Relative clause
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Adjective Clause

Adjective Clause

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    Relative clause Relative clause Document Transcript

    • Relative (Adjective) Clauses Adjective Clause “sıfat cümleciği” anlamına gelmektedir. Konumuza geçmeden önce cümle ve cümlecik kavramlarını açıklamak yerinde olacaktır. Cümle: içerisinde bir Özne ve Yüklem bulunduran ve tek başına anlamlı bir iş, oluş, hareket ve ya durum belirten yapılardır. My name is Tarık. (Benim adım Tarık’tır.) Subject VERB ÖZNE Kağan reads book every night. Subject Verb YÜKLEM (Kağan her gece kitap okur. ) Object Time expression Özne Z. Zarfı Nesne Yüklem Cümlecik: İçerisinde bir Özne ve Yüklem bulunan ancak tek başına tam bir yargı bildirmeyen temel cümlenin bir öğesi durumunda bulunan ve kendi içinde değişik tamamlayıcı öğeler de alabilen söz öbeğidir. Bu tür yapılar genelde ya cümlenin herhangi bir öğesini nitelerler ya da cümlenin herhangi bir öğesi olarak görev yaparlar. Özellikle bileşik yapılı cümlelerde kullanılırlar. İngilizce de Adjective Clause (sıfat cümlecikleri), Noun Clause (İsim cümlecikleri) ve Adverbial Clauses (Zarf Cümlecikleri) olmak üzere üç temel yan cümle yapısı vardır. Adjective Clause; cümle içerisindeki isimleri nitelemek için tıpkı sıfat gibi kullanılırlar. Noun Clause; cümle içerisinde nesne veya özne görevinde kullanılırlar. Adverbial Clause; ise cümle içerisinde yer, zaman, hal, durum ve ya sonuç bildirirler. Adjective Clauses Tanım: Sıfat Cümlecikleri (Relative clauses) tıpkı sıfatlar (Adjectives) gibi cümle içerisinde bulunan herhangi bir isim hakkında bilgi vermek veya o ismi nitelemek için kullanılırlar.  Sıfatlar isimden önce kullanılırlar ve kendilerinden önce kullanıldıkları isimleri nitelerler. Sıfatlar bir sözcük ya da söz öbeği (phrase) şeklinde kullanılabilirler. a. sıfat + isim Red car (Kırmızı araba) b. Sıfat öbeği + isim Dark-eyed girl (Kara gözlü kız) Sıfat + İSİM Ex: Hz. Ömer had a brave heart. (Cesur yürek) Aslı Çakır Alptekin won gold medal in London Olympics. (Altın madalya) There are a lot of black holes in the universe. (kara delik)  Sıfat cümlecikleri (Adjective clauses) niteledikleri İsimden sonra kullanılırlar. Ancak Türkçe’ye çeviri yapılırken aynen sıfatlar gibi isimden önce söylenirler. İsim + Sıfat cümleciği = the student who studies hard (Çok sıkı çalışan öğrenci) Ex: The car which is black is Ahmet’s car. (siyah araba) The restaurant where I eat my lunch serves delicious meals. The cafe which is near the Malatya Park belongs to Mehmet. (yemek yediğim restoran) (Malatya pakın yanındaki kafe)
    • Adjective Clauses Adjective clause aynı iki isim ya da isim öbeğine sahip bağımsız iki basit cümleyi birleştirmek için kullanılır. I have a friend. He is very altruist. I have a friend Who is very altruist. Yukarıdaki örnekte görüldüğü üzere iki bağımsız cümle bulunmaktadır ve her ikisinde de ortak olan bir isim (arkadaş ve O) bulunmaktadır. İşte böyle iki bağımsız cümleyi tek bir cümleye dönüştürmek için Adjective pronoun (Who) kullanılır. Birbirinden bağımsız iki cümleyi birleştirmek için dikkat etmemiz gereken kurallar şunlardır; a. İki cümle içerisinde kullanılan bir ismin aynı olması b. Bu ismi temsil edecek doğru Adjective Pronoun’un kullanılması Görev Kullanım Defining Relative clause Non-Defining relative clause İnsan için , which….., who / whom / that / ,who / whom…, Eşya /Hayvan which / that / , which…, İnsan SAHİPLİK which / that İnsan NESNE ise , who….., Eşya/Hayvan ÖZNE ise who / that whose whose…., Eşya /Hayvan whose of