Relative (Adjective) Clauses
Adjective Clause “sıfat cümleciği” anlamına gelmektedir. Konumuza geçmeden önce cümle ve cümlecik
kavramlarını açıklamak yerinde olacaktır.
Cümle: içerisinde bir Özne ve Yüklem bulunduran ve tek başına anlamlı bir iş, oluş, hareket ve ya durum
My name is Tarık.
(Benim adım Tarık’tır.)
Kağan reads book every night.
(Kağan her gece kitap okur. )
Object Time expression
Cümlecik: İçerisinde bir Özne ve Yüklem bulunan ancak tek başına tam bir yargı bildirmeyen temel
cümlenin bir öğesi durumunda bulunan ve kendi içinde değişik tamamlayıcı öğeler de alabilen söz
öbeğidir. Bu tür yapılar genelde ya cümlenin herhangi bir öğesini nitelerler ya da cümlenin herhangi bir
öğesi olarak görev yaparlar.
Özellikle bileşik yapılı cümlelerde kullanılırlar. İngilizce de Adjective Clause (sıfat cümlecikleri), Noun
Clause (İsim cümlecikleri) ve Adverbial Clauses (Zarf Cümlecikleri) olmak üzere üç temel yan cümle yapısı
Adjective Clause; cümle içerisindeki isimleri nitelemek için tıpkı sıfat gibi kullanılırlar.
Noun Clause; cümle içerisinde nesne veya özne görevinde kullanılırlar.
Adverbial Clause; ise cümle içerisinde yer, zaman, hal, durum ve ya sonuç bildirirler.
Tanım: Sıfat Cümlecikleri (Relative clauses) tıpkı sıfatlar (Adjectives) gibi cümle içerisinde bulunan
herhangi bir isim hakkında bilgi vermek veya o ismi nitelemek için kullanılırlar.
Sıfatlar isimden önce kullanılırlar ve kendilerinden önce kullanıldıkları isimleri nitelerler. Sıfatlar
bir sözcük ya da söz öbeği (phrase) şeklinde kullanılabilirler.
a. sıfat + isim
b. Sıfat öbeği + isim
(Kara gözlü kız)
Sıfat + İSİM
Hz. Ömer had a brave heart. (Cesur yürek)
Aslı Çakır Alptekin won gold medal in London Olympics. (Altın madalya)
There are a lot of black holes in the universe. (kara delik)
Sıfat cümlecikleri (Adjective clauses) niteledikleri İsimden sonra kullanılırlar. Ancak Türkçe’ye
çeviri yapılırken aynen sıfatlar gibi isimden önce söylenirler.
İsim + Sıfat cümleciği = the student who studies hard
(Çok sıkı çalışan öğrenci)
The car which is black is Ahmet’s car.
The restaurant where I eat my lunch serves delicious meals.
The cafe which is near the Malatya Park belongs to Mehmet.
(yemek yediğim restoran)
(Malatya pakın yanındaki kafe)
Adjective clause aynı iki isim ya da isim öbeğine sahip bağımsız iki basit cümleyi birleştirmek için
I have a friend. He is very altruist.
I have a friend Who is very altruist.
Yukarıdaki örnekte görüldüğü üzere iki bağımsız cümle bulunmaktadır ve her ikisinde de ortak olan bir
isim (arkadaş ve O) bulunmaktadır. İşte böyle iki bağımsız cümleyi tek bir cümleye dönüştürmek için
Adjective pronoun (Who) kullanılır.
Birbirinden bağımsız iki cümleyi birleştirmek için dikkat etmemiz gereken kurallar şunlardır;
a. İki cümle içerisinde kullanılan bir ismin aynı olması
b. Bu ismi temsil edecek doğru Adjective Pronoun’un kullanılması
Defining Relative clause
Non-Defining relative clause
who / whom / that /
,who / whom…,
which / that /
which / that
who / that
of which…, whose…..,
Who: Relative clause da Özne konumunda ise:
The man who drove the car was his father.
Whom: Relative Clause da Nesne durumunda ise:
The man from whom you take advice is our teacher.
Whose: Relative clause da Sahiplik belirtiyorsa:
The man whose car was stolen has found it this morning.
Which / THAT: Relative clause da Özne ve ya Nesne konumunda ise:
The car which was stolen has found this morning.
