Anatomy of the heart, Schleich


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Anatomy of the heart, Schleich

  1. 1. Anatomy and physiology of the heartEmbryology of normal heart and of the T4F The congenital heart defects and the T4F
  2. 2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart Fallot’ Project
  3. 3. The Cardiovascular System
  4. 4. The heart is located between the lungs in themiddle of the chest, behind and slightly to the Locationleft of the breastbone (sternum). 1 1 2 3 2 Heterotaxia isomerism
  5. 5. definitions• Dextrocardie: – dextrocardie, traduisant la seule inversion de la pointe du cœur (normalement orientée à gauche). – Mésocardie / lévocardie• Hétérotaxie: – Le terme « hétérotaxie » signifie étymologiquement « positionnement différent » (heteros, différent ; taxos, positionnement). – désigne une malformation congénitale se traduisant par un mauvais placement des organes internes, pairs ou non, dans le thorax et/ou la cavité abdominale, par rapport à un axe de symétrie droite/gauche. – (1) situs inversus ou situs totalis, traduisant une inversion complète des organes internes « en miroir » par rapport à un sujet dit normal ; (2) situs ambigus, traduisant une inversion partielle• Isomérisme: – Dédoublement d’un côté droit ou gauche
  6. 6. appendages Visceral and Heart Situs Pectinae muscles Situs solitus Situs inversus Right isomerism Isomérisme droit Left Isomerism
  7. 7. InsertionsA double-layered membrane called thepericardium surrounds your heart like asac. The outer layer of the pericardium surrounds the roots of your hearts major blood vessels and is attached by ligaments to your spinal column, diaphragm, and other parts of your body. The inner layer of the pericardium is attached to the heart muscle. A coating of fluid separates the two layers of membrane, letting the heart move as it beats, yet still be attached to your body.
  8. 8. Position of the cavities and great arteries backright left front
  9. 9. The Cardiovascular System
  10. 10. Atria / Appendagesright atrial appendage : a small conicalmuscular pouch attached to the right atrium The LAA is a windsock-like structure that is long, tubular and hooked.
  11. 11. Right ventricleTricuspid valve3 leafletsChordae tendineaePapillary muscles3 chambers inlet trabecular part outlet
  12. 12. The muscular strap reinforcing the septal Specific parts of the right ventriclesurface, extending into the apicaltrabecular component is named theseptomarginal trabeculation (septal bandin USA), which has two limbs, the antero-cephalad or antero-superior limb goingtowards the papillary muscles of thetricuspid valve and the postero-caudal orpostero-inferior limb running towards thepulmonary leaflets.The multiple muscular bundles extendingfrom the septomarginal trabeculation andran onto the parietal wall of the outflowtract is named the septoparietaltrabeculations. One of them is namedmoderate band, which run towards themedio papillary muscle of the tricuspidvalve.
  13. 13. Mitrale valve2 leaflets Left ventricle anterior posteriorChordae tendineae2 papillary muscles anterolateral posteromedial3 chambers inlet trabecular part Left view outlet
  14. 14. The conduction systemThe electrical signal begins in thesinoatrial (SA) node, located at the top ofthe right atrium. The SA node issometimes called the hearts "naturalpacemaker." When an electrical impulseis released from this natural pacemaker, itcauses the atria to contract.The signal then passes through theatrioventricular (AV) node. The AV nodechecks the signal and sends it throughthe muscle fibers of the ventricles,causing them contract.The SA node sends electrical impulses ata certain rate, but the heart rate may stillchange depending on physical demands,stress, or hormonal factors.
  15. 15. The aorta branches off into twomain coronary blood vessels (alsocalled arteries). These coronary Coronary Circulationarteries branch off into smallerarteries, which supply oxygen-richblood to the entire heart muscle.The right coronary artery suppliesblood mainly to the right side of theheart. The right side of the heart issmaller because it pumps bloodonly to the lungs.The left coronary artery, whichbranches into the left anteriordescending artery and thecircumflex artery, supplies blood tothe left side of the heart. The leftside of the heart is larger and moremuscular because it pumps blood tothe rest of the body.
  16. 16. Coronary sinus
  17. 17. The Heart Valves
  18. 18. A heartbeat is a two-part pumping action that takes abouta second. Cardiac Cycle: diastole PhaseThis part of the two-part pumping phase (the longer of thetwo) is called diastole.Diastole begins as the ventricles start to relax. Soon thepressures within the aorta and pulmonary artery exceedventricular pressures, causing the semilunar valves toclose (B2 murmur).As the ventricular pressure falls below the atrial pressurethe AV valves open and the ventricles fill with blood. Theventricles fill to about 80% of capacity prior to contractionof the atria, the last event in diastole.Atrial contraction forces the final 20% of the end-diastolic volume (the volume of blood that exists in theventricles at the end of diastole) into the ventricles. / SA nodecontractsSummary of Diastole:Ventricles relaxpulmonary and aortic valves closeAV valves openventricles fill (about 80% of capacity)atria contract (ventricles fill another 20%) /Contraction reaches AV node…
  19. 19. The second part of the pumping phasebegins when the ventricles are full ofblood. Cardiac Cycle: Systole PhaseThe electrical signals from the SA nodetravel along a pathway of cells to theventricles, causing them to contract. This iscalled systole.As the ventricles start to contract, theventricular pressure soon exceeds the atrialpressure, causing the AV valves to close (B1murmur).As the ventricles continue to contract, theventricular pressure exceeds the arterialpressures causing the semilunar valvesopen. Blood is forcefully ejected out of theventricles and into the aorta andpulmonary artery.Summary of Systole :ventricles contractAV valves closeaortic and pulmonary valves openblood is ejectedatria relax and fill with blood
  20. 20. Papillary muscles / Chordae tendineae