which…, whose….., Extra notes: Who: Relative clause da Özne konumunda ise: The man who drove the car was his father. İnsanlar için Whom: Relative Clause da Nesne durumunda ise: The man from whom you take advice is our teacher. Whose: Relative clause da Sahiplik belirtiyorsa: The man whose car was stolen has found it this morning. Which / THAT: Relative clause da Özne ve ya Nesne konumunda ise: The car which was stolen has found this morning. Eşya ve hayvanlar Whose / Of Which: Relative clause da Sahiplik belirtiyorsa: The war whose name is World War 2 is remembered by bad memories. The war the name of which is called world war 2 is remembered by bad memories. Which / THAT: Bahsi geçen yerin konumundan ya da bir özelliğinden bahsediyorken: The village which/ that is fomuous for its birds is Hasırcılar. Yer için Where / Preposition + Which: yerin içinde yapılan bir şeyden bahsederken: The village where I live has a big swimming pool. The village in which I live has a big swimming pool. Which / THAT: Bahsi geçen zamanın bir özelliğinden bahsediyorken: The year 1984 which/ that is remembered by my family is my birth year. Zaman için When / Preposition + Which: zamanın içinde yapılan bir şeyden bahsederken: The year 1984 when I was born is remembered by my friends. The year 1984 in which I was born is remembered by my friends
    • Formation of Relative Clauses a. İnsanlar için Kullanım SUBJECT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE VERB & COMPLEMENT Özne The girl who is coming is my sister she is coming Nesne The girl to whom your sister talked is my sister. your sister talked to her Sahiplik The girl whose dress is black is my sister her dress is black b. Cansız varlıklar ve hayvanlar için Kullanım SUBJECT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE VERB & COMPLEMENT Özne & Nesne The school Which / That is over there is our school. It is over there Sahiplik The school Whose students are successful is Fatih high school. The students of which are successful c. Yer için Kullanım SUBJECT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE VERB & COMPLEMENT Konum ya da özellik The company Which / That belongs to him is going to bankrupt. It belongs to him İçerisinde bir şeylerin yapılması The company Where my brother works sells electronic devices. My brother works in there d. Zaman için Kullanım SUBJECT ADJECTIVE CLAUSE VERB & COMPLEMENT Özellik The time which / that we've wasted is very precious. İçerisinde bir şeylerin yapılması The time when the sun rises in the east is approaching.
    • Types of Adjective Clause I. Defining Relative Clause Cümle içerisindeki nitelemiş olduğu ve kendinden önce gelen isim “insan, yer, eşya” hakkında tanımlayıcı, açıklayıcı bilgi veriyor ise. Bu tip Adjective Clause niteledikleri ismi belirtmek için kullanılırlar çünkü niteledikleri isim diğer isimlerden ayırt edilmiyordur. Defining Adjective clause cümleden çıkarıldığında cümlede kastedilen kişi/şey anlaşılmaz, cümle yarım olur. Bundan dolayı Defining relative clause içinde bulunduğu cümlenin ayrılamaz bir unsurudur. Ex: The leader is the person who never quits. The computer which has problems does not work properly. The house where my parents live is in Battalgazi. The reason why I didn’t work was my teachers’ indifference to their students. II. Non-defining Relative Clause Cümle içerisindeki nitelemiş olduğu ve kendinden önce gelen isim “insan, yer, eşya” hakkında ek bilgi veriyor ise. Bu tür Adjective clause cümleden çıkarılsa bile cümlenin anlamı bozulmaz, sadece ek bilgi edinememiş oluruz. Bu yüzden de kullanılmış