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  • 1. Passive Passive yapı özellikle cümledeki eylemi yapan kişi önemli değilse ya da belirli değilse tercih edilir. Cümlenin içerisinde kullanılan fiil geçişli “nesne alabilen ” bir fiil olmalıdır aksi halde Passive olmaz. Örneğin; Ali her sabah okula gider. Bu cümle Passive “Edilgen” yapıya dönüştürülemez çünkü “gitmek” fiili geçişsiz bir fiildir. Aktif cümlenin içerisindeki eylemi yapan kimse cümlenin öznesi durumundadır. Aktif bir cümleyi Passive dönüştürürken; a. Aktif cümlenin nesnesi Passive cümlede özne konumuna getirilir. b. Cümlenin fiili başına Be fiili getirilerek V3 olarak çekimlenir. Aktif: Kağan şu kitabı yazdı. Kağan wrote that book. Özne Nesne Yüklem Subject Verb Object Passive: That book was written by Kağan. Subject Be + past participle (V3) TENSE Present Simple Present Continuous Present perfect ACTIVE Kağan writes this book. This book is written by Kağan. Kağan is writing this book. This book is being written by Kağan. Kağan has written this book. This book has been written by Kağan. Present Perfect Continuous Kağan has been writing this book. Past Simple PASSIVE Passive yapıya dönüştürülmez. Kağan wrote that book. That book was written by Kağan. Past Continuous Kağan was writing that book. That book was being written by Kağan. Past perfect Kağan had written that book. That book had been written by Kağan. Past perfect Continuous Future Simple Future Continuous Future perfect Future perfect Continuous Kağan had been writing that book. Kağan will write this book. Kağan will be writing this book. Kağan will have written this book. Kağan’ll have been writing this book. Passive yapıya dönüştürülmez. This book will be written by Kağan. Passive yapıya dönüştürülmez. This book will have been written by Kağan. Passive yapıya dönüştürülmez. Can May Kağan May Could Modals Can Could Might write this book. This book Might Should Should Must Must Have to be written by Kağan. Have to Can’t have May have Kağan May have Could have Perfect Modals Can’t have Could have Might have written this book. This book Might have been written by Kağan Should have Should have Must have Must have
  • 2. Present Simple Am/is/are V3 The term Fahrenheit is never used in weather forecasts. Artificial Intelligence is used to describe humans’ ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Fitness is determined more by the intensity of exercise than the duration. Seismic waves are recorded on instruments called seismographs. Mothers are expected to devote themselves to their children. Forecast: tahmin Artificial: yapay Describe: tanımlamak Discover: keşfetmek Experience: deneyim Determine: belirlemek Intensity: yoğunluk Duration: dayanıklılık Wave: dalga Present Continuous Record: kaydetmek Devote: adamak Am/is/are being V3 Effort: çaba A great deal of scientific effort is being made to find solutions to complex problems. Solution: çözüm Mars is being fully explored because, as a planet, it is so close to the Earth. Drought: kuraklık Drought-resistant species of trees are being developed by large lumber companies. Resistant: dirençli Destroy: zarar vermek Rain forests are being destroyed and burned at a rate unprecedented in history. Unprecedented: Gene therapies are being tested on patients in clinical trials. Trial: deney More than 60,000 square kilometers of productive land is being lost every year. Productive: üretken Present perfect Have/has been V3 More than 8,000 books and articles have been devoted to Ottoman Empire. Topics such as foreign affairs, terrorism, security have been studied extensively. The aims of the NATO intervention in this country have been clearly defined. The benefits of omega-3 fatty acids have been confirmed by the results of various studies. A mammoth’s tissues and skeleton have been studied at a zoological museum in Russia. English as a SL has been taught in Africa for nearly four hundred years. The US government’s currency policy has been sharply criticized. Past simple Was/were V3 Iceland was taken over by Norway in 1262 and regained its independence in 1944. Kierkegaard was widely appreciated and fully understood by his contemporaries. Robot-like devices were actually created thousands of years ago, but were not popular until one appeared in a play in 1921. Today, two professors were involved in a fierce debate about the Marshall Plan. During the middle ages, paper was brought to Europe by the Arabs. In Shakespeare‟s time, the theatre was a popular form of entertainment and remained so until it was banned in 1649. Past