Agriculture Revolution in Pakistan
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Agriculture Revolution in Pakistan

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Agriculture Revolution in Pakistan with stage wise growth and development.

Agriculture Revolution in Pakistan with stage wise growth and development.

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  • 1. Agricultural Revolution in Pakistan Engr. Saima Khuhro BE (Electronics)& MS (Engineering Management), and Mr. Tariq Sarwar, Food Technologist, Nasir Flour Mills, Lahore, Chairman Research and Recommendations Wing, Pakistan Flour Mills Association
  • 2. Objectives • What is agriculture & agriculture in Pakistan? • • • • • The process of Agricultural Transformation. Agriculture & Economic Development Issues. Limitations for the Intervention in Industrialization Process. Strategies uplifting Agriculture and Economic Development. Biotechnology In Agriculture Of Pakistan Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 3. Agriculture & Agriculture in Pakistan ? • • • • Agriculture is processing and cultivation of plants and crops for food and other byproducts. Agriculture is the largest income and employment-generating sector of Pakistan’s economy. About two third of the population resides in rural areas and directly or indirectly depend on this sector for their livelihood as well as livestock. Cultivation of crops on arable land and the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at foundation of agriculture. Key words for that Agriculture allows the development of cities, nations, and ultimately industry and leisure. Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 4. • The % GDP on agriculture is shown below from 2007-2013 according to economic survey of Pakistan Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 5. • As compared to the World Bank data on Growth of Agriculture & GDP in 1970’s. Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 6. The Process of Agricultural Transformation From both historical and contemporary cross-section perspectives, the agricultural transformation seems to evolve through at least four phases that are roughly definable. 1. The process starts when agricultural productivity per worker rises. This increased productivity creates a surplus, 2. which in the second phase can be tapped directly, through taxation and factor flows, or indirectly, through government intervention into the ruralurban terms of trade developing the nonagricultural sector, and this phase has been the focus of most dual economy models of development, 3. which creates progressive integration of the agricultural sector into the macro economy, via improved infrastructure and market-equilibrium linkages, representing a third phase in agricultural development. 4. Finally, in the fourth phase the role of agriculture in industrialized economies is little different from the role of the steel, housing, or insurance sectors. Managing agricultural protection and its impact on world commodity markets thus provides a continuing focus for agricultural policy makers even when the agricultural transformation is "complete". Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 7. Agriculture & Economic Development Issues • The agricultural transformation raises two basic issues: the contribution or role of agriculture in economic development, and the conditions or factors that lead to the modernization of the agricultural sector itself. • The behavior of backward agricultural systems under the new planning context became a topic of much debate in the intervention of the industrialization process. Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 8. • • • • Limitations for the Intervention in Industrialization Process One unusual feature of the agricultural production function is the efficiency cost of separating labor and management. Knowing what the right inputs are, how to combine them, and how to tend the process is the major function of management. In owner-operated farming, this management skill is combined with the farm household's own labor power, which is also an important ingredient in growing crops. Several unique features of agricultural production functions contribute to the decision-intensity of farming, to the productivity of the family farm, and to the search for reasonably efficient substitutes for direct landownership where the family farm is not prevalent. Seasonality (Agriculture, labor and seeds), geographical dispersion (Fertile land and Irrigational facilities), and the role of risk (Agrimarket) and uncertainty Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan (Fertilizers or credit) are the most important. Food Technologist
  • 9. Strategies uplifting Agriculture and Economic Development • Though the World’s "new household economics" provides a powerful perspective on joint decision-making about food production, food consumption, investment in human capital, and even fertility and other demographic decisions but still on debate as the key issue is nearly always the functioning of rural labor markets because it determines the perception of the opportunity cost of labor in each household. The vision dies hard of agriculture as a resource reservoir to be tapped indiscriminately, without reinvestment or adverse consequences for growth, on behalf of the urban economy. Although a few countries have a record of sustained progress in agriculture and overall economic growth, the list is short. Only eight countries listed in the World Development Report, 1986 have growth rates for agricultural GDP of 3 percent per year or greater for both the 1965-73 and 1973-84 periods, along with growth rates for total GDP of 4 percent per year or greater for the same 2 periods: Kenya, Pakistan, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Philippines, Thailand, Brazil, and Mexico. Sri Lanka and Turkey came close; Malaysia would probably have been included had data been available for the earlier period. Because population growth in several of these countries is near or more than 3 percent per year, even these excellent aggregate performances leave the rate of growth per capita at levels that permit a doubling of incomes in a quarter of a century at best. It has obviously been difficult to find the right mix of policies to sustain agricultural growth. Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 10. Strategies uplifting Agriculture and Economic Development • • • • Technical change is the source of most growth in productivity in the long run, since continued investment in capital that embodies traditional technology very quickly somehow faces low marginal returns. But the scientific revolution in agriculture has made the discovery of technical innovations much more dependent on knowledge and capital investment involving primarily in developing hybrid seed technology, chemical technology (herbicides and insecticides), and agricultural machinery which is the Revolution in Biotechnology might change the concentration of agricultural research in the near future. Numerous small companies, many associated with faculty members of universities, are engaged in genetic manipulation of important agricultural crops and animal. In land-scarce environments facing rapid population growth and limited absorption of labor by industry, of course, raising output per hectare might be the only way to raise labor productivity than using Agricultural output per worker method involving technical change. The Various possibilities for changing land and labor productivities in agriculture are shown in the next slide. Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 11. Strategies uplifting Agriculture and Economic Development Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 12. Patterns of Change in Agricultural Productivity Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist
  • 13. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE of PAKISTAN • • It is widely accepted that the conventional breeding, widely used during the Green Revolution era, no longer offer any significant breakthroughs in the yield potentials and in providing solution to the complex problems of pests, diseases, and drought stress. The tools of modern biotechnology are precise and make development of new strains of improved crop and livestock more rapid [Asian Development Bank (2001)]. Agricultural Biotechnology R&D is suggested to focus areas of traditional biotechnology as well as modern biotechnology like genetic engineering and plant genomics. The techniques of modern biotechnology can be applied to diagnosis of pests, diseases, contaminants, and quality traits; micro-propagation to provide disease free plantlets of vegetative propagated species (that do not readily produce seed); generating genetic markers, maps, and genomic information in marker assisted selection and breeding; and in developing transgenic plants with higher yields, disease and pest resistance, tolerance of environmental stresses, and improved nutrition in crops. This part of the study provide short, medium and long terms Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan R&D projects in biotechnology. Food Technologist
  • 14. THANK YOU Best Wishes for Success Engineer Saima Khuhro BE (Electronics), MS(Engineering Management) with Kind Support of Mr. Tariq Sarwar, Food Technologist, CEO Nasir Flour Mills & Chairman Research and Recommendations Wing, Pakistan Flour Mills Association, Head Office, Lahore. Engr. Saima Khuhro / Tariq Sarwar Awan Food Technologist