oldukları cümlelerde ya iki virgül arasında kullanılırlar ya da cümlenin sonunda bir virgülle ayrılarak kullanılırlar. Non-defining relative clause ile that kullanılmaz Non-defining relative clause kullanılan yapılar: a) özel isimler genellikle Non-defining olur, Atatürk, who established the Turkish Republic, is the first president of Turkish Republic. Apple, which is a famous brand in the world, produces quality products. Istanbul, where millions of people live, is a beautiful city. William Shakespeare is an English Writer, who wrote Hamlet. b) Possessive adjective ve demonstrative pronoun kullanılan isimlerle My students, who study very hard, will get into university. This exam, which was done by ÖSYM, is very difficult. Your thoughts, whose fundamentals are strong, charm a lot of people. c) Herkes tarafından bilinen cins isimler genel anlamda kullanıldığında Apricot, which is a delicious fruit, is especially grown in Malatya. Fuel oil, whose reserves are going to run out soon, is used extensively. d) Miktar belirten sıfatların kullanımı …... a little/ much/ half ..… one/ two/ three …... either/ neither/ both …... each/ some/ a few/ several …... none/ all/ everyone/ most OF WHOM…., WHICH…., WHOSE…., Women speak two languages - one of which is verbal. (William Shakespeare) Companies generate industrial waste, much of which is quite toxic. A bicycle has two wheels, either of which is over ten inches. The company has five secretaries, none of whom is currently busy. My parents brought up two children, both of whom are happily married. The second largest religion in the world is Islam, most of whose followers are Sunni. Mehmet Akif Ersoy, much of whose poetry is about patriotism, is a great poet.
    • e) Tüm cümleyi niteleyen Modifying Clause “WHICH” Bazı durumlarda Adjective clause kendinden önce kullanılan tüm cümleyi tanımlamak için kullanılabilir. Bu durumda “which” kullanılır ve Relative clause temel cümlenin sonuna eklenir ve temel cümleden bir virgülle ayrılır. Ex: Ahmet never comes in time. This makes me angry. Ahmet never comes in time, which makes me angry. All my students scored very high in the KPDS, which pleased me very much. Not: which zamirini bu şekilde kullanımı daha çok informal ortamlarda ve konuşma dilinde yaygındır. Formel olarak kullanımı pek yaygın değildir. CLEFT SENTENCES Cleft sentence cümle içerisinde kullanılan isimlerden özellikle belirli bir tanesine yoğunlaşmak ya da o öğeyi vurgulamak amacıyla kullanılırlar. a. it is + adjective pronoun…. I clean her room every day. It is me who clean the room every day. (Özneyi vurgulamak için) It is her room which I clean every day. (Nesneyi vurgulamak için) It is every day when I clean her room. (Zamanı vurgulamak için) b. The person who…. Kişileri vurgulamak için kullanılır. The person who comes here early everyday is Salih. The person who deserves respect is your mother. c. The thing that…. Nesneyi vurgulamak için kullanılır. The thing that you have to do now is to send those e-mails. The thing that must be thought is our future. d. The reason why… Cümle içerisinde geçen sebebi vurgulamak için kullanılır The reason why I am here is your illness. The reason why he did not say anything is your manner. e. The place where… Cümle içerisinde geçen yeri vurgulamak için kullanılır. Here is the place where I feel myself calm. Comfort is the place where you feel safe to feel and express your feelings. f. The date when…. Cümle içerisinde geçen zamanı vurgulamak için kullanılır. The date when she will come is not known. I still remember the day when I first saw you.
    • REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Sıfat cümleciklerini anlamlarını bozmadan cümle olmaktan çıkarıp sözcük öbeği biçiminde kısaltabiliriz. Bunun için şu kurallara dikkat etmek zorundayız; I. Adım: Sıfat cümleciğini içerisindeki ilgi zamiri ve varsa yardımcı fiil atılır; II. Adım: sıfat cümleciğinin yükleminin pasif mi aktif mi olduğuna bakılır; 1. Temel cümle ile Sıfat Cümlesinin zamanı aynı ise a. Yüklem Aktif ise relative pronoun ve varsa yardımcı fiil atılır fiil “Ving” (Present Participle) The leader who treats people equally is a real leader. The leader treating people equally is a real leader. (Aktif = Ving) b. Yüklem Pasif ise V3 (Past Participle) şeklinde yazılır The lesson which is given by Tarık is very funny. The lesson given by Tarık is very funny. (pasif = V3) 2. Temel cümle ile Sıfat Cümlesinin Zamanları farklı ise; a. Fiil aktif ise Having V3 (Perfect Participle) The woman who gave this book to me is a famous writer. The woman having given this book to me is a famous writer. (Past Simple + Present Simple) b. Fiil pasif ise Having been V3 (Perfect Participle) The man who was caught by the police yesterday is a mass murderer. The man having been caught yesterday is a mass murderer. (Past Simple + Present Simple) 3. To + Infinitive Fiil aktif ise To + V1 Fiil pasif ise to be V3 a. Sıra sayı sıfatlarının bulunduğu cümlelerde Islam is the last religion which reminds the people about God in a correct path. Islam is the last religion to remind the people about God in a correct path. b. The only ile Man is the only creature who knows he is alone in the universe. Man is the only creature to know he is alone in the universe. (Aktif) When all is lost, faith is the only thing that is found. When all is lost, faith is the only thing to be found. (Pasif) c. Superlatives Steve Irwin is the most famous person who has helped the environment Steve Irwin is the most famous person to help the environment. (Aktif) 4. Be + İsim/ Sıfat / Zarf I love the people who are in world. I love the people in the world. The teachers who are on the DE programme use the computers to type their assignments. The teachers on the DE programme use the computers to type their assignments.
    • Sample sentences in English Exams 1. I’d like to introduce you to Mrs. Trot, _____ husband you used to work with. A) where B) whom C) whose D) which E) who 2. Can you tell me _____ this bicycle belongs to? A) what B) whose C) who D) that Introduce: tanıştırmak Belong to: ait olmak E) which 3. _____ whose coat was stolen last week? A) Why were they surprised B) Do you have their address C) How unusual is it D) Isn’t that the new librarian E) Is there any news yet 4. Could that be the girl _____? A) as her essays were published in several magazines. B) that she had carried out experiments in physics. C) who represented our school at the International Violin Competition. D) so that we might discuss her proposals E) whether her father wanted to stop her from becoming a pop singer. 5. I still haven’t had a chance to thank the nurse _____. A) until the child was well enough to go home. B) why she visited us every day for a week. C) who looked after my mother so well in hospital. D) whose carelessness would make recovery slow. E) whether any more treatment was necessary 6. The Great Pyramid of Khufu, _____ is near Caiuro, is one of the most famous monuments in the world. A) who B) where C) which D) whom E) what 7. An earthquake is a movement of the earth‟ s surface _____ follows a setting free of energy at the surface of the earth. A) where B) when C) whose D) whom E) which Unusual: olağandışı Essay: makale Publish: yayımlamak Carry out: yürütmek,sürdürmek Experiment: deney Represent: temsil etmek Discuss: tartışmak Proposal: öneri, teklif Look after: bakmak ilgilenmek Recovery: iyileşmek Treatment: tedavi Necessary: gerekli Monument: anıt, eser Movement: hareket Surface: yüzey 8. The film Casablanca, the story _____ is set in Morocco during World War II, stars Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman. A) whose B) of which C) by whom D) whichever E) what 9. The personnel officer is looking for someone _____. A) that they are willing to do a great deal of traveling. B) who has a real talent for organization. C) until he finds someone who really is suitable. D) since at present several positions are available. E) whether they have the right qualifications. Willing to: istekli Talent: yeti, beceri Suitable: uygun Available: mevcut 10. ____ which was characterized by supreme self-confidence and great achievement. A) The bombing of Dresden was widely criticized B) Henry VIII was a typical Renaissance figure C) The Great Pyramids were built in an age D) The moon-landing gave rise to strange, new emotions E) This climbing expedition in the Taurus mountains was a complete failure Supreme: üstün Widely: geniş ölçüde Criticize: eleştirmek Give rise to: artırmak Expedition: serge Complete: tam