Eşya ve hayvanlar
Whose / Of Which: Relative clause da Sahiplik belirtiyorsa:
The war whose name is World War 2 is remembered by bad memories.
The war the name of which is called world war 2 is remembered by bad memories.
Which / THAT: Bahsi geçen yerin konumundan ya da bir özelliğinden bahsediyorken:
The village which/ that is fomuous for its birds is Hasırcılar.
Where / Preposition + Which: yerin içinde yapılan bir şeyden bahsederken:
The village where I live has a big swimming pool.
The village in which I live has a big swimming pool.
Which / THAT: Bahsi geçen zamanın bir özelliğinden bahsediyorken:
The year 1984 which/ that is remembered by my family is my birth year.
When / Preposition + Which: zamanın içinde yapılan bir şeyden bahsederken:
The year 1984 when I was born is remembered by my friends.
The year 1984 in which I was born is remembered by my friends
Formation of Relative Clauses
a. İnsanlar için
VERB & COMPLEMENT
who is coming
is my sister
she is coming
to whom your sister talked
is my sister.
your sister talked to her
whose dress is black
is my sister
her dress is black
b. Cansız varlıklar ve hayvanlar için
VERB & COMPLEMENT
Özne & Nesne
Which / That is over there
is our school.
It is over there
Whose students are successful
is Fatih high school.
The students of which are successful
c. Yer için
VERB & COMPLEMENT
Konum ya da özellik
Which / That belongs to him
is going to bankrupt.
It belongs to him
Where my brother works
sells electronic devices.
My brother works in there
d. Zaman için
VERB & COMPLEMENT
which / that we've wasted
is very precious.
when the sun rises in the east
Types of Adjective Clause
I. Defining Relative Clause
Cümle içerisindeki nitelemiş olduğu ve kendinden önce gelen isim “insan, yer, eşya” hakkında tanımlayıcı,
açıklayıcı bilgi veriyor ise. Bu tip Adjective Clause niteledikleri ismi belirtmek için kullanılırlar çünkü
niteledikleri isim diğer isimlerden ayırt edilmiyordur.
Defining Adjective clause cümleden çıkarıldığında cümlede kastedilen kişi/şey anlaşılmaz, cümle yarım
olur. Bundan dolayı Defining relative clause içinde bulunduğu cümlenin ayrılamaz bir unsurudur.
The leader is the person who never quits.
The computer which has problems does not work properly.
The house where my parents live is in Battalgazi.
The reason why I didn’t work was my teachers’ indifference to their students.
II. Non-defining Relative Clause
Cümle içerisindeki nitelemiş olduğu ve kendinden önce gelen isim “insan, yer, eşya” hakkında ek bilgi
veriyor ise. Bu tür Adjective clause cümleden çıkarılsa bile cümlenin anlamı bozulmaz, sadece ek bilgi
edinememiş oluruz. Bu yüzden de kullanılmış oldukları cümlelerde ya iki virgül arasında kullanılırlar ya
da cümlenin sonunda bir virgülle ayrılarak kullanılırlar.
Non-defining relative clause ile that kullanılmaz
Non-defining relative clause kullanılan yapılar:
a) özel isimler genellikle Non-defining olur,
Atatürk, who established the Turkish Republic, is the first president of Turkish Republic.
Apple, which is a famous brand in the world, produces quality products.
Istanbul, where millions of people live, is a beautiful city.
William Shakespeare is an English Writer, who wrote Hamlet.
b) Possessive adjective ve demonstrative pronoun kullanılan isimlerle
My students, who study very hard, will get into university.
This exam, which was done by ÖSYM, is very difficult.
Your thoughts, whose fundamentals are strong, charm a lot of people.
c) Herkes tarafından bilinen cins isimler genel anlamda kullanıldığında
Apricot, which is a delicious fruit, is especially grown in Malatya.
Fuel oil, whose reserves are going to run out soon, is used extensively.
d) Miktar belirten sıfatların kullanımı
…... a little/ much/ half
..… one/ two/ three
…... either/ neither/ both
…... each/ some/ a few/ several
…... none/ all/ everyone/ most
Women speak two languages - one of which is verbal.
Companies generate industrial waste, much of which is quite toxic.
A bicycle has two wheels, either of which is over ten inches.