continuous Was/were being V3 By the mid-1950s portable radios were being sold in the United States and Europe. The Minister brought a map to show us where the new bridge was being built. Nidâ Tüfekçi died in hospital where he was being treated for a heart condition. In the early part of the 20th century the quantum theory was being developed. Some of the participants did not know their attitudes were being measured. Kierkegaard opposed the doctrines and ideas which were being advanced by some of his contemporaries like Feuerbach and Marx. Affair: konu mesele Extensively: geniş çaplı Aim: hedef Intervention: Clearly: açıkça Benefit: kar, yarar Confirm: onaylamak Various: çeşitli Tissue: doku Currency: para birimi Criticize: eleştirmek Take over: yönetimi almak Independence: bağımsızlık Widely: geniş ölçüde Contemporaries: çağdaş Device: alet Appear: ortaya çıkma Involve in: katılmak Fierce: şiddetli Debate: tartışma Remain: kalmak Ban: yasaklamak Portable: taşınabilir Build: inşa etmek Treat: tedavi etmek Participant: katılımcı Attitude: tavır, tutum Measure: ölçmek Oppose: karşı çıkmak
  • 3. Past perfect Had been V3 Until the early 1960s, the houses had been built largely from remnants of the ancient city. After the 1997 financial crisis, Southeast Asia had been overtaken by China and India. Iceland, annexed by Norway in 1262, had been an independent republic since 930. Until 13th century, European maritime commerce had been divided between a Mediterranean and a North Atlantic world. Before Copernicus it had been believed that the centre of the universe was the Earth. All the tickets had been sold at least a week before the concert took place. Future Simple Will be V3 Living beings will be found on one of Jupiter’s satellites. One day Earth-like life will be discovered outside our own planet. Citizens will be registered in Turkey as a voter after 18 years of age. He has given in his resignation, but he isn’t sure that it will be accepted. After secondary school, students will be educated and trained for a special job. Everybody will be very satisfied with the training offered. Future perfect Will have been V3 By the age of 20 an average person will have been exposed to at least 20,000 hours of television. The construction of the world’s tallest residential building, the Chicago Spire will have been completed by late 2015. The production will have been increased by the end of this month. By 9 o’clock, the results of the exam will have been announced by the teacher. By the end of this century, 60 percent of the fresh water on Earth will have been run out of due to waste of it. Present Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future perfect Continuous Past perfect Continuous Bu tense’lerin Passive çekimleri kullanılmaz. Largely: büyük ölçüde Remnant: kalıntı Crisis: kriz Overtake: geçmek Annex:topraklarına katmak Maritime: deniz Commerce: ticaret Divide: bölmek Believe: inanmak Universe: kainat Take place: olmak Satellite: uydu Planet: gezegen Citizen: vatandaş Register: kaydolmak Voter: seçmen Resignation: istifa Accept: Kabul etmek Train: eğitmek Satisfy with: tatmin olmak Offer: önermek Average: ortalama Expose to: maruz kalmak Residential: konut Announce: bildirmek Run out of: bitmek
  • 4. Passive of Modals Can be V3 Hunting tools can be interpreted as symbols of male power. The shrub “jatropha” can be grown on land too poor for trees to grow on. Beauty can be defined universally, but in fact it is purely subjective. Biodiversity can only be sustained through the preservation of forests as well as wetlands. Solar energy can be used for the generation of electricity and also for the heating of water as well as buildings. Must be V3 New and better methods of preventing thermal pollution must be found. For something to be considered cultural, it must be learned as well as shared. The oxygen-generator canisters must be replaced periodically to ensure that they will operate properly. Every effort must be made for ultimate reliability to new aircrafts. Have to be V3 New power sources have to be developed to replace conventional fuels. Global warming has to be solved through energy conservation. There is still a lot that has to be learned about the moon. Children have to be reminded that their parents also have rights. Several problems have to be overcome to make any nuclear reactor function. Vaccines have to be reformulated every year to keep on working. Hunting: avlanma Interpret: yorumlamak Purely: tamamen Subjective: öznel Biodiversity: biyolojik çeçit Sustain: sürdürmek Wetland: sulak arazi