Control of epidemics


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Control of epidemics

  1. 1. TAD Challenges and future prospective TAD control( Strengthening of Veterinary Services) Presented By Prof. Hassan Aidaros Prof. of Hygiene and Preventive MedicineOIE Representative for Egypt ( 2
  2. 2. • The increased movements of livestock , animal products and human play an important role in spreading Animal diseases.• A remarkable progress in trade in livestock and animal products through the last few decades.• A plane can transport human or animal products ( including pathogens)for several thousands kilometers in few hours
  3. 3. • The inter-relationships between agents causing disease, animal husbandry, human behavior and the environment are numerous and complex So the management of disease requires a holistic approach.• The “One health” approach is appropriate to address zoonoses as well as livestock diseases such as HPAI, FMD and other TADs which can have severe impacts on: - people livelihood, - access to local and national markets, - wildlife conservation, - Income of producers and availability of work - Food for the population
  4. 4. • The main responsibility for the control and prevention of diseases of livestock rests with animal health systems, which are underpinned by Veterinary Services (VS)• The VS is recognized as a global public goods
  5. 5. VS is a global public goods• TAD control, based on sound strategies and tools, generates “global public goods”. Where the disease is better controlled, the benefits will be shared across the society of the country as: - Consumers will benefit from greater stability and availability of livestock products, - Livestock owners will have fewer losses and greater market opportunities and - People working and running businesses in the livestock sector will have more reliable source of product of better quality.
  6. 6. VS is a global public goods• For countries that share borders and trading systems there will be benefits for both.• In general it is important to recognize that these benefits will also be available for future generations.• Conversely, a country that fails to control TADs may negatively impact on its neighbors and possibly also those countries with which it trades.• That is the “global public goods”.
  7. 7. • FAO and OIE have embarked, under the umbrella of the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs), on a Global Strategy and Global Action Plan for FMD control, with particular emphasis on regions of the world where the disease is endemic.
  8. 8. Global SurveillanceEndemicIntermediate, sporadicFree with vaccinationCountries with multiples zones:FMD-free, free with vaccination or not freeFree. Virus present in game parksFree
  9. 9. Visualization of Regional Virus Pools as an Aid to Global ControlDivides the Globe into 7 pools each with• Multiple serotypes but topotypes mainly confined to that pool• Each pool may need tailored vaccines and strategies
  10. 10. The conjectured status of FMD showing approximate distribution of regional virus pools. Pool 3 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 1 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 2 O, A, Asia 1
  11. 11. The conjectured status of FMD showing approximate distribution of regional virus pools. Pool 5 O, A, SAT 1, 2 Pool 4 A, O, SAT 1, 2, 3 Pool 6 SAT 1, 2, 3
  12. 12. The conjectured status of FMD showing approximate distribution of regional virus pools.Pool 7O, A
  13. 13. WRLFMD Regional Analysis- 2012 ® What Else? Pool 3 Pool 3 O, A, Asia 1 &O, A, Asia 1 SAT 2 Pool 5 No reports in 2012 Pool 1 O&A Pool 7No reports in 2012 Pool 2 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 4 A, O, SAT 1 & 2 Pool 6 SAT 1 & 2
  14. 14. Egypt- Recent FMD OutbreaksEgypt has at least 3 serotypes of FMDVand a number of topotypes1. O/ME-SA/Egy-72 (2006-2009)2. O/ME-SA/PanAsia 2 (Egy-09) (2009 & 20113. A/Africa/G-VII (Ken-05) (2006 & 2009)4. A/Asia/Iran-05 (Bar-08) (2010-2011)5. A/Africa/G-IV (ISM-12) (2012)6. SAT2/VII/Alx-12 (2012)7. SAT2/VII/Ghb-12 (2012)
  15. 15. FMD Outbreaks 2012 Vaccination against SAT 2 in EgyptAugust 2012Vaccination with monovalent SAT2 – 1st round with locally produced vaccineTotal= 827,954 in 21 governorates . 4 million cattlecattle 431,568 3 million buffaloBuffaloes 211,352sheep 159,398goat 25,6362nd round vaccination with monovalent locally produced SAT2 vaccine = 148,741cattle 114.439buffaloes 31,946sheep 1,289goat 1,067Information provided by Dr Soheir Hassan Abd El KaderUnder Secretary of centeral adminstration of preventive medicineGeneral Organization for Veterinary ServicesMinistry of AgricultureCairo, Egypt
  16. 16. Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype O vaccine matchingCountry Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Subof Origin strain Lineage O 3039 O 4625 O Manisa O PA2Afghanistan O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Bahrain O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Congo O ME-SA PanAsia -Egypt O ME-SA PanAsia-2 -Ethiopia O EA-3 - -Iran O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 O ME-SA PanAsia-2 FAR-09Israel O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Japan O SEA Mya 98 -Kenya O EA-2 - -Kuwait O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Libya O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 O EA-3 - -Malaysia O SEA Mya-98 -Kingdom Saudi O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10ArabiaSudan O EA-3 - -Thailand O SEA Mya-98 - O ME-SA PanAsia -Turkey O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10UAE O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Vietnam O ME-SA PanAsia -
  17. 17. Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Pool 4 Eastern Africa Serotype A vaccine matchingCountry Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Subof Origin strain Lineage A A A A A Eri Saudi Iran Tur MAY 98 95 A22 05 06 97Congo A Africa G-I -Egypt A Africa G-IV - A Asia Iran-05 BAR-08Sudan A Africa G-IV - Good match Some matches No match
  18. 18. Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 SAT Serotypes Vaccine Matching Country Serotype Topotype of Origin SAT 1Pool 4 RhoEastern Africa Kenya SAT 1 I (NWZ) SAT 2 Zim SAT 2 Eri Bahrain SAT 2 IV Egypt SAT 2 VIIPool 3 Kenya SAT 2 IVEur-Asia Libya SAT 2 VIIPool 4 PAT SAT 2 VIIEastern Africa Sudan SAT 2 VII Tanzania SAT 2 IV Good match Some matches No match
  19. 19. • FMD is one of the most contagious animal diseases and internationally the most important TAD.• In countries where FMD is endemic the disease is often under reported, even though farmers have been shown to suffer serious economic losses.• Many developing countries are poorly equipped to deal effectively with livestock diseases, including FMD, and so it continues to negatively affect food security and economic development.