    • 11. Emily Dickinson, _____ is a famous New England poet of the nineteenth century, published only seven poems in her lifetime. A) whose B) whom C) which D) about whom E) who 12. _____, where the cars are fast and highways crowded. A) The physics of traffic is rapidly gaining importance in Germany B) There were actually relatively fewer car accidents during the summer months C) Those roads weren't in need of repair D) it’s possible to drive from London to Edinburgh in six hours E) A minimum speed limit was finally agreed on 13. Holes in the sides of their new World Cup shirts create drafts _____. A) when temperatures rose sharply in July B) if only they could get rid of excess moisture C) while it has been designed for hot, wet climates D) whether the fit needs to be considered E) which help to keep the players cool 14. ----, which suggests there may be life there. A) Researchers have almost given up hope B) There is no need to look any farther C) New discoveries are actually very rare D) Water has been found on Mars E) The scheme was still being developed 15. James Hutton, the “father of geology”, was an 18th century farmer, ----. A) since there were many who opposed him B) that many of his theories were published C) as the process of erosion seemed inevitable D) who was full of curiosity about the world E) until the criticism began to be unpleasant 16. Many of his novels are concerned with controversial subjects ----. A) until the problems resulting from the war were finally solved B) that smoking is only one of them C) as he was awarded the top prize D) which will have surprised no one E) which makes them extremely popular 17. There are several types of acquired dyslexia, ---- adults find themselves unable to read or find difficulty with certain types of words as a result of brain damage. A) that B) in which C) wherever D) what E) whenever 18. She and I had a nice, relaxed conversation ----. A) by the time I finally arrived for our meeting B) as I told her to wake up C) since it focused on forbidden subjects D) which largely centred on our children E) so we were both nervous towards the end of it Gain: elde etmek Actually: gerçekte Need of: ihtiyaç duymak Agreed on: kararlaştırmak Draft: hava akımı Sharply: aniden, keskin Get rid of: -den kurtulmak Excess: aşırı, fazla Moisture: nem Give up: vazgeçmek Rare: nadir, az Oppose: karşı çıkmak Process: süreç Inevitable: kaçımılmaz Curiosity: merak Unpleasant: nahoş Concern with: alakalı, ilgili Controversial: karmaşık Result from: -den kaynaklanmak Solve: çözmek Award: ödüllendirmek Acquire: edinmek Certain: belirli Result: sonuç
    • 19. The worst effects of climate change are almost certainly going to be on food production in the poor countries ----. A) through which the majority has been suffering from agricultural pollution B) in which case the effects of climate change will be minimal C) so that people in the developed world could take the problem seriously D) where more than half of the population depends on growing its own food E) which would have been a tragedy, worse than all floods and earthquakes 20. ----, where visitors can walk, hike, sail, ride horse, ski and more. A) Turkey is home to remarkable ruins such as Aspendos, Termessos and the famous library at Ephesus B) The Mediterranean and Aegean coasts are under threat due to the high number of tourists C) From prehistory to the present, numerous cultures have emerged and declined within Turkey’s present-day borders D) Turkey offers a range of exciting outdoor activities, particularly in the Black Sea and Eastern Anatolian regions E) Turkey has many ancient palaces, museums, impressive mosques and churches 21. Management must learn to determine market conditions in the countries ---- it is doing business. A) where B) what C) as for D) of which E) so that Worst: en kötü Effect: etki Majority: çoğunluk Suffer from: musdarip olmak Serious: ciddi Depend on: bağımlı olmak Remarkable: göze çarpan Ruins: kalıt Threat: tehdit Emerge: ortaya çıkmak Decline: gerilemek Border: sınır Particularly: özellikle Region: bölge Ancient: eski, tarihi Impressive: etkileyici Determine: belirlemek Condition: şart, durum 22. Neanderthals were a recent evolutionary human relative ----. A) who lived in Europe and became extinct 30,000- 40,000 years ago B) as researchers studying human origins debated this question for decades C) which are muscular and robust, with a brain similar to ours in size D) while the relationship between humans and Neanderthals may best be described as sister species E) despite the fact that they had hands as nimble as those of