The company has five secretaries, none of whom is currently busy.
My parents brought up two children, both of whom are happily married.
The second largest religion in the world is Islam, most of whose followers are Sunni.
Mehmet Akif Ersoy, much of whose poetry is about patriotism, is a great poet.
e) Tüm cümleyi niteleyen Modifying Clause “WHICH”
Bazı durumlarda Adjective clause kendinden önce kullanılan tüm cümleyi tanımlamak için
kullanılabilir. Bu durumda “which” kullanılır ve Relative clause temel cümlenin sonuna eklenir ve
temel cümleden bir virgülle ayrılır.
Ahmet never comes in time. This makes me angry.
Ahmet never comes in time, which makes me angry.
All my students scored very high in the KPDS, which pleased me very much.
Not: which zamirini bu şekilde kullanımı daha çok informal ortamlarda ve konuşma dilinde yaygındır.
Formel olarak kullanımı pek yaygın değildir.
Cleft sentence cümle içerisinde kullanılan isimlerden özellikle belirli bir tanesine yoğunlaşmak ya da o
öğeyi vurgulamak amacıyla kullanılırlar.
a. it is + adjective pronoun….
I clean her room every day.
It is me who clean the room every day.
(Özneyi vurgulamak için)
It is her room which I clean every day.
(Nesneyi vurgulamak için)
It is every day when I clean her room.
(Zamanı vurgulamak için)
b. The person who….
Kişileri vurgulamak için kullanılır.
The person who comes here early everyday is Salih.
The person who deserves respect is your mother.
c. The thing that….
Nesneyi vurgulamak için kullanılır.
The thing that you have to do now is to send those e-mails.
The thing that must be thought is our future.
d. The reason why…
Cümle içerisinde geçen sebebi vurgulamak için kullanılır
The reason why I am here is your illness.
The reason why he did not say anything is your manner.
e. The place where…
Cümle içerisinde geçen yeri vurgulamak için kullanılır.
Here is the place where I feel myself calm.
Comfort is the place where you feel safe to feel and express your feelings.
f. The date when….
Cümle içerisinde geçen zamanı vurgulamak için kullanılır.
The date when she will come is not known.
I still remember the day when I first saw you.
REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
Sıfat cümleciklerini anlamlarını bozmadan cümle olmaktan çıkarıp sözcük öbeği biçiminde kısaltabiliriz.
Bunun için şu kurallara dikkat etmek zorundayız;
I. Adım: Sıfat cümleciğini içerisindeki ilgi zamiri ve varsa yardımcı fiil atılır;
II. Adım: sıfat cümleciğinin yükleminin pasif mi aktif mi olduğuna bakılır;
1. Temel cümle ile Sıfat Cümlesinin zamanı aynı ise
a. Yüklem Aktif ise relative pronoun ve varsa yardımcı fiil atılır fiil “Ving” (Present Participle)
The leader who treats people equally is a real leader.
The leader treating people equally is a real leader. (Aktif = Ving)
b. Yüklem Pasif ise V3 (Past Participle) şeklinde yazılır
The lesson which is given by Tarık is very funny.
The lesson given by Tarık is very funny.
(pasif = V3)
2. Temel cümle ile Sıfat Cümlesinin Zamanları farklı ise;
a. Fiil aktif ise Having V3 (Perfect Participle)
The woman who gave this book to me is a famous writer.
The woman having given this book to me is a famous writer.
(Past Simple + Present Simple)
b. Fiil pasif ise Having been V3 (Perfect Participle)
The man who was caught by the police yesterday is a mass murderer.
The man having been caught yesterday is a mass murderer.
(Past Simple + Present Simple)
3. To + Infinitive
Fiil aktif ise To + V1
Fiil pasif ise to be V3
a. Sıra sayı sıfatlarının bulunduğu cümlelerde
Islam is the last religion which reminds the people about God in a correct path.
Islam is the last religion to remind the people about God in a correct path.
b. The only ile
Man is the only creature who knows he is alone in the universe.
Man is the only creature to know he is alone in the universe. (Aktif)
When all is lost, faith is the only thing that is found.
When all is lost, faith is the only thing to be found. (Pasif)
Steve Irwin is the most famous person who has helped the environment
Steve Irwin is the most famous person to help the environment.
