carr Human Factors Consultant BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre “How To An Eat Elephant”: Integrating the human...
Where I work Farnborough Portsmouth Bristol Glasgow Chelmsford Advanced Technology Centre Human Factors Locations BAE Syst...
The problem of Human Factors Influence <ul><li>Warships are complex products… </li></ul><ul><li>… with complex interaction...
The Anatomy of a Warship etc. Machinery Rooms Bridge Zonal Damage Control positions Weapons Helicopter Hangar Flight Deck ...
The Human System <ul><li>The crew needs to be ‘designed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Crew design and ship design are interdependent ...
Components of the human system <ul><li>Intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Can handle complex inform...
Human variability Bao Xishun  – 2.36m He Pingping  – 0.73m Both from Inner Mongolia (PRC)
Variations between and within populations 1.56m 1.87m 1.54m 1.85m
Design range for merchant ships 1.536m 1.90m
What happens when designers don’t allow for variability
Embarked Forces’ Assembly Area, HMS Fearless
System interactions <ul><li>No single design owner for a workspace </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple dependencies on other discip...
Poor human-systems integration
Supply Office ~ 1.6m
Organisational Complexity <ul><li>Human Factors needs to influence several organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability fr...
Where to begin?
The best way to eat an elephant? One piece at a time!
Go back to first principles <ul><li>Specify system functionality.  What do we want the ship to do?  </li></ul><ul><li>Iden...
Task Analysis:  What are all the bits for? WTB 158 WTB 107 WTB 69 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 <ul><li>Aft Machinery Space </li></...
Challenges from Project Organisations <ul><li>Ships and ship systems assembled from bought-in components </li></ul><ul><li...
System Designers and Human Factors Smile patiently and explain Offer support.  Check up on them from time to time Let them...
How to get a toe-hold <ul><li>Hearts and Minds </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li...
The impact of Off-the-Shelf components on the user interface
Which components matter? Task Analysis Safety Related? Performance Critical? Frequently used? Components User Interface? E...
How “Usability Mature” are suppliers? <ul><li>Is your component suitable? </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a valve.  What more do yo...
Human Factors influence must be continuous Big numbers   Clear Dial   Familiar format   ?
Human Factors influence must be continuous <ul><li>From functional specification </li></ul><ul><li>Through procurement </l...
Detailed Example: Type 45 Destroyer Ship Control Centre Daring Class Air Defence Destroyer 7350 Tonnes Length, 152.4 m Bea...
What is a Ship Control Centre (SCC)? <ul><li>The main compartment for operation of the ‘Platform Management System’ (PMS) ...
The Internal Battle
Previous RN ship technology <ul><li>Hardwired from equipment to control rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Limited automation: still ...
The Conventional Ship Control Centre <ul><li>Layout dictated by bulky, hardwired panels </li></ul><ul><li>Panels are again...
Type 45 Technology <ul><li>Software based </li></ul><ul><li>More automation and more signals </li></ul><ul><li>LAN distrib...
WTB 158 WTB 107 WTB 69 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 PMS Operating Points
New technology, old thinking
The User-Centred Approach <ul><li>ISO 13407 standard approach to user-centred design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-disciplin...
Interdependent design issues HCI Software Console Operator Team Ship Compartment  Layout Control Locations
Type 45  Team  Design Weapons Management Centre Ship Control Centre ANBCDO PM DCO SM Propulsion Supervisor WM WRM WSM Pict...
SCC Operator’s Console <ul><li>Multi-function 2-screen displays </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomically optimised </li></ul><ul><l...
The Type 45 ‘ Teamworking’  concept <ul><li>Consoles bring the functionality to the operators. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible ...
Ship Control Centre
Zone Control Post Fwd
 
LCD Monitor  Mounting brackets
I like elephants - but I could never eat a whole one.
Tack så mycket   Frågor? David Carr 0141 957 2173 [email_address]
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Chalmers Symposium

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Public symposium at Chalmers University Lighthouse, Gothenburg, Sweden, October 2007. Footage available at http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=6BF589E0325E7C3B

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  • This is what I call the “Radio Shack shop window display” Lots of different, incompatible equipment, not integrated into a proper User Interface. Most control rooms around the world are like this. It’s why we have Three Mile Islands and Chernobyls
  • The platform management system controls and monitors all of the non-weapons systems on the warship platform. Those systems provide many functions - power and propulsion, providing the services which run the weapons and sustain the crew and - very importantly - the systems which are used to recover after damage following attack. These aspects are known as the “Internal Battle” - as opposed to the external battle fought by the whole ship.