present-day humans, with a thumb and fingers Evolutionary: evrilmiş Relative: akraba Extinct: yok olmak Debate: tartışmak Similar to: benzer Describe: tanımlamak Nimble: hünerli Thumb:baş parmak 23. More than half of the world’s coffee is grown on small family farms in developing countries ----. A) that large areas of forest have been cut down to make this possible B) where coffee exports make up a significant portion of the local economy C) since it is the middlemen who get a large percent of the profits D) while for most people the quality of coffee is important E) as long as weather conditions can be predicted Developing: gelişen Cut down: kesmek Export: ihracat Make up: oluşturmak Significant: önemli Profit: kar Predict: tahmin etmek 24. Genetic information is encoded and transmitted from generation to generation in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ----. A) but this process contributed to the great variation of traits that we see in nature B) which is a coiled molecule organized into structures called chromosomes C) now that members of the same species inherited different forms of a gene D) whereas some of these theories remained in favour for several decades E) whose offspring receive a mixture of genetic information from both parents Encode: kodlamak Transmit: geçmek Contribute: katkı sağlamak Variation: değişkenlik Trait: özellik Structure: yapı Inherit: miras almak Offspring: nesil, çocuk Survey: araştırma Retain: tespit etmek 25. Scientists recently completed the largest-ever astronomical survey of the sky, during ---- they retained images that are expected to help them understand the origins of galaxies. A) whose B) that C) when D) whom E) which
    • Fill in the blanks with appropriate Adjective Pronouns. 1. The sense of smell, ________ has not been fully understood yet, is much more sophisticated than the sense of taste. 2. Plastic, ________ is traditionally made from petroleum, is one of the few materials on Earth that never go away. 3. To be able to live happily in another country, you must be the type of person ________ can accept differences and adapt. 4. London, _______is the largest city in Europe, is home to about seven million people. 5. Atmosphere guards us from rays ________ could be harmful. 6. Galata Bridge is one of the places in Istanbul ________ visitors prefer to see. 7. The plots of tragedies were based on legends with ______the audience was familiar. 8. Evolution, ________ is a fundamental concept of biology, can be defined as genetic changes occurring over time. 9. Mary was the only one ________ answered all the questions correctly. 10. The great Wall of China, ________ was designed specifically as a defense against nomadic tribes, was built mainly of earth and stone. 11. it was his father ________ encouraged him to be a writer. 12. Jean Piaget is the psychologist ________ work has had the greatest influence on the study of child development. 13. Nuclear reactors are smaller than the plants ________ produce hydrogen. 14. In 19th century, ________ few people went to the theatre or concerts, literature functioned as a primary source of entertainment. 15. Pluto, ________ was discovered in 1930, has an orbit which is much more elliptical than the other planetary orbits. 16. The Suez Canal, ________ connects the Mediterranean and the Red Sea; ________ was designed and built by the French engineer De Lesseps. 17. It was the strong wind ________ made it difficult for us to put out the fire. 18. Until the sixteenth century, ________ the first international postal agreement was assigned, there was no postal system as we know it today. 19. I wish I could live a simpler life like people ________ lived 100 years ago. 20. Certain records have come to light recently, ________ suggest that it was the Chinese who discovered America. 21. His father, ________ Kağan was deeply attached, was an optician in Malatya. 22. All living things are composed of cells ________ have a basic similarity of structure. 23. There are a lot of people ________ feel that the industrially developing countries would find nuclear energy a suitable source of power. 24. India is a country with varied languages and cultures, ________ makes it unlike the majority of western countries. 25. Film making involves a series of problems, one of ________ is the casting of actors. 26. Shakespeare, ___________ was the leading dramatist, is still regarded as the world’s greatest. 27. The Amazon rainforest, ________ contains around 80 thousand different kinds of plants, is the most biologically diverse place on Earth. 28. A big reason ________ people get stuck and cannot create better lives is that they do not give themselves credit for what they have created. 29. You are very angry with your sister ________ always leaves room in a dreadful state. 