4. Be + İsim/ Sıfat / Zarf
I love the people who are in world.
I love the people in the world.
The teachers who are on the DE programme use the computers to type their assignments.
The teachers on the DE programme use the computers to type their assignments.
Sample sentences in English Exams
1. I’d like to introduce you to Mrs. Trot, _____ husband you used to work with.
2. Can you tell me _____ this bicycle belongs to?
A) what B) whose
C) who D) that
Belong to: ait olmak
3. _____ whose coat was stolen last week?
A) Why were they surprised
B) Do you have their address
C) How unusual is it
D) Isn’t that the new librarian
E) Is there any news yet
4. Could that be the girl _____?
A) as her essays were published in several magazines.
B) that she had carried out experiments in physics.
C) who represented our school at the International Violin Competition.
D) so that we might discuss her proposals
E) whether her father wanted to stop her from becoming a pop singer.
5. I still haven’t had a chance to thank the nurse _____.
A) until the child was well enough to go home.
B) why she visited us every day for a week.
C) who looked after my mother so well in hospital.
D) whose carelessness would make recovery slow.
E) whether any more treatment was necessary
6. The Great Pyramid of Khufu, _____ is near Caiuro, is one of the most famous
monuments in the world.
7. An earthquake is a movement of the earth‟ s surface _____ follows a setting free of
energy at the surface of the earth.
Carry out: yürütmek,sürdürmek
Represent: temsil etmek
Proposal: öneri, teklif
Look after: bakmak ilgilenmek
Monument: anıt, eser
8. The film Casablanca, the story _____ is set in Morocco during World War II, stars
Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman.
B) of which
C) by whom
9. The personnel officer is looking for someone _____.
A) that they are willing to do a great deal of traveling.
B) who has a real talent for organization.
C) until he finds someone who really is suitable.
D) since at present several positions are available.
E) whether they have the right qualifications.
Willing to: istekli
Talent: yeti, beceri
10. ____ which was characterized by supreme self-confidence and great achievement.
A) The bombing of Dresden was widely criticized
B) Henry VIII was a typical Renaissance figure
C) The Great Pyramids were built in an age
D) The moon-landing gave rise to strange, new emotions
E) This climbing expedition in the Taurus mountains was a complete failure
Widely: geniş ölçüde
Give rise to: artırmak
11. Emily Dickinson, _____ is a famous New England poet of the nineteenth century,
published only seven poems in her lifetime.
A) whose B) whom
D) about whom
12. _____, where the cars are fast and highways crowded.
A) The physics of traffic is rapidly gaining importance in Germany
B) There were actually relatively fewer car accidents during the summer months
C) Those roads weren't in need of repair
D) it’s possible to drive from London to Edinburgh in six hours
E) A minimum speed limit was finally agreed on
13. Holes in the sides of their new World Cup shirts create drafts _____.
A) when temperatures rose sharply in July
B) if only they could get rid of excess moisture
C) while it has been designed for hot, wet climates
D) whether the fit needs to be considered
E) which help to keep the players cool
14. ----, which suggests there may be life there.
A) Researchers have almost given up hope
B) There is no need to look any farther
C) New discoveries are actually very rare
D) Water has been found on Mars
E) The scheme was still being developed
15. James Hutton, the “father of geology”, was an 18th century farmer, ----.
A) since there were many who opposed him
B) that many of his theories were published
C) as the process of erosion seemed inevitable
D) who was full of curiosity about the world
E) until the criticism began to be unpleasant
16. Many of his novels are concerned with controversial subjects ----.
A) until the problems resulting from the war were finally solved
B) that smoking is only one of them
C) as he was awarded the top prize
D) which will have surprised no one
E) which makes them extremely popular
17. There are several types of acquired dyslexia, ---- adults find themselves unable to
read or find difficulty with certain types of words as a result of brain damage.
B) in which
18. She and I had a nice, relaxed conversation ----.
A) by the time I finally arrived for our meeting
B) as I told her to wake up
C) since it focused on forbidden subjects
D) which largely centred on our children
E) so we were both nervous towards the end of it
Gain: elde etmek
Need of: ihtiyaç duymak
Agreed on: kararlaştırmak
Draft: hava akımı
Sharply: aniden, keskin
Get rid of: -den kurtulmak
Excess: aşırı, fazla
Give up: vazgeçmek
Rare: nadir, az
Oppose: karşı çıkmak
Concern with: alakalı, ilgili
Result from: -den kaynaklanmak
19. The worst effects of climate change are almost certainly going to be on food
production in the poor countries ----.
