• Like
  • Save
Language Teaching Approaches Questions
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Language Teaching Approaches Questions

on

  • 988 views

Language Teaching Approaches Questions

Language Teaching Approaches Questions

Statistics

Views

Total Views
988
Views on SlideShare
988
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
51
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Language Teaching Approaches Questions Language Teaching Approaches Questions Presentation Transcript

    • QUESTIONS GTM
    • What are the goals of Ts who use the GTM? To enable Sts to read literature written in the TL. To teach Sts how L2 works according to the grammar rules. To create awareness about language, for we have acquired our NL without instructions of grammar rules. What is the role of the Ts? The roles are very traditional. (Ts centered) Ts are authority in the class. How does the Ts respond to student errors? Having the Sts get the correct answer is important. Ts supplies the correct answer
    • What is the role of the Sts ? Sts should do what Ts say to learn what Ts lecture or teach. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Sts are taught to translate from one language to another. Literary texts (about culture of the target community) are used as language examples. Sts study grammar deductively; (They are given the grammar rules and examples, and they are told to memorize them, and then they are asked to apply the rules to other examples) They memorize native-language equivalents for TL vocabulary.
    • What is the nature of student-Ts interaction? Most of the interaction is from Ts to Sts . What is the nature of Sts-Sts interaction? There is little student Initiation little student student interaction. How are the feelings of the Sts dealt with? There is no principle relate to this area. How is the language viewed? Written language is superior to spoken language How is culture viewed? Culture is literature and the fine arts.
    • What areas of language are emphasized? Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. What language skills are emphasized? Reading and writing are the primary skills. less attention given to speaking and listening. Pronunciation receives no attention. What is the role of the Sts ' native language? Communication medium is L1 meaning of TL is made clear by translating. How is evaluation accomplished? Written tests ask translation from NL into TL. Language or vice versa are often used. Questions about the target culture are used. Questions requiring applying a grammar rule to a given case are also common.
    • QUESTIONS DM
    • What are the goals of Tss who use the Direct Method? Enable Sts to communicate in the target language. Sts should learn to think in the target language. What is the role of the Ts? Director of the class Partner of learning / teaching process What is the role of the Sts ? Sts role is less passive than in the GTM What is the nature of student-Ts interaction? Interaction goes both ways, from Ts to Sts and from Sts to Ts, although the Ts student interaction is often directed by Ts. What is the nature of student-student interaction? Sts converse with one another as well.
    • What are characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Sts should associate meaning and the TL directly. When the Ts introduces a new TL word or phrase, demonstrates its meaning through realia, pictures, or pantomime Ts never translates into the Sts ' native language. Sts speak in TL and communicate asif they were in real situations. syllabus is based upon situations (for example, one unit would consist of language that people would use at a bank, another of the language that they use when going shopping) or topics such as geography, money, or the weather. Grammar is taught inductively. An explicit grammar rule is never given. Sts practice vocabulary by using new words in complete sentences.
    • How are the feelings of the Sts dealt with? There are no principles of the method which relate to this area. How is language viewed? Language is primarily spoken, not written. Sts study common, everyday speech in the target language. How is culture viewed? The history of the people. Geography of the countries where the language is spoken, Daily lives of the speakers of the language. What areas of language are emphasized? Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar. Oral communication is seen important. Pronunciation also receives attention right from the beginning
    • What language skills are emphasized? Although work on all four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) occurs from the start, writing and reading are based upon what Sts practice orally. What is the role of the Sts ' native language? The Sts ' native language is never used in the classroom. How is evaluation accomplished? Sts are asked to use language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about language. Sts might be interviewed orally by the Ts or might be asked to write a paragraph about something they have studied. How does the Ts respond to student errors? Ts tries to get Sts to self correct whenever possible.