  • Here is an example of a sailor fighting the Internal Battle
  • In most current ships, equipment is controlled by old technology. Hardwire connections lead from the control room to the machinery plant Not much of the equipment is controlled remotely. Much of it is operated manually, by sailors in voice communication (possibly - but not always) with the control room. Damage Control teams are also coordinated by voice
  • DC
  • Technology is changing. Software-based Platform Management Systems allow much more remote control, surveillance and automation of much more equipment. Functionality can be distributed around the ship, by LAN (Local Area Network) There is potential flexibility to put any functionality, anywhere, at any time
  • To highlight the flexibility of the type 45 PMS – this view shows just some of the, over a 100, strategically sited points at which the Platform Management System can be accessed. These include: the 15 PMS workstations - in the Ship Control Centre, Weapon Management Centre, Zone Control Posts, the Ops Room &amp; the Bridge. Many of the main operating points have alternative positions. For example, there is an Alternative Ship Control Centre where the whole SCC/WMC team can evacuate to, and there are alternative positions for each of the four Zone Control Posts. In addition there’s over 120 plug-in points - all over the ship - where a laptop can be connected to give full PMS functionality – limited only by password protected log-on permissions.
  • Here’s how not to do it. Why waste the potential of the software-based system by simply mimicing the old layout? This was the first proposal before they invited a Human Factors Consultant to join the project.
  • So - how died we do this? Well, the fundamental principal of Human Factors is “User Centred Design”. I hope that everyone here is familiar with this concept, described in International Standard ISO 13407 As part of our development, we involved Royal Navy and ex-Royal Navy personnel. They advised us on the context of use. They also helped us to prototype design solutions
  • DC
  • It is also important to remember that the Whole system needs to be designed. The people and equipment work together. The Human Organisation is just as a subject for design as the technical PMS. I won’t describe the revised Internal Battle organisation in detail - just some significant points: Most importantly, we have for the first time brought the Weapons Engineers into the same team as the platform engineers. This allows them to work together on restoring services to priority weapons Flexible software has allowed a move away from operators operating individual equipment, and towards roles which manage priorities for various equipments, to meet Command priorities, communicated directly through PMS from the ship’s Operations Room Finally - on current ships, a lot of damage control information is collected through voice communications and recorded manually in the Ship Control Centre. We have given facilities which allow the damage to be monitored and controlled by personnel throughout the ship, closer to the point of damage It is our whole-systems approach which has allowed us to re-shape the organisation to take advantage of the technology.
  • Now, these images illustrate the various stages of the PMS console development. Human Factors expertise was used to determine: firstly, the best ergonomic console design and secondly the optimum ‘team-working’ layout. As you’ll see from these pictures, the team moved from ‘paper &amp; cardboard’ prototypes to full sized mock-ups – using CAD designs for support. In fact, the Ship Control Centre development was actually a ‘furniture moving’ exercise; with the PMS development team and the customers manipulating the main items of PMS equipment around a full size ‘mock-up’ facility, to find the best positions and optimum layout.
  • DC
  • And so to the hub of the PMS; the Ship Control Centre incorporating the Weapon Management Centre design - Shown here at full ‘state 1 manning’ For commercial and security reasons I can’t say too much about this slide. The main point I’d like to highlight here is the co-location, for the first time on a RN vessel, of the Weapons Management Team (here in the WMC on the inboard side) with the Engineering team (here in the SCC). As you’ll see, the majority of operators – certainly in the SCC – all ‘face each-other’ for that maximum primary communication that David referred to earlier. You’ll notice that - due mainly to lack of space - the WMC operators do not face each-other, as preferred. But, the main lines of communication have been catered for: This slide shows the DWEO in his seated position facing aft -away from his team - In reality he’ll be on his feet managing his weapons team and liaising with the MEO (here - POINT) He’ll only use this seated position in slow time. Also, the operator responsible for maintaining services to the weapons systems (here - POINT) sits next to the operator in charge of ship-wide services (here - POINT) - so although the WMC operators are not facing eachother, the lines of communication have been thought through.
  • Just to round things off, in this brief run through the type 45 PMS, here’s a zone control post (a ZCP). There are 4 of these posts – one in each of the ship’s damage control zones – and outside of the SCC these are the main PMS operating points – the other two being the Bridge and the Ops Room. This is actually ZCP 1 - and I’d like to point out the console with all required communication devices and reversionary panels - the Fire &amp; Flood panel for example - within easy reach. The ZCPs also feature a separate briefing screen so one operator can be updating the PMS with Damage info while the officer in charge briefs the various associated mobile repair parties.
  • Transcript of "Chalmers Symposium"

    1. 1. David Carr Human Factors Consultant BAE Systems Advanced Technology Centre “How To An Eat Elephant”: Integrating the human component into large, complex ship designs.