A) through which the majority has been suffering from agricultural pollution
B) in which case the effects of climate change will be minimal
C) so that people in the developed world could take the problem seriously
D) where more than half of the population depends on growing its own food
E) which would have been a tragedy, worse than all floods and earthquakes
20. ----, where visitors can walk, hike, sail, ride horse, ski and more.
A) Turkey is home to remarkable ruins such as Aspendos, Termessos and the
famous library at Ephesus
B) The Mediterranean and Aegean coasts are under threat due to the high number of
C) From prehistory to the present, numerous cultures have emerged and declined
within Turkey’s present-day borders
D) Turkey offers a range of exciting outdoor activities, particularly in the Black Sea
and Eastern Anatolian regions
E) Turkey has many ancient palaces, museums, impressive mosques and churches
21. Management must learn to determine market conditions in the countries ---- it is
C) as for
D) of which
E) so that
Worst: en kötü
Suffer from: musdarip olmak
Depend on: bağımlı olmak
Remarkable: göze çarpan
Emerge: ortaya çıkmak
Ancient: eski, tarihi
Condition: şart, durum
22. Neanderthals were a recent evolutionary human relative ----.
A) who lived in Europe and became extinct 30,000- 40,000 years ago
B) as researchers studying human origins debated this question for decades
C) which are muscular and robust, with a brain similar to ours in size
D) while the relationship between humans and Neanderthals may best be
described as sister species
E) despite the fact that they had hands as nimble as those of present-day humans,
with a thumb and fingers
Extinct: yok olmak
Similar to: benzer
23. More than half of the world’s coffee is grown on small family farms in developing
A) that large areas of forest have been cut down to make this possible
B) where coffee exports make up a significant portion of the local economy
C) since it is the middlemen who get a large percent of the profits
D) while for most people the quality of coffee is important
E) as long as weather conditions can be predicted
Cut down: kesmek
Make up: oluşturmak
Predict: tahmin etmek
24. Genetic information is encoded and transmitted from generation to generation in
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ----.
A) but this process contributed to the great variation of traits that we see in nature
B) which is a coiled molecule organized into structures called chromosomes
C) now that members of the same species inherited different forms of a gene
D) whereas some of these theories remained in favour for several decades
E) whose offspring receive a mixture of genetic information from both parents
Contribute: katkı sağlamak
Inherit: miras almak
Offspring: nesil, çocuk
Retain: tespit etmek
25. Scientists recently completed the largest-ever astronomical survey of the sky, during
---- they retained images that are expected to help them understand the origins of galaxies.
B) that C) when
Fill in the blanks with appropriate Adjective Pronouns.
1. The sense of smell, ________ has not been fully understood yet, is much more
sophisticated than the sense of taste.
2. Plastic, ________ is traditionally made from petroleum, is one of the few materials
on Earth that never go away.
3. To be able to live happily in another country, you must be the type of person
________ can accept differences and adapt.
4. London, _______is the largest city in Europe, is home to about seven million people.
5. Atmosphere guards us from rays ________ could be harmful.
6. Galata Bridge is one of the places in Istanbul ________ visitors prefer to see.
7. The plots of tragedies were based on legends with ______the audience was familiar.
8. Evolution, ________ is a fundamental concept of biology, can be defined as genetic
changes occurring over time.
9. Mary was the only one ________ answered all the questions correctly.
10. The great Wall of China, ________ was designed specifically as a defense against
nomadic tribes, was built mainly of earth and stone.
11. it was his father ________ encouraged him to be a writer.
12. Jean Piaget is the psychologist ________ work has had the greatest influence on the
study of child development.
13. Nuclear reactors are smaller than the plants ________ produce hydrogen.
14. In 19th century, ________ few people went to the theatre or concerts, literature
functioned as a primary source of entertainment.
15. Pluto, ________ was discovered in 1930, has an orbit which is much more elliptical
than the other planetary orbits.
16. The Suez Canal, ________ connects the Mediterranean and the Red Sea; ________
was designed and built by the French engineer De Lesseps.