Generation: üretme Prevent: önlemek Pollution: kirlilik Share: paylaşmak Canister: kutu Periodically: periyodik olarak Ensure: temin etmek Operate: çalıştırmak Properly: düzgün bir şekilde Effort: çaba Ultimate:mutlak Reliability: güvenilirlik Source: kaynak Conventional: geleneksel Conservation: tasarruf etme Remind: hatırlamak Right: hak Overcome: üstesinden gelmek Function: çalışmak Vaccine: aşı Keep on: sürdürmek Could be V3 The First World War could be called the War of the Ottoman Succession. The damaging effects of television on children could be lessened. Matter and energy could be changed into each other. Nano-robots could be programmed to turn everything into more nano-robots. International problems could be solved through negotiations. The journey time from Earth to Mars could be reduced from six months to less than six weeks. Succession: veraset Damaging: zarar verici Lessen: azaltmak Matter: madde Change into: dönüştürmek Solve: çözmek Negotiation: görüşme Reduce: azatlmak May be V3 Brain chips may be developed in the future to strengthen memory. Your research may be rejected due to your lack of advanced research experience. Foods that were previously seasonal may be found now throughout the year. Various methods may be used when analysing a work of art. Misleading statements and lies may be used to create desired effect in the public. Strengthen: güçlendirmek Reject: reddetmek Lack of: yoksunluk Previously: önceden Mislead: yanlış bilgilendirmek Desired: arzu edilen Public: kamu Might be V3 The discovery of electron might be said to mark the beginning of modern physics. Rural life might be made more attractive by making investments there. Saudi Middle East peace plan of 2002 might be revived by persuading the Arab League to make the plan more attractive to Israel. The new discovery might be employed in other tube-like structures in the body. Mark: belirlemek Attractive: cazip Investment: yatırım Peace: barış Revive: gözden geçirmek Persuade: ikna etmek Employ: kullanmak Structure: yapı
  • 5. Should be V3 Management should be made to recognize the role of the staff is of first in success. The causes of French Revolution should be understood in terms of class interests. A complex and difficult situation should be faced;there’s no use trying to run away Nuclear materials should be used only in useful and benign applications. Children should be taught how to protect wild life. Knowledge has always been valued, and more knowledge should be shared. An effective work group should be designed well from the start, bringing together people who can contribute to the right mix of knowledge, skills, tools and other resources necessary to succeed. Ought to be V3 This is not your first accident. In act you ought to be banned from driving! Some scientists have suggested that Pluto’s exploration ought to be started soon. Advertising on TV ought to be banned! A spare tyre ought to be carried in every car. Primitive cave pictures ought to be preserved even if they have little artistic value. Need to be V3 Different uses of the available supply of labour need to be considered. Your paper needs to be extensively revised. Nuclear waste is a big problem and it needs to be discussed extensively. Living conditions in the countryside need to be made better and more agreeable. Be to be V3 The United States and the Soviet Union reached an agreement on the question of how Germany was to be divided. Nothing is to be gained by fighting against the rages of the mighty stream. The oil industry is to be blamed for political manipulations in the world. Brown bread is to be found only in the villages. Most western countries lack the variety that is to be found in the languages and cultures of India. Used to be V3 Boys used to be sent away as apprentices to a craftsman to learn his trade. opera used to be characterized by unnatural, alienating conventions. The Gulf kingdoms used to be regarded as politically crude. It’s hard to believe that cigarette smoking used to be encouraged by governments. Likely to be V3 Some people act in a helpful manner only when their good deeds are likely to be noticed. Those who took angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were up to 50% less likely to be diagnosed with dementia. Management: yönetim Recognize: fark etmek Staff: personel Cause: sebep Situation: durum Run away: kaçmak Benign: tehlikesiz Application: uygulama Knowledge: bilgi Bring together: toplamak Contribute: katkı sağlamak Necessary: gerekli Succeed: başarmak Accident: kaza Ban: yasaklamak Suggest: önermek Spare: yedek Carry: taşımak Primitive: ilkel Value: değer Different: farklı Available: mevcut Extensively: geniş ölçüde Waste: atık Condition: şart Agreeable: Kabul edilebilir Agreement: antlaşma Divide: parçalamak Gain: elde etmek Rage: öfke Mighty: efsanevi Blame for: suçlamak Send away: göndermek Apprentice: çıraklık Trade: ticaret Crude: ilkel Encourage: cesaretlendirmek Government: hükumet Manner: tavır Deed: amel Notice: farketmek Diagnose: teşhis etmek Dementia: yaşlılık, bunama
