Language Teaching Approaches and methods


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Language Teaching Approaches and methods

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Language Teaching Approaches and methods

  1. 1. Method: A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methodology:The study of pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical underpinnings and related research). Technique: Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.
  2. 2. plan Implementation technique method approach philosophy
  3. 3. THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM) Learning Theory: Deductive learning is essential. First, the Ts gives rules explicitly then rules are reinforced with examples and exercises. Language Theory: Language is for understanding the literature. Translation is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is not primarily important. Written language is superior to spoken language. Sts also learn the structure of their own NL. Learners become more cultured and intellectual.
  4. 4. Culture: Culture is limited to literature and fine arts. Tss' Role: Ts is the strict authority. Ts centred. Sts' Role: Sts are passive receivers of the new information. Ts starts the activities and directs them. Sts are supposed to memorise the rules and new vocabulary with their meanings in their NL. Interactions: Very often “Ts –Student” interactions occur. Rarely “Student – Student” interactions also occur.
  5. 5. Vocabulary Teaching: Memorisation of vocabulary with their NL equivalents Cognates(“cinema –sinema”, “theatre – tiyatro”etc). Synonyms and antonyms Grammar Teaching: The teaching of grammar is deductive. Ts introduces rules explicitly and wants Sts to apply rules to new examples in exercises. Sts are supposed to memorise the rules. To explain the rules, comparison and contract between the Sts’ NL grammar and TL grammar. Translation is a way to clarify the meanings of the new grammar patterns in the TL.
  6. 6. Materials: Texts from the TL literature are used. Ts may either write the text or use an authentic text. Syllabus: Structural syllabus (list of structures to be taught) The order of structures starts from the easiest Role of L1: L1 (Sts’ NL) has important function in teaching vocabulary and grammar Since oral communication in the TL is not important, classroom instructions are given in L1
  7. 7. Evaluation: Translation is important technique to test nprogress Fill-in-the-blank type test items are also used. Synonyms, antonyms, and cognates can be asked to test vocabulary in tests. Reading passages and comprehension questions Goals and Objectives: to teach translation, to read and understand literary texts in the TL, to make Sts aware of their native language structure and vocabulary, to improve Sts’ mental capacities with grammar exercises.
  8. 8. Error Correction: The Ts corrects the errors strictly. Errors are not tolerated. Accuracy is emphasised strictly. Accuracy means grammatical correctness. Student's Feelings: There is no information about how it deals with feelings GTM cannot be considered as a humanistic approach
  9. 9. Techniques: Translation of a Literary Passage: Sts translate a passage from the TL into their native language. The passage provides the focus for vocabulary and grammatical structures. Reading Comprehension Questions: Sts answer questions on understanding of the reading passage. First, they answer information questions whose answers are in the passage. Second, they answer inference questions based on their comprehension of the passage although the answer cannot be found in the passage. Third, they answer questions that require Sts to relate the passage to their own experience.
  10. 10. Antonyms / Synonyms: Sts are given one set of words and are asked to find antonyms in the passage. Asking Sts to find synonyms for a particular set of words. Cognates: Sts are taught to recognise cognates by learning the spelling or sound patterns that correspond between the languages. Sts should be aware of “true cognates” (i.e., theatre-tiyatro) and false cognates” (i.e., apartment-apartman). Deductive Application of Rule: Grammar rules are presented with examples. Exceptions to each rule are also noted. Once Sts understand a rule, they are asked to apply it to different examples.
  11. 11. Fill-in-the blanks: Sts are given a series of sentences with words missing. They fill in the blanks with new vocabulary items or necessary items of grammatical features. Memorisation: Sts are given lists of TL vocabulary words and their native language equivalents and are asked to memorise them. Sts are also required to memorise grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. Use words in Sentences: To show that Sts understand the meaning and use of a new vocabulary, they make up sentences they use the new words.
  12. 12. Composition: Ts gives the Sts a topic to write about in the TL. Topic is based on some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson. Sometimes, instead of creating a composition, Sts are asked to prepare a précis Skills: Primary skills to be improved are reading and writing Little attention is given to speaking and listening almost no attention to pronunciation.
  13. 13. classical method / Prussian method literature and the fine arts exercise mental muscle translation deductive, explicit grammar language equivalents Memorization written texts questions about culture composition first reading-writing and grammar-vocabulary teacher authortiy student passive
  14. 14. Key Features Classes are taught in the mother tongue Little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together Instruction focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early. Little attention is paid to the content of texts. Texts are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue
  15. 15. DIRECT METHOD (DM) DM was born as a reaction to GTM as GTM cannot prepare sts for real life language situations in which oral communication is the media.
  16. 16. Learning Theory: Inductive learning is essential. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition. There is a direct exposure to the TL. Exposure of Long chunks in the TL. Learning occurs naturally. Language Theory: Language is for oral use. Each language is unique. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. No language should interfere when learning a language