30. The Old English language, also called Anglo-Saxon, can only be read today by those ________ have made a special study of it. 31. I can’t meet you for lunch due to an unexpected meeting ________ I have to attend. 32. Tutankamon, ________ was the pharaoh of Egypt, died at the early age of 19. Sense: his Sophisticated: gelişmiş Traditionally: geleneksel olarak Go away: ayrılmak Accept: Kabul etmek Adapt: uyumsamak Guard: korumak Harmful: zararlı Plot: konu Base on: esas almak Fundamental: temel Define: tanımlamak Concept: kavram Defense: savunma Nomadic: göçebe Encourage: cesaretlendirmek Influence: etki Development: gelişim Produce: üretmek Primary: temelesas Discover:keşfetmek Connect: birleştirmek Put out: söndürmek Agreement: antlaşma Assign: imzalamak Simplier: basit Record: kayıt Suggest: ileri sürmek Deeply: derinlemesine Compose of: oluşmak Varied: çeşitli Involve. Içermek Regard: değerlendirmek Contain: içermek Diverse: çeşitlilik Stuck: yapışmak Dreadful: berbat Special: özel Attend: katılmak
    • 33. The theatre was a popular form of entertainment starting in Shakespeare’s time and continuing to 1649 ________ it was banned. 34. Dr Werner von Braun, the scientist celebrated as the father of the Saturn V rocket, ________ carried the first manned flight to the moon, was the first person to put forward the idea of space camps. 35. Powering a spacecraft still requires vast amounts of fuel, ________ would make space tourism far too expensive. 36. The first inhabitants of Australia were the Aborigines, ________ migrated there at least 40,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. 37. From the year 1665, ________ Robert Hooke discovered cells, until the middle of the twentieth century, biologists had only light microscopes for viewing cells. 38. Researchers ________ publish their work in scientific journals describe their experiments in detail to be independently performed by other scientists. 39. The air at the top of Mount Everest, ________ is the world’s highest peak, is fairly low. 40. The most expensive trip into space was made by a tourist ________ paid £14 million. 41. As we live and grow, we learn the culture of the society in ________ we live. 42. Modern astronomy began with Copernicus in the sixteenth century, ________ asserted that the Sun was at the centre of the solar system. 43. Some people ________ are used to being governed by an authority find it quite impossible to think for themselves. 44. Nidâ Tüfekçi, ________ had dedicated his life to Turkish folk music, died aged 83 in hospital where he was being treated for a heart condition. 45. Paris, ________ is the capital of France, is situated on the Seine. 46. In National Park there is a nursery for baby elephants ________ mothers have been killed. 47. Young people need education in order to acquire a good basis of knowledge on ________ they can build their future. 48. Marie Stops, ________ was the pioneers of family planning, worked hard to protect women. 49. Television is having a bad effect upon the children ________ grow up with it. 50. There are popular newspapers for those ________ prefer entertainment to information. 51. Local authorities give financial aid to those ________ need it. 52. Anyone ________ has faced a difficult and complex situation has looked for a way of escape. 53. There are those ________ like gardening and those who don’t. 54. I am sure there are others ________ could do it better. 55. Among the contemporary writers he is the one ________ works I enjoy reading. 56. One reason ________ the detective story is so popular is that the reader puts himself in the place of the detective. 57. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, ________ X-rays were discovered, scientists were already involved in extensive research in order to study other kinds of rays. 58. The Greek islands attract thousands of tourists, many of ________ come simply to enjoy the sun and sand and the relaxed pace of life. 59. In addition to drugs, ________ are enormously beneficial in treating diseases, many other treatments can help relieve pain. 60. The country’s natives are especially friendly and helpful to tourists, ________ greatly surprised us all. Ban: yasaklamak Celebrate: kutlamak Carry: taşımak Put forward: ileri sürmek Require: gerektirmek Vast amount: büyük miktarda Inhabitant: yerleşen Migrate. Göçmek View: gözlemlemek Independently: bağmsız Peak: zirve Fairly: oldukça Trip: yolculuk Assert: iddiaetmek Govern: yönetmek Dedicate: adamak Situated: bulunmak Kill: öldürmek Acquire: edinmek Basic: temel Build: inşa etmek Protect: korumak Local: yerel Aid: yardım Escape: kaçmak Contemporary: çağdaş Extensive: geniş miktarda Attract: cezbetmek Drug: ilaç Enourmously: büyük ölçüde Relieve: rahatlatmak