  • 6. Must have been V3 The whales and dolphins must have been killed by military sonars. Galaxies must have been created by great explosions in space. Primitive technology must have been used by Galileo at his observations. Could have been V3 The whole project could have been completed in just under three years. Most of this damage could have been avoided if you had noticed problem earlier. The failure of the toothpaste campaign in Southeast Asia could have been avoided. Without his urge no progress could have been made. May have been V3 Homer’s epics may have been preserved orally for several centuries. 19th century military helmets may have been better designed than they now appear. Gender divisions may have been less clearly defined among the peasantry than they were among the elites. Rock, which contains exactly the same type of fossil, may have been formed at approximately the same time. The famous Adam Smith may have been influenced by Hume. Might have been V3 Their offer might have been turned down indefinitely. The theory of continental drift might have been accepted decades earlier. Should have been V3 Geçmişte bir şey yapılmalıydı ama yapılmadı A few more people should have been invited to our party last night. Lovell Telescope should have been given a less complicated design. Nuclear weapons should have been prohibited before that disastrous war. The grass in the garden should have been cut a week ago. Imbalances should have been corrected a long time ago Need have been V3 Geçmişte herhangi bir şeyin yapılması gerekliydi ama yapılmadı. His clothes need have been washed but he had no family. My exam paper need have been revised by the professor. People need have been informed by the authorities. Military: askeri Sonar: radar Great: büyük Explosion: patlama Observation: gözlem Complete: tamamlamak Damage: hasar Avoid: sakınmak Failure: başarısızlık Urge: zorlamak Progress: ilerleme Orally: sözlü olarak Helmet: başlık Appear: görünmek Gender: cinsiyet Peasantry: köylü sınıf Contain: içermek Form: şekillendirmek Approximately: ortalama Influence: etkilemek Turn down: reddetmek Indefinitely: süresiz olarak Continental: kıtasal Drift: kayma Accept: Kabul etmek Invite: davet etmek Complicate: karmaşık Prohibit: yasaklamak Disastrous: felaket Imbalance: dengesizlik Correct: düzeltmek Revise: gözden geçirmek Inform: bilgilendirmek
  • 7. Other passive structures GET V3 Passive cümle yaparken “Be” yardımcı fiilinin yerine GET+V3 yapısı da kullanılabilir. İkisinin arasında çok küçük bir fark vardır; Be + V3 planlanmış, kasıtlı eylemlerden bahsederken kullanılır; Od was written by İskender Pala. Cem Bonomo was selected to represent Turkey at Eurovision. Get + V3 planlanmamış, kasıtsız ve anlık olaylarda kullanılır; Kağan got injured while playing football. Students got shocked when they heard the extra fee. NEED + Ving Need Ving passive anlam taşır. My computer needs formatting. This car needs washing. Our flat needed redecorating. CAUSATIVES “Ettirgen” Causative kalıpları herhangi bir insandan bizim için ya da sırf kendi faydaları için bir şey yapmalarını istediğimizde kullanılır. Have + (somebody) person + Verb0 Herhangi bir insana bir şey yapması için sorumluluk vermek istendiğinde; Our boss has the secretary prepare the product list. The old mentor had the protégé decide by himself. Get + (somebody) person + to + Verb0 Herhangi bir insanı bir şey yapması konusunda ikna etmek anlamında; I get my nephew to tidy his room daily. Advertisements get people to buy products. Get / Have Something Verb3 Get ve have kendilerinden sonra bir isim alarak passive yapı gibi kullanılabilir. I get my house decorated. Ali got his car repaired. They are getting their farm planted. Let + (somebody) person + verb Herhangi bir insanı bir şey yapması için izin vermek anlamında; The mechanic let me watch him while he was repairing my car. The new coach let Kuyt play the next match. Make + (somebody) person + verb Herhangi bir insanı bir şey yapması konusunda zorlamak anlamında; My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat?