Pronouns
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Pronouns Pronouns Document Transcript

  • 1. Pronouns “Zamirler” Zamir cümle içerisinde kullanılan isimlerin yerini tutan kelimelerdir. Zamirler cümlede geçen bir ismi tekrarlamamak ve yazımda ekonomiklik sağlamak için kullanılırlar. Tarık, Salih ve Ahmet top oynarlar. Onlar top oynarlar. Yukarıdaki örnekte görüldüğü üzere Onlar zamiri “Tarık, Salih ve Ahmet” isimlerinin yerini tutmakta ve toplamda 15 harften oluşan isimleri 5 harfle ifade etmemizi sağlamaktadır. Zamirler temsil ettikleri ismin taşıdığı anlam ve cümle içerisindeki görevlerine göre çeşitlilik gösterir. a. Personal pronouns (Kişi zamirleri) Kişi zamirleri isimlerin tekillik-çoğulluğu ve cinsiyeti hakkında bilgi verirler. İsimlerin tekil mi çoğul mu oldukları İngilizce dilbilgisi açısından önemlidir çünkü İngilizce de özne tekil ise yüklem ve nesnede kullanılan isim de tekil olmalıdır. Keza özne çoğul ise yüklem ve nesnedeki isim de çoğul olmalıdır. Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns Kendi kendime I me my mine Kendi kendine you you your yours he/she/it him/her/it his/her/its his/her/-- we us our ours Kendi kendimize Ourselves they them their theirs Kendi kendinize Yourselves Kendi kendilerine Themselves one one one’s -- Kendi kendine Oneself Indefinite Pronouns İnsanlar için For People Herhangi biri Hiç kimse Herhangi biri Herkes Herhangi biri Hiç kimse Herhangi biri Herkes Bir diğer Anyone No one Someone Everyone Anybody Nobody Somebody Everybody Another Indefinite Pronouns For Things Herhangi bir şey Anything Hiçbir şey Nothing Herhangi bir şey Something Her şey Everything Yourself Himself Kendi kendine Herself Itself Demonstrative Pronouns one another Bu This Şu That O He – She - It Bunlar These Şunlar Reciprocal Pronouns each other ReflexivePronouns Myself Those Onlar They
  • Subject Pronouns (Özne Zamirleri) Özne zamirleri cümlenin öznesinde bulunan ismin yerine kullanılan zamirlerdir. Özne ise cümlenin içerisinde bulunan iş, oluş ya da hareketi yapan kişidir. Subject Pronouns Ben Sen Erkekler için OBayanlariçin Cansız, hayvan I You He She It We You They One Biz Siz Onlar Herhangibiri I am the wisest man, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing. Socrates Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life. Confucius He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life. Muhammad Ali Any woman can fool a man if she wants to and if he is in love with her. Agatha Christie Once you learn to quit, it becomes a habit. Wisest: en zeki Choose: seçmek Courageous: cesur Accomplish: başarmak Fool: kandırmak Quit. Vazgeçmek Habit: alışkanlık Vince Lombardi We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence is not an act, but a habit. Repeatedly: tekrarlı Aristotle Leaders are made, they are not born. They are made by hard effort, which is the price which all of us must pay to achieve any goal that is worthwhile. Vince Lombardi Object Pronouns(Nesne Zamirleri) Nesne zamirleri cümlenin nesnesinde bulunan isimlerin yerine kullanılırlar. Nesne cümlenin öznesinin yaptığı iş, oluş ya da hareketten etkilenen öğedir. Excellence: mükemmellik Act: davranış Effort: çaba Price: bedel, paha Worthwhile: değerli Object Pronouns I You He She İt Beni Seni We You They One Bizi Sizi Onları Onu herhangi birini Onu me you him her it us you them one Challenge: zorluk Realize: fark etmek Sacrifice: feda etmek Offer: sunmak Thesame: aynı Life is a challenge - meet it. Life is a dream - realize it. Life is a sacrifice - offer it. Life is love - enjoy it. Sai Baba You laugh at me because I'm different, I laugh at you because you're all the same. Jonathan Davis There is nothing impossible to him who will try. Alexander the Great To be happy with a woman you must love her a lot and not try to understand her. Helen Rowland Affliction comes to us, not to make us sad but sober; not to make us sorry but wise. Henry Ward Beecher Our friends don't see our faults, or conceal them, or soften them. Joseph Addison Impossible: imkansız Try to:uğraşmak Affliction: dert, bela Sober: ayıltmak Wise: bilge Fault: hata Conceal: örtmek Soften: yumuşatmak
  • b. Possessive adjectives (Sahiplik Sıfatları) Sahiplik sıfatları herhangi bir ismin kime ait olduğunu belirtmek için kullanılırlar ve kendilerinden sonra bir isimle birlikte kullanılırlar. Possessive Adjectives I You He She İt Benim Senin We You They One Bizim Sizin Onların Herhangi birinin my your his her its our your their one’s Onun + isim My most brilliant achievement was my ability to persuade my wife to marry me. Winston Churchill Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it Brilliant: dahice Achievement: başarı Persuade: ikna etmek Marry: evlenmek Buddha The superior man is modest in his speech but exceeds in his actions. Discover: keşfetmek Confucius Judge a person by their questions, rather than their answers. Voltaire Our patience will achieve more than our force. Edmund Burke A mother's heart is always with her children. Proverb Superior: üstün Modest: mütevazi Exceeds: aşırıgitmek Judge: yargılamak Patience: sabır Force: güç Önemli not!!!! Sahiplik Sıfatları (Possessive Adjectives) ile Sahiplik Zamirleri (Possessive Pronouns) arasındaki fark sahiplik sıfatlarının kendilerinden sonra bir isim kullanılmak zorunda olunmasıdır. Sahiplik zamirleri (Possessive Pronouns) kendilerinden önce bahsi geçen herhangi bir ismi içinde barındırarak zamirleştirir. Possessive Adjective: Possessive Pronoun: Possessive Adjective: Possessive Pronoun: This bag is my bag. (Bu çanta benim çantamdır.) This bag is mine. (Bu çanta benimkidir.) The black car is their car. (Siyah araba onların arabasıdır.) The black car is theirs.(Siyah araba onlarınkidir.) How people treat you is their karma; how you react is yours. Wayne Dyer What you enjoy is yours; what you save for your inheritors, is already not yours, but theirs. Unknown Source And ours is a business that requires discipline and focus. Jim Cantalupo I'm not in this world to live up to your expectations and you're not in this world to live up to mine. Bruce Lee Treat: davranmak React: tepki vermek Save: biriktirmek Inheritor: mirasçı Require: gerektirmek Focus: yoğunlaşma Live up to: e göre yaşamak Expectation: beklenti View slide
  • c. Possessive Pronouns (Sahiplik Zamirleri) Sahiplik zamirleri adından da anlaşılacağı üzere aitlik belirtmek için kullanılırlar ve kendilerinden önce bahsi geçen ismi içinde barındırırlar. Possessive Pronouns Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs Benimki Seninki Onunki Bizimki Sizinki Onlarınki The ideas I stand for are not mine. I borrowed them from Socrates. Dale Carnegie Help others achieve their dreams and you will achieve yours. Les Brown There's a huge disparity. All the choices will be hers,the responsibility will be his. Mel Feit Duty is ours; results are God's. John Quincy Adams Your life is yours and yours alone. Rise up and live it. Terry Goodkind If you allow men to use you for your own purposes, they will use you for theirs. Aesop d. Demonstrative Pronouns “İşaret Zamirleri” İşaret zamirleri herhangi bir ismi göstermek işaret etmek için kullanılırlar. Stand for: desteklemek Borrow: ödünç almak Achieve: elde etmek Huge: devasa, büyük Disparity: ihtilaf Choices: tercih Duty: görev, sorumluluk Result: sonuç Riseup: ayağa kalkmak Allow: izin vermek Purpose: amaç, gaye Demonstrative Pronouns Bu Şu O Bunlar Şunlar Onlar This That He – She - It These Those They Be happy for this moment. This moment is your life. Omar Khayyam I am here for a purpose and that purpose is to grow into a mountain, not to shrink to a grain of sand. OgMandino The true university of these days is a collection of books. Thomas Carlyle For true success ask yourself these four questions: Why? Why not? Why not me? Why not now? James Allen Life is a tragedy for those who feel a comedy for those who think. Jean de la Bruyère Moment: an, kısa zaman Growinto: haline gelmek Shrink: küçülmek Grain: tanecik True: gerçek, doğru Success: başarı View slide
  • e. Reflexive Pronouns “Dönüşlük Zamirleri” Cümle içerisinde bulunan fiili yapan özne ve yapılan fiilden etkilenen nesne aynı ise dönüşlük zamirleri kullanılır. ReflexivePronouns Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Oneself Kendi kendime Kendi kendine Kendi kendine Kendi kendimize Kendi kendinize Kendi kendilerine Kendi kendine I have never seen a greater monster or miracle than myself. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne Life isn't about finding yourself. Life is about creating yourself. George Bernard Shaw Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself. Leo Tolstoy She generally gave herself very good advice, but she rarely followed it. Lewis Carroll Follow your instincts. That's where true wisdom manifests itself. Oprah Winfrey If we do not discipline ourselves the world will do it for us. William Feather Do the hard jobs first. The easy jobs will take care of themselves. Dale Carnegie The first and worst of all frauds is to cheat oneself. Gamaliel Bailey Greater: dahabüyük Monster: canavar Miracle: mucize Find: bulmak Create: meydana getirmek Change: değiştirmek Advice: tavsiye, öğüt Follow: uymak Instincts: içgüdü, his Wisdom: bilgelik Manifest: açığaçıkmak Take care of: ilgilenmek Worst: en kötü Fraud: aldatma Cheat: aldatmak f. Reciprocal Pronouns “İşteşlilik Zamirler” Cümle içerisinde gerçekleştirilen eylemi iki kişinin birlikte yaptığını ve bu eylemin sonucunun ikisini de etkilediğini belirtmek için kullanılır. each other one another Explain: açıklamak Things explain each other, not themselves. George Oppen Friends can help each other. A true friend is someone who lets you have total freedom to be yourself - and especially to feel. Or, not feel. Whatever you happen to be feeling at the moment is fine with them. Jim Morrison Faith embraces many truths which seem to contradict each other. Blaise Pascal What do we live for; if it is not to make life less difficult to each other? George Eliot Total: tüm Freedom: özgürlük Especially: özellikle Happento: başına gelmek Faith: iman Embrace: kucaklamak Truth: hakikat Contradict: zıt, ters düşmek Live for: için yaşamak Less: daha az Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. Jesus Christ Love one another and help others to rise to the higher levels, simply by pouring out love. Love is infectious and the greatest healing energy. Rise: yükselmek Simply: basitçe Pour out: dökmek Infectious: bulaşıcı Heal: iyileştirme
  • g. Indefinite Pronouns “Belgisiz Zamirler” Belgisiz zamirler adından da anlaşılacağı üzere ne olduğu, kim olduğu bilinmeyen isimler için kullanılırlar. İnsanlar için Indefinite Pronouns Herhangi biri Hiç kimse Herhangi biri Herkes Herhangi biri Hiç kimse Herhangi biri Herkes Bir diğeri Anyone No one Someone Everyone Anybody Nobody Somebody Everybody Another You cannot push anyone up the ladder unless he is willing to climb. Andrew Carnegie Nobody can hurt me without my permission. Mahatma Gandhi Everybody wants to be somebody; nobody wants to grow. Push: itmek Ladder: Merdiven Willingto: istekli olmak Hurt: incitmek Permission: izin Grow: büyümek, gelişmek Johann Wolfgang von Goethe When you judge another, you do not define them, you define yourself. Wayne Dyer Judge: yargılamak Define: tanımlamak We must be our own before we can be another's. Ralph Waldo Emerson Indefinite Pronouns Herhangi bir şey Anything Hiçbir şey Nothing Herhangi bir şey Something Her şey Everything A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new. Albert Einstein To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest. Mahatma Gandhi Everyone lives by selling something. Mistake: hata, yanlış Try: denemek Believe: inanmak Dishonest: hilekar Sell: satmak Robert Louis Stevenson Nothing is impossible, the word itself says 'I'm possible'! Impossible: imkansız Audrey Hepburn There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. William Shakespeare Plans are nothing; planning is everything. Dwight D. Eisenhower Thinking: düşünme