    2. 2. Where I work Farnborough Portsmouth Bristol Glasgow Chelmsford Advanced Technology Centre Human Factors Locations BAE Systems, Scotstoun (formerly Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited)
    3. 3. The problem of Human Factors Influence <ul><li>Warships are complex products… </li></ul><ul><li>… with complex interactions between their parts… </li></ul><ul><li>… built by large, diverse organisations… </li></ul><ul><li>… under complex procurement arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors specialists are few… </li></ul><ul><li>… and some of them are simple souls. </li></ul>A very large ship A (relatively) small Human Factors specialist
    4. 4. The Anatomy of a Warship etc. Machinery Rooms Bridge Zonal Damage Control positions Weapons Helicopter Hangar Flight Deck Cabins Galleys, Messes Store Rooms RAS Points Enclosed mooring deck Tiller Flat Ops Room Combat System Network Platform Management System Ship Control Centre (Machinery Control, Damage Control HQ)
    5. 5. The Human System <ul><li>The crew needs to be ‘designed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Crew design and ship design are interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Crews have complex design characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crew size. How many people are needed to operate and maintain the ship? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable career paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The crew is outwith the scope of supply. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Components of the human system <ul><li>Intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>Can handle complex information </li></ul><ul><li>Good at fine manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Easily broken </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to get replacements </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t come with a manual or a guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>Has complex supply and servicing requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Low environmental tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Unreliable – especially under stressful conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Time Between Failures ≤ 1 day </li></ul><ul><li>Mean Time To Repair ≥ 12 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Variable quality </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t come in standard sizes </li></ul>
    7. 7. Human variability Bao Xishun – 2.36m He Pingping – 0.73m Both from Inner Mongolia (PRC)
    8. 8. Variations between and within populations 1.56m 1.87m 1.54m 1.85m
    9. 9. Design range for merchant ships 1.536m 1.90m
    10. 10. What happens when designers don’t allow for variability
    11. 11. Embarked Forces’ Assembly Area, HMS Fearless
    12. 12. System interactions <ul><li>No single design owner for a workspace </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple dependencies on other disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Potential conflicts with unrelated systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems routed through compartments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipwide constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build and upkeep aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for Human Factors? </li></ul>10V 240V HP Seawater HVAC Fresh Water spray Structures LAN Software Removal Route HP Seawater
    13. 13. Poor human-systems integration
    14. 14. Supply Office ~ 1.6m
    15. 15. Organisational Complexity <ul><li>Human Factors needs to influence several organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability from Equipment Requirements to User Requirements is via a long, complex route </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors requirements extend into outside organisations </li></ul>Prime Contractor Platform Combat System Propulsion Ship Build Support Capability Procurer (“Customer 1”) Naval User (“Customer 2”) Suppliers HF Sphere of interest for Human Factors
    16. 16. Where to begin?
    17. 17. The best way to eat an elephant? One piece at a time!
    18. 18. Go back to first principles <ul><li>Specify system functionality. What do we want the ship to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the critical areas for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think in terms of Human-Machine systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the physical attributes of the design back to the human capabilities they support. </li></ul><ul><li>Task Analysis is the key to design. </li></ul>“ Equip the man. Don’t man the equipment.” (United States Marine Corps)
    19. 19. Task Analysis: What are all the bits for? WTB 158 WTB 107 WTB 69 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 <ul><li>Aft Machinery Space </li></ul><ul><li>Regular short-duration access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overalls/ ear defenders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery repair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aft Machinery Space Access </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainers carrying toolboxes </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid access for 3-person firefighting teams </li></ul><ul><li>First aid/ Casualty evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Ship Control Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Harbourside - 1 watchkeeper </li></ul><ul><li>Admin/ Safety activities </li></ul><ul><li>Peacetime - 1 w/k + 1 mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Machinery Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Admin/ Safety Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Battle - 9 person team </li></ul><ul><li>Machinery control/ Repair coord. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage control coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons repair coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Cabins </li></ul><ul><li>Outfitted for quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Working space </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Personal storage space </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term comfort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low noise levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal comfort </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Challenges from Project Organisations <ul><li>Ships and ship systems assembled from bought-in components </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive procurement strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Cost driven </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors is but one of many competing constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Very large projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying levels of understanding of Human Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Human Factors resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional practices </li></ul><ul><li>Scepticism: Human Factors specialists don’t build anything! </li></ul>Human Factors = Defence against the dark arts
    21. 21. System Designers and Human Factors Smile patiently and explain Offer support. Check up on them from time to time Let them get on with it (and use them as an ally) Lean on them “ I’m an engineer. We don’t have to worry about that kind of thing.” “ Obviously we’ll need to do a Task Analysis before we design the system.” “ I’ll make sure all the machinery is accessible. But that’s just good engineering” “ Yes! The décor is very important. What colour should we paint the cabins?” No Yes No Yes Do they care about Human Factors Do they understand Human Factors properly?
    22. 22. How to get a toe-hold <ul><li>Hearts and Minds </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Carrot and Stick </li></ul><ul><li>Set task criteria as acceptance requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Require evidence of task identification </li></ul>Example of a Design Team information sheet
    23. 23. The impact of Off-the-Shelf components on the user interface
    24. 24. Which components matter? Task Analysis Safety Related? Performance Critical? Frequently used? Components User Interface? Evidence of usability? Accept Risk? Low Risk y y y y y n n n n n
    25. 25. How “Usability Mature” are suppliers? <ul><li>Is your component suitable? </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a valve. What more do you want? </li></ul><ul><li>We sell it to a lot of customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust us - we’re used to building these things. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s been used successfully for a similar purpose and our customers have told us they’re very happy with it. </li></ul><ul><li>All components meet the weight limits in the Manual Handling Regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve reviewed all the controls against ergonomics guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve involved users in the design and have carried out thorough usability evaluations. </li></ul><ul><li>Well…we think we’ve a fair idea that it’s suitable…but it would be best if we could work with you and your customer to makes sure that it works exactly the way you want it to. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Human Factors influence must be continuous Big numbers  Clear Dial  Familiar format  ?
    27. 27. Human Factors influence must be continuous <ul><li>From functional specification </li></ul><ul><li>Through procurement </li></ul><ul><li>To detailed fitting out </li></ul><ul><li>… and through life. </li></ul>LAN
    28. 28. Detailed Example: Type 45 Destroyer Ship Control Centre Daring Class Air Defence Destroyer 7350 Tonnes Length, 152.4 m Beam, 21.2m Draft, 5m Speed, 29+ knots Complement, 190 2 shaft integrated electric propulsion (gas turbine) Armaments: PAAMS missile system 4.5” gun Close-in weapons system Lynx helicopter
    29. 29. What is a Ship Control Centre (SCC)? <ul><li>The main compartment for operation of the ‘Platform Management System’ (PMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides control and surveillance of shipboard machinery for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propulsion and steering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and cooling to weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hotel” services (lighting, air conditioning, fresh water, sewage, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage Control systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighting water; CO2 and Foam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity (Ventilation; Flood control) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incident and Casualty management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Staffed by between 2 people (Peacetime Cruising) and 9 people (Action) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports “The Internal Battle” </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Internal Battle
    31. 31. Previous RN ship technology <ul><li>Hardwired from equipment to control rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Limited automation: still many manual operations </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled from one central location </li></ul><ul><li>Voice communications to other “outstations” </li></ul>Control Room
    32. 32. The Conventional Ship Control Centre <ul><li>Layout dictated by bulky, hardwired panels </li></ul><ul><li>Panels are against walls because of wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Good overview of all systems </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Operator roles fixed by where people stand and what they can reach </li></ul><ul><li>Operators face the panels! Difficult to work as a team. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Type 45 Technology <ul><li>Software based </li></ul><ul><li>More automation and more signals </li></ul><ul><li>LAN distribution throughout the ship </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of redundancy and flexibility </li></ul>
    34. 34. WTB 158 WTB 107 WTB 69 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 PMS Operating Points
    35. 35. New technology, old thinking
    36. 36. The User-Centred Approach <ul><li>ISO 13407 standard approach to user-centred design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-discipline team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User Involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterative, prototyping approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit allocation of functions </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Interdependent design issues HCI Software Console Operator Team Ship Compartment Layout Control Locations
    38. 38. Type 45 Team Design Weapons Management Centre Ship Control Centre ANBCDO PM DCO SM Propulsion Supervisor WM WRM WSM Picture Compiler Operations Room Command Command Advisor Assistant XO (Roving) Zone Control Posts (1-4) i/c ZCP Op Fire and Flood Repair Parties Fire and Flood Repair Parties Fire and Flood Repair Parties Fire and Flood Repair Parties Mobile Machinery Repair Party Weapons Repair Personnel Medical HQ First Aid Parties First Aid Parties First Aid Parties First Aid Parties
    39. 39. SCC Operator’s Console <ul><li>Multi-function 2-screen displays </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomically optimised </li></ul><ul><li>“ See over” by 5th percentile RN personnel promotes teamworking </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates stowage for lifejacket and BA </li></ul>
    40. 40. The Type 45 ‘ Teamworking’ concept <ul><li>Consoles bring the functionality to the operators. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible software allows functions to be allocated to meet changing operational demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Layout allows eye contact and verbal communication between team members. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Ship Control Centre
    42. 42. Zone Control Post Fwd
    43. 44. LCD Monitor Mounting brackets
    44. 45. I like elephants - but I could never eat a whole one.
    45. 46. Tack så mycket Frågor? David Carr 0141 957 2173 [email_address]
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