    • QUESTIONS ALM
    • What are the goals of Tss who use the Audio-Lingual Method? Enable Sts to use the TL communicatively. They believe that Sts need to over-learn the TL and use it automatically without stopping to think. Sts can achieve this by forming new habits in the TL and at the same time they should overcome the old habits of their native language. What is the role of the Ts? Ts is like an orchestra leader who is directing and controlling the Language behavior of Sts. Ts is also responsible for providing her Sts with a good model for imitation. What is the role of the Sts ? Sts are imitators of the Ts's model or the tapes supplied as model speakers. Sts follow Ts's directions and respond as accurately and as rapidly as possible.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? New structural patterns and vocabulary are presented through dialogs. Dialogs are learned through imitation and repetition. Sts' successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is induced from examples, explicit grammar rules are not provided. Information about target culture is given in the contexts by means of dialogs. Oral work comes first, written work is based upon oral work they did earlier. What is the nature of student Ts interaction? Most of the interaction is between Ts and Sts and is initiated by the Ts. When Sts take different roles in dialogs, they are directed by Ts. What is the nature of student student interaction? There is student-to-student interaction in chain drills. How does the Ts respond to student errors? Errors are never tolerated, they are considered unwanted habits.
    • How is the language viewed? As descriptive linguists claim, each language has its own unique system. These systems have different levels (phonological, morphological, and syntactic) Each level has its own distinctive patterns. How is the culture viewed? Culture consists of the everyday behavior and lifestyle of TL speakers. Everyday speech is emphasized. The level of complexity of the speech is graded, beginners are presented only simple patterns. What areas of language are emphasized? Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while the Sts are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. A grammatical pattern is not the same as a sentence.
    • What language skills are emphasized? The natural order of skills is listening, speaking, reading and writing. The oral/aural skills (speaking and listening) receive most of the attention. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning often in language laboratories. What is the role of the Sts ' native language? The source for interference. (Sts' NL is thought to interfere with the TL) A contrastive analysis between the Sts' NL and TL will reveal where this interference will take place more. How is evaluation accomplished? Sts including questions focused on only one point of language at a time. Sts might be asked to distinguish between words in a minimal pair, or to supply an appropriate verb form in a sentence.
    • QUESTIONS CLL
    • What are the goals of Ts who use CLL? Ts want their Sts to learn how to use the TL communicatively. Ts want their Sts to learn about their own learning, to take increasing responsibility for it, to learn how to learn from one another. What is the role of the Ts? The Ts's initial role is primarily that of a counselor. Ts recognize how threatening a new learning situation can be for adult learners. Then he understand and support Sts in their efforts to learn target language. What is the role of the Sts? Initially the learners are very dependent upon the Ts. As the learners continue to study, they become increasingly independent.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Initially the learners are very dependent upon the Ts. As the learners continue to study, they become increasingly independent. At the beginning Sts typically use their native language. Ts translate what they want to say into the TL in chunks. These chunks are recorded, and when they are replayed, it sounds like a fairly fluid conversation. Later, the transcript is changed into a written conversation, native language equivalents are written under the TL words. The transcription of the conversation becomes a 'text' with which Sts work. Various activities are conducted (examination of a grammar point, working on pronunciation of a particular phrase, or creating new sentences with words from the transcript) These activities allow Sts to further explore the language they have generated.
    • To Curran, there are 6 elements necessary for non-defensive learning. 1-Security, 2- Aggression opportunity to express themselves, be actively involved, invest themselves in the learning experience. 3- Attention. 4-Reflection, careful consideration and fixing of thoughts on what someone is doing 5-Retention the act or power of remembering things 6-Discrimination The power of making fine distinctions, discriminating judgments
    • What is the nature of student Ts interaction? CLL is neither student- centered, nor Ts-centered but rather Ts-student-centered, with both being decision-makers in the class. Ts physically removes himsel to encourage Sts to interact with one another. What is the nature of student-student interaction? Building a relationship with and among Sts is very important. Sts can learn from their interaction with each other as well as with the Ts. How are the feelings of the Sts dealt with? Responding to the Sts ' feelings is very important. One regular activity is inviting Sts to comment on how they feel. The Ts listens to and responds to each comment carefully. By showing Sts he understands how they feel, Ts can help them overcome negative feelings that might block their learning.
    • How is language viewed? Language is for communication. How is culture viewed? Culture is an integral part of language learning. What areas of language are emphasized? In the early stages, they want to be able to say in the target language. Later on, after Sts feel more secure, the Ts might prepare specific materials or work with published textbooks. What language skills are emphasized? Particular grammar points, pronunciation patterns, and vocabulary. important skills are understanding and speaking language at the beginning, with reinforcement through reading and writing.
    • What is the role of the Sts ’ native language? Purpose of using NL is to provide a bridge from familiar to unfamiliar. NL translations are given and this makes their meaning clear. Directions and sessions during which Sts express their feelings are conducted in the NL. How is evaluation accomplished? There is no particular mode of evaluation prescribed in the CLL. Whatever evaluation is conducted considering the principles of the method. Tss would encourage Sts to self-evaluate-to look at their own learning to become aware of their own progress. How does the Ts respond to student errors? Ts should work with what the learner has produced in a non- threatening way. Ts can repeat correctly what Sts said incorrectly, without calling further attention to the error.
    • QUESTIONS CLT
    • What are the goals of Tss who use (CLT)? to enable Sts communicate in TL in the given social context. What is the role of the Ts? To facilitate communication in the class by establishing situations that require true communication. Ts act as an adviser answering Sts ' questions and monitoring their performance. What is the role of the Sts ? Sts are communicators who are actively engaged in negotiating meaning. They try to understand others and make themselves understood (even when their knowledge of the target language is incomplete) To undertake the responsibility of the learning.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Almost everything is done with the purpose of communication. Sts use language through communicative activities such as games, role plays, and problem- solving tasks. Communicative activates have three features in common: Information gap, choice, and immediate feedback. True communication should be purposeful. A speaker evaluates whether or not his purpose has been achieved based upon the information s/he receives from the listener. If the listener does not have an opportunity to provide the speaker with such feedback, then the exchange is not really communicative. Another characteristic of CLT is the use of authentic materials. Materials have been produced to fulfill some social purpose inlanguage community The activities in CLT are often carried out by Sts in small groups. It provide all Sts with opportunity of much time and chance for communication
    • What is the nature of student-Ts interaction? Ts may present some part of the lesson for the sake of linguistic accuracy, he is the facilitator of the activities based on communication. What is the nature of student-student interaction? Sts interact a great deal with one another. They do this in various configurations: pairs, triads, small groups,whole group. How are the feelings of the Sts dealt with? Sts should feel they are doing something useful & purposeful with language. Such feeling is more motivating for the study of FLlearning. How is language viewed? Language is for communication, knowledge about form and meaning is not enough, because what makes language purposeful and useful is ability of using the proper form in proper setting considering the proper function.
    • How is culture viewed? Culture is the everyday lifestyle of people who use the language. What areas of language are emphasized? Language functions might be emphasized over forms. A variety of forms are introduced for each function. Only the simpler forms would be presented at first, as Sts get proficient , functions are reintroduced and more complex forms are learned. They learn about cohesion and coherence. What language skills are emphasized? Sts work on all four skills from the beginning. beginning, oral communication takes place through negotiation between speaker and listener. Later, meaning is derived from written word through an interaction between reader and writer. Meaning does not, therefore, reside exclusively in the text, but rather arises through negotiation between the reader and writer.
    • What is the role of the Sts ' native language? Reasonable use of the Sts ' native language is permitted but whenever possible, the target language should be used not only during communicative activates, but also for explaining the activities to the Sts . It should be noted that TL is a vehicle for communication, not just an object to be studied.
    • QUESTIONS DE-SUGGESTOPEDIA
    • What are the goals of teachers who use de-suggestopedia? Ts try to accelerate learning process by de suggesting psychological barriers learners bring with them to the learning situation using techniques to activate the 'para conscious' part of the mind, just below the fully-conscious mind. What is the role of the teacher? The teacher is the authority in the classroom. What is the role of the students? The students must trust and respect the teacher. Once the students trust the teacher, they can feel more secure. If they feel secure, they can be more spontaneous and less inhibited.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Classroom is bright and cheerful. posters take advantage of sts‟ peripheral learning Students select target language names and choose new occupations. Texts are handouts containing lengthy dialogs (as many as 800 words) in TL Next to the dialog is a translation in the students' native Language. Notes on vocabulary and grammar which correspond to bold- faced items in the dialog. Ts presents dialog during two concerts which forms first phase (the receptive phase). In first concert (active concert) Ts reads dialog, matching his voice to rhythm and pitch of music. In this way, whole brain' (both Left and right hemispheres) of Sts become activated. Sts follow the TL dialog as Ts reads it out loud. They also check the translation In second concert (passive concert), Sts listen calmly while Ts read dialog at a normal rate of speed. For homework sts read over the dialog before they go to sleep, and again when get up. What follows is the second major phase (the activation phase), in which students engage in various activities designed to help them gain facility with the new material. The activities include dramatizations, games, songs, and question-and-answer exercises.
    • What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? Ts initiate interactions with whole group and with individuals from beginning. What is the nature of student-student interaction? When sts have more control over TL, they can initiate interaction among themselves How are the feelings of the students dealt with? A great deal of attention is given to students‟ feelings. If sts are relaxed and confident, learning will just come naturally. How is language viewed? Language is first component of communication that takes place in two planes. Plane 1: Linguistic code Plane 2: The other factors that influence the linguistic message. The way one dresses or nonverbal behavior affect how one's message is interpreted How is culture viewed? culture is everyday life of people who speak the language. The use of the fine arts is also important
    • What areas of language are emphasized? Vocabulary is emphasized. Grammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally. sts learn best when conscious attention is focused not on forms, but on using language. What language skills are emphasized? Speaking communicatively is emphasized. Sts also read in the target language (dialogs) and write (imaginative compositions). What is the role of the students' native language? Native language translation is used to clarify the meaning. Ts also use the native Language in class when necessary. As course proceeds, Ts use the native language less and less.
    • How is evaluation accomplished? Formal tests are never used, because such tests will threaten relaxed atmosphere of class. Evaluation is conducted on students' normal in-class performance. How does the teacher respond to student errors? Errors are corrected gently with the teacher„s soft voice.
    • QUESTIONS SILENT WAY
    • What are the goals of teachers who use the Silent Way? To enable students to use the language for self-expression. To do this, sts need to develop Independence from the ts, to develop their own Inner criteria for correctness. Ts should give sts only what they need to promote learning. What is the role of the teacher? The teacher is a technician or engineer. Only the learner can do the learning, Ts can give what help is necessary and force their awareness. What is the role of the students? to make use of what they know, and to actively engage in exploring the language. No one can learn for someone else and “learning” is personal responsibility of each student.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? Sts begin their study through its basic building blocks, its sounds. These are introduced through Language-specific sound-color chart. Ts lead Sts to associate sounds of TL with particular colors. Later, these same colors are used to help students learn the spellings that correspond to the sounds (through the color-coded Fidel charts) And how to read and pronounce words properly (color-coded word charts) Ts set up situations that focus sts attention on structure of TL. The situations provide a vehicle for sts to perceive meaning. Situations sometimes require use of rods and sometimes do not; Ts use sts' errors as evidence of where the language is unclear, where to work. They gain autonomy in Tl by exploring it and making choices. Ts ask Sts to describe their reactions to lesson or what they have learned. This provides valuable information for Ts and encourages sts to take responsibility for their own learning. Some further learning takes place while they sleep.
    • What is the nature of student teacher interaction? Ts are silent but active to set up situations to force Sts awareness about learning Ts listen to the sts carefully and enable Sts to produce correct language using nonverbal gestures and the other tools. What is the nature of student student interaction? Student-student verbal interaction is desirable. Students are encouraged to learn from one another. How are the feelings of the students dealt with? Ts observe sts and help them overcome negative feelings. A relaxed, enjoyable Learning environment is created. How is language viewed? Languages of the world share a number of features. However, each language also has its own unique reality, or sprit, since it is the expression of a particular group of people.
    • How is culture viewed? Culture is considered to be the reflection of unique world view, It is inseparable from the language. What areas of language are emphasized? As sounds are basic to language, pronunciation is worked on from beginning. It is important that students acquire the melody of the language. There is also a focus on the structures of the language, explicit grammar rules may never be supplied. Vocabulary is somewhat restricted at first. There is no fixed syllabus. Instead, Ts start with what Sts know and builds from one structure to the next. What language skills are emphasized? All four skills are worked on from the beginning of the course, sequence in sts learn to read and write what they have alrdy produced orally.
    • What is the role of the students' native language? Meaning is made clear by focusing the sts' perceptions, not by translation. The sts' NL can be used to give instructions when necessary. NL is also used (at beginning levels of proficiency) during feedback sessions. How is evaluation accomplished? Although Ts may never give a formal test, they assess sts learning all the time. Since 'teaching is subordinated to learning, Ts must be responsive to immediate learning needs. One criterion of whether or not students have learned is their ability to transfer what they have been studying to new contexts. The teacher does not praise or criticize student behavior. How does the teacher respond to student errors? Sts‟ errors are seen as a natural, indispensable part of learning. Errors are inevitable since sts are encouraged to explore language. Ts use sts errors as a basis for deciding where further work is necessary. Ts work with sts in getting them to self-correct.
    • QUESTIONS TPR
    • What are the goals of teachers who use TPR? Have sts enjoy their experience in learning to communicate in TL. TPR was developed to reduce stress they feel when studying TL. The way TL learning is similar to the way of NL. What is the role of the teacher? Initially, the teacher is the director of all student behavior. What is the role of the students? The students are imitators of her nonverbal model. At some point (after 10 to 20 hours) sts will be ready to speak.
    • What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? The first phase of the lesson is modeling. Instructor issues commands to a few sts, then performs actions with them. In second phase, the same sts demonstrate that they can understand the commands by performing them alone. Observers also have an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding. Next, Ts recombine elements of the commands to have sts develop flexibility in understanding unfamiliar utterances. These commands, which sts perform, are often humorous. After learning to respond to some oral commands, Sts learn to read and write them. When sts are ready to speak, they become the ones who issue the commands. After sts begin speaking, activities expand to include skits (a short theatrical scene) and mes.
    • What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? Ts interacts with the whole group of sts and with individual sts. Initially, Ts speak and sts respond nonverbally. Later on, sts become more verbal and Ts respond nonverbally. What is the nature of student-student interaction? Students perform the actions together. Students can learn by watching each other. At some point, observers must demonstrate their understanding of commands As sts begin to speak, they issue commands to one another as well as to Ts. How are the feelings of the students dealt with? TPR was developed was to reduce the stress people feel when studying TL. Sts are not forced to speak; they speak when they are ready. (Forcing= anxiety) When sts do begin to speak, perfection should not be expected. Another way to relieve anxiety is to make learning as enjoyable as possible. Use of comical commands and humorous skits show that learning can be fun. Feelings of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
    • How is language viewed? Just as with the acquisition of NL, the oral modality is primary. How is culture viewed? Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively. What areas of language are emphasized? Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized. These are embedded within imperatives. The imperatives are single words and multiword chunks. One reason for using imperatives is their frequency of occurrence in the speech directed at young children learning their native language. What language skills are emphasized? Understanding the spoken word should precede its production. The spoken language is emphasized over written language.
    • What is the role of the students' native language? TPR is usually introduced in the student's native language. After the introduction, the native language is rarely used. Meaning is made clear through body movements. How is evaluation accomplished? Ts know whether sts understand by observing sts' actions. Evaluations is conducted by commanding sts to perform actions. How does the teacher respond to student errors? It is expected that sts will make errors when they begin speaking. Ts should be tolerant of them and only correct major errors. As sts get more advanced, Ts can 'fine tune' correct minor errors.