  • Read the sentences below and write appropriate pronouns. 1. ________ have no special talent. I am only passionately curious. Albert Einstein 2. I don't care what people think or say about ________, I know who I am.Jonathan Davis 3. I am prepared for the worst, but ________ hope for the best. Benjamin Disraeli 4. Change ________ thoughts and you change your world. Norman Vincent Peale 5. Always do your best. What ________ plant now, you will harvest later. OgMandino 6. If you can't explain it simply, _______ don't understand it well enough.Albert Einstein 7. No one can make you feel inferior without ________ consent.Eleanor Roosevelt 8. Wherever you go, go with all ________ heart. Confucius 9. ________ thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself . Tolstoy 10. He who conquers others is strong; He who conquers ________ is mighty. Lao Tzu 11. If you tell the truth, ________ don't have to remember anything.Mark Twain 12. If you don't go after what ________ want, you'll never have it.Nora Roberts 13. The best way to predict the future is to create ________.Abraham Lincoln 14. As soon as you trust _________, you will know how to live. Goethe 15. Never give up. ________ only get one life. Go for it! Richard E. Grant 16. If you can dream it, ________ can do it.Walt Disney 17. Everything ________ see is a shadow of the thing we do not see. M. Luther King 18. If _______ don't change, we don't grow. If _______ don't grow, we aren't really living. 19. Nothing but heaven ________ is better than a friend who is really a friend. Plautus 20. We first make ________ habits, and then our habits make ________. John Dryden 21. Happiness is not something you postpone; it is ________ you design at present. Jim Rohn 22. Mistakes are always forgivable, if one has the courage to admit ________. Bruce Lee 23. Intellectuals solve problems, geniuses prevent ________. Albert Einstein 24. A true friend is _______ who is there for you when he wants to be _______ else. Len Wein 25. We don't see things as they are, we see ________ as we are. Anais Nin 26. ______ deserves your tears, who deserves them will not make ________cry. Marquez 27. I trust ________ friends, they force me to examine ________, encourage ________ to grow. Cher 28. It does not matter how slowly you go as long as ________ do not stop.Confucius 29. Trust ________, then you will know how to live.Goethe 30. Some people go to priests; ________ to poetry; I to my friends. Virginia Woolf 31. Nobody can give you wiser advice than ________. Cicero 32. You change your life by changing ________ heart.Max Lucado 33. ________ are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream. C. S. Lewis 34. Life is 10% what happens to you and 90% how ________ react to it.Charles R. Swindoll 35. ________ thinks of changing the world, but ________ thinks of changing himself. 36. People are lonely because ________ build walls instead of bridges. Newton 37. There is ________ permanent except change. Heraclitus 38. Keep your face to the sunshine and ________ cannot see a shadow.Helen Keller 39. ________ wants to go to heaven, but nobody wants to die. Joe Louis 40. Be like melting snow -- wash ___________ of yourself.” Rumi 41. If you can’t make a mistake, you can’t make _______________. Marva Collins 42. Nobody can give you wiser advice than _________. Marcus Tullius Cicero Tolstoy Talent: yetenek, beceri Passionately: tutkuyla Curious: meraklı Care: önemsemek Prepared: hazılıklı olmak Hope: umut etmek Change: değiştirmek Plant: ekmek Harvest: hasat etmek Explain: açıklamak Inferior: değersiz Consent: rıza, onay Think: düşünmek Conquer: yenmek Mighty: efsane Remember: hatırlmak Predict: tahmin etmek Create: oluşturmak Trust: güvenmek Give up: vaz geçmek Dream: hayal etmek Shadow: gölge Grow: büyümek Heaven: cennet Habit: alışkanlık Postpone: ertelemek Forgivable: affedilebilir Courage: cesaret Admit: Kabul etmek Solve: çözmek Prevent: önlemek Deserve: hak etmek Tear: gözyaşı Force: zorlamak Encourage: teşvik etmek Matter: mesele, sorun Priest: papaz Wiser: akıllıca Advice: tavsiye etmek Set goal: hedef koymak Happen: olagelmek React: tepki vermek Lonely: yanlız Instead of: nın yerine Permanent: daimi, kalıcı Except: hariç Keep: yönelmek, tutmak Melt: erimek