  21. 21. PCP-FMD• The PCP-FMD is a set of FMD control activity stages (Figure 1) that, if implemented, should enable countries to progressively increase the level of FMD control to the point where an application for OIE-endorsement of a national control programme vaccination (in an advanced phase of Stage 3) or official freedom from FMD with or without vaccination (end of Stages 4 and 5, respectively) may be successful and the status sustainable.
  22. 22. The PCP approach is based on the followingprinciples: 1) active monitoring for FMDV circulation andunderstanding the epidemiology of FMD are thefoundation of a control program, and thereforeactivities to meet these requirements arecommon in all stages.The monitoring of outcomes (indicators of controleffectiveness), within a national FMDmanagement system, is included at the higherstages;
  23. 23. 2) activities in each PCP stage are appropriate to therequired reduction in virus circulation and mitigation ofdisease risk to be achieved; 3) activities and their impacts are measurable ineach Stage, comparable between countries, andgenerate information and potential benefits to nationalas well as international stakeholders; 4) the optimization of resource use for FMD control isachieved through the targeting of measures to thehusbandry systems and critical risk points where theimpact on disease control and/or virus circulation will begreatest.
  24. 24. Strengthening Veterinary Services• VS are an essential component of the animal health system that protects animal health and safeguards animal production; To function effectively, VS require: - Appropriate infrastructure, - Trained and effective personnel - Sufficient operating budgets to perform their disease mitigation activities. Unfortunately, in many developing countries, the VS infrastructure is often of insufficient quality and the operating budget inadequate.
  25. 25. With globalisation and the growth of internationaltrade, the responsibility of VS extends beyondnational borders, in particular in regard to trade inlivestock and animal products. Importers andconsumers desire healthy livestock and safe animalproducts and this brings into consideration the qualityand credibility of VS.
  26. 26. • PVS pathway: evaluation of the veterinary services The OIE tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (OIE PVS Tool) is an objective, qualitative mechanism for assessing the quality of VS that creates a basis for a Gap Analysis and the development of an investment plan to seek the necessary funds to redress these weaknesses.
  27. 27. Key Words:
  28. 28. Critical competencies I- Human Physical and Financial Resources:I.2.A. Professional competencies of veterinarians I.2.B. Competencies of veterinary para-professionals I.3. Continuing education I.4. Technical independence I.5. Stability of structures and sustainability of policies I.6.A. Internal coordination (chain of command) I.6.B. External coordinationI.7. Physical resources1.8. Funding1.9. Contingency and compensatory funding1.10. Capability to invest and develop
  29. 29. II- Technical Authority and Capability:II.1.Veterinary laboratory diagnosisII.2.Laboratory quality assuranceII.3.Risk analysisII.4.Quarantine and border securityII.5.Epidemiological surveillanceII.6.Early detection and emergency responseII.7.Disease prevention control and eradicationII.8.Veterinary pubic health and food safetyII.9.Veterinary medicines and veterinary biologicalsII.10.Residue testingII.11.Emergency issuesII.12.Technical innovation
  30. 30. III- Interaction with stakeholders:III.1.CommunicationsIII.2.Consultation with stakeholdersIII.3.Official representationIII.4.Accredetation/authorization/delegationIII.5.Veterinary statutory bodyIII.6. Participation of producers and other stakeholders in joint programmes
  31. 31. IV-Access to markets:IV.1.Preparation of legislation and regulations, and its implementationIV.2.Stakeholder compliance with legislation and regulationsIV.3.International harmonizationIV.4.International certificationIV.5.Equivalence and other types of sanitary agreementsIV.6.TraceabilityIV.7.TransparencyIV.8.ZoningIV.9.Compatmentalisation
  32. 32. Thank you for your kind attention Prof. Hassan Aidaros Prof. of Hygiene and Preventive MedicineOIE Representative for Egypt ( 34