17. It was the strong wind ________ made it difficult for us to put out the fire.
18. Until the sixteenth century, ________ the first international postal agreement was
assigned, there was no postal system as we know it today.
19. I wish I could live a simpler life like people ________ lived 100 years ago.
20. Certain records have come to light recently, ________ suggest that it was the
Chinese who discovered America.
21. His father, ________ Kağan was deeply attached, was an optician in Malatya.
22. All living things are composed of cells ________ have a basic similarity of
23. There are a lot of people ________ feel that the industrially developing countries
would find nuclear energy a suitable source of power.
24. India is a country with varied languages and cultures, ________ makes it unlike the
majority of western countries.
25. Film making involves a series of problems, one of ________ is the casting of actors.
26. Shakespeare, ___________ was the leading dramatist, is still regarded as the
27. The Amazon rainforest, ________ contains around 80 thousand different kinds of
plants, is the most biologically diverse place on Earth.
28. A big reason ________ people get stuck and cannot create better lives is that they
do not give themselves credit for what they have created.
29. You are very angry with your sister ________ always leaves room in a dreadful
30. The Old English language, also called Anglo-Saxon, can only be read today by
those ________ have made a special study of it.
31. I can’t meet you for lunch due to an unexpected meeting ________ I have to attend.
32. Tutankamon, ________ was the pharaoh of Egypt, died at the early age of 19.
Traditionally: geleneksel olarak
Go away: ayrılmak
Accept: Kabul etmek
Base on: esas almak
Put out: söndürmek
Suggest: ileri sürmek
Compose of: oluşmak
33. The theatre was a popular form of entertainment starting in Shakespeare’s time
and continuing to 1649 ________ it was banned.
34. Dr Werner von Braun, the scientist celebrated as the father of the Saturn V rocket,
________ carried the first manned flight to the moon, was the first person to put
forward the idea of space camps.
35. Powering a spacecraft still requires vast amounts of fuel, ________ would make
space tourism far too expensive.
36. The first inhabitants of Australia were the Aborigines, ________ migrated there at
least 40,000 years ago from Southeast Asia.
37. From the year 1665, ________ Robert Hooke discovered cells, until the middle of
the twentieth century, biologists had only light microscopes for viewing cells.
38. Researchers ________ publish their work in scientific journals describe their
experiments in detail to be independently performed by other scientists.
39. The air at the top of Mount Everest, ________ is the world’s highest peak, is fairly
40. The most expensive trip into space was made by a tourist ________ paid £14
41. As we live and grow, we learn the culture of the society in ________ we live.
42. Modern astronomy began with Copernicus in the sixteenth century, ________
asserted that the Sun was at the centre of the solar system.
43. Some people ________ are used to being governed by an authority find it quite
impossible to think for themselves.
44. Nidâ Tüfekçi, ________ had dedicated his life to Turkish folk music, died aged 83
in hospital where he was being treated for a heart condition.
45. Paris, ________ is the capital of France, is situated on the Seine.
46. In National Park there is a nursery for baby elephants ________ mothers have been
47. Young people need education in order to acquire a good basis of knowledge on
________ they can build their future.
48. Marie Stops, ________ was the pioneers of family planning, worked hard to protect
49. Television is having a bad effect upon the children ________ grow up with it.
50. There are popular newspapers for those ________ prefer entertainment to
51. Local authorities give financial aid to those ________ need it.
52. Anyone ________ has faced a difficult and complex situation has looked for a way
53. There are those ________ like gardening and those who don’t.
54. I am sure there are others ________ could do it better.
55. Among the contemporary writers he is the one ________ works I enjoy reading.
56. One reason ________ the detective story is so popular is that the reader puts
himself in the place of the detective.
57. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, ________ X-rays were discovered,
scientists were already involved in extensive research in order to study other kinds
58. The Greek islands attract thousands of tourists, many of ________ come simply to
enjoy the sun and sand and the relaxed pace of life.
59. In addition to drugs, ________ are enormously beneficial in treating diseases, many
other treatments can help relieve pain.
60. The country’s natives are especially friendly and helpful to tourists, ________
greatly surprised us all.
Put forward: ileri sürmek
Vast amount: büyük miktarda
Build: inşa etmek
Extensive: geniş miktarda
Enourmously: büyük ölçüde