  • Read the sentences and circle the correct answers. 1. A barber does not shave _________. African Proverb a) he b) him c) himself d) us e) them Failure: başarısızlık 2. Failure is not falling down but ________ is refusing to get up. Chinese Proverb a) It b) he c) she d) one e) its 3. The best way to find _________ is to lose yourself in the service of ________. Gandhi a) Him/ himself b) you / yourself c) yourself / others d) herself / him He b) it c) she d) itself Find: bulmak e) him 5. O Beloved, there is no room left in ________ heart for _________ but You! – Hafiz a) His/ something d) their / everything b) my/ everything e) my/ anything Them/ they b) him / he c) themselves/ they d) them/ themselves e) them/ one another 7. Forgive ________ for your faults and ________ mistakes and move on. - Les Brown a) Him / his b) yourself / your c) her/ hers d) them/ their e) yourself/ you 8. _______ can grant _________ happiness. Happiness is a choice we have. Koontz a) Anyone/ you b) everyone/ him c) nobody/ I d) no one/ us e) everybody/ you 9. Once _______ choose hope, _______ is possible. - Christopher Reeve a) he/ everything b) you/ nothing c) we/something d) you/ anything e) they/ nothing 10. Lovers don't finally meet _______. They are in _______ all along. Rumi a) nowhere/ each other d) anywhere/ others b) everywhere/ one another e) somewhere/ the other c) somewhere/each other 11. Never look down on _______ unless _______ are helping him up. - Jesse Jackson a) Anyone/ you b) everyone/ him c) nobody/ I d) no one/ you e) everybody/ you 12. _______ cannot change _______ until we accept it. - Carl Jung a)you/ Anyone b) we/something c) he/anything d) she/ nothing e) we/ anything 13. Winning isn't getting ahead of _______. It's getting ahead of _______. - Roger Staubach a) others/ yourself b) someone/ him c) nobody/ I d) no one/ it they/ you b) you/ you c) we/ us d) they/ them e) you/ your 15. Know that you know _______ and you are _______. Kashani a) Anyone/ you b) nothing/ you c) anything/ everyone Blame: suçlamak Forgive: affetmek Fault: hata, yanlış Move on:yola devam etmek Grant: bahşetmek Choice: seçenek, tercih Choose: seçmek Hope: umut Possible: mümkün, olanaklı Finally: nihayetinde All along: daima, her zaman Look down on: küçümsemek Help up: birinin ayağa kalkmasına yardım etmek Change: değiştirmek Accept: Kabul etmek Get ahead of: önüne geçmek Appear: görünmek e) everybody/ you 14. Appear as _______ are; be as _______ appear. Rumi a) Lose: kaybetmek Pure: kusursuz,masum c) her/ nothing 6. People don’t look at _________, and so they blame _________. Rumi a) b) Refuse: reddetmek e) oneself / themselves 4. When the eye is pure ________ sees purity. – Hakim Sanai a) Fall down: yıkılmak d) something/ anyone e) nothing/ no one Fill in the blanks with appropriate pronouns 16. People don’t observe ________ and thus they blame ________. Kashani 17. The more a man explores _______ the more power _______finds within. Inayat Khan 18. Experience is the name _______ gives to _______ mistakes. Oscar Wilde 19. We say _______ waste time, but that is impossible. We waste _______. Alice Bloch 20. If you leave ______ selfishness, you see how you are torturing _______soul. Rumi 21. The candle is not there to illuminate _______. - Nawab Jan-Fishan 22. The person I like most is the one who points out _______ defects. Umar 23. Be hard on _______, easy on _______. Imam Shafi' 24. Service to _______ is the rent you pay for _______ room here on earth. Muhammad Ali 25. If you don’t stand up for _______, you’ll fall for _______. Malcolm X. 26. Thankfulness brings _______ to the place where the Beloved lives. Rumi 27. Think as little as possible about _______ and as much as possible _______ people. Roosevelt 28. I long to escape the prison of _______ ego and lose _______ in You. Rumi 29. Promises mean _______, but after they are broken, sorry means _______. Unknown 30. A wise person knows that there is ________ to be learned from ________. Unknown Observe: gözlemlemek Thus: bu nedenle Blame: suçlamak Explore: keşfetmek, incelemek Within: içerisinde Experience: deneyim Mistake: hata, yanlış Impossible: imkansız Selfishness: bencillik Torture: eziyet etmek Soul: ruh Illuminate: aydınlatmak Point out:göstermek Defect: hata, kusur Be hard on: kötü davranmak Rent: kira Pay for: ödemek Stand up:savunmak Bring: getirmek Long to: çok istemek Escape: kaçmak Prison: hapishane Promise: Söz, vaat Mean: anlamına gelmek Wise: akıllı, zeki