  17. 17. Culture: Both art or literature, and other aspects of culture (life style, customs, traditions,food,daily habits should be taken into consideration. Daily speech is important. Ts's Role: Ts directs the interactions but he is not as dominant as in GTM. Sometimes acts like a partner of the Sts. Sts' Role: S Ts are active participants. Sometimes pair works take place. Even Ts take roles in activities. Interactions: T- st and St - st interactions often occur.
  18. 18. Vocabulary Teaching: Pictures, realia, examples, sample sentences are used to teach vocabulary. Use of L1 is not allowed. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. Grammar Teaching: Grammar is taught inductively. Examples and drills are given and Sts are expected to discover and acquire rules. Chain drill, yes - no question, or question are used to help Sts induce the rule.
  19. 19. Materials: Reading passages (for topics), Dialogues (for situation), plays (for situations) are used. Syllabus: Situational and topical syllabuses are used. Role of L1: L1 is not permitted. Evaluation: Sts' ability to use the language is tested. Not about language, the language itself.
  20. 20. Goals and Objectives: Teaching how to communicate in the TL. Teaching of thinking in the TL. Error Correction: Sts' self correction. Sts' Feelings: No information dealing with this issue.
  21. 21. Techniques: Reading aloud, Question and answer exercise, self correction, conversation practice, fill-in-the-blank exercise, dictation, drawing (for listening comprehension), paragraph writing. Skills: Speaking, listening, reading and writing are important Especially speaking and listening are emphasised. Vocabulary is over grammar
  22. 22. Demonstration visual aids, realias integrative texts no L1 no translation inductive, implicit grammar situations, topics everyday culture Dictation map drawing paragraph writing
  24. 24. Learning Theory: Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism. Habit Formation is essential. Rules are induced from examples. Explicit grammar rules are not given. Learning is inductive. Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills.
  25. 25. Reinforcement (Behaviour is likely to occur again) Stimulus----organism No reinforcement or negative reinforcement (Behaviour is not likely to occur again)
  26. 26. Language Theory: Language is based on descriptive linguistics. Every language is seen as its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels.(i.e. phonological, morphological, and syntactic). There is a natural order of skills. 1.Listening, 2.Speaking, 3. Reading, 4. Writing. Everyday speech and oral skills are important. Perfect pronunciation is required. Language is primarily for Oral Communication.
  27. 27. Culture: Culture consists of everyday behaviour, and lifestyle of the TL community. Culture is presented in dialogues. Ts’s Role: T is like an orchestra leader. he directs and controls the language behaviour of the Sts. T is a good model of the TL, especially for pronunciation and other oral skills. The differences between Sts’ L1 and L2 should be known by the Ts. Sts’ Role: Sts are imitators of Ts as perfect model of TL or native speakers in audio recordings Interactions T-St, ST- ST. Interactions are mostly initiated by the Ts.
  28. 28. Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is taught directly. L1 is prohibited because it may cause bad habit formations. Vocabulary is introduced through dialogues. Grammar Teaching: Explicit rules are not provided. Sts induce the rules through examples and drills. St acquire grammar exposed to patterns through mechanical drill Materials: Dialogues
  29. 29. Syllabus: Grammar points and sentence patterns in structural syllabus. Role of L1: L1 is not allowed It may cause interference and bad habit formation in L2. Evaluation: Discrete-point tests are used. Each item should focus on only one point of language at a time Goals and Objectives: to enable Sts to speak and write in the TL. make Sts able to use the TL automatically without stopping think. To form new habits in the TL. Error Correction: Errors are corrected by Ts since errors may cause bad habit form Sts’ Feelings: There are no principles related to Sts’ feelings.
  30. 30. Techniques: 1. Dialogue Memorisation 2. Minimal pairs: (for teaching pronunciation) 3. Complete the dialogue 4. Grammar Games 5. Mechanical Drills a) Repetition drill b) Chain Drill c) Single-slot Substitution Drill (give one cue to be substituted) d) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill (give more than one cue to be substituted)
  31. 31. Skills: Listening and speaking are emphasised. There is a natural order of skills. 1.Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading 4. Writing
  32. 32. stimulus+response+reinforcement repitition good habit error-free dialogues,drills teacher-centred Conditioning Context pattern practice structural patterns over learn sound system minimal pairs teacher orchestra leader students imitators
  33. 33. THE SILENT WAY (SW) (Caleb Gattegno)
  34. 34. Learning Theory: Cognitive Psychology is the basis. Language learning is not habit formation. It is rule formation. Learning has a sequence from the known to the unknown. Sts induce the rules from examples and learning is inductive Language Theory: Languages share a number of features(every language uses subject, object; adjective, adverb, verb) However each language is unique. Language is for self expression (express thoughts, perceptions, ideas and feelings). Cognitive Coding helps learners learn the language. Colour rods and Fidel Chart are used for cognitive coding.
  35. 35. Culture: Culture is an inseparable part of language and it reflects language Everyday life, art, literature. etc. should be learnt. Tss' Role: The Ts is a technician or an engineer who facilitates learning. Only the learner can do learning. Ts is aware of what Sts already know and he can decide next step. The Ts is silent. Silence is a tool because Ts's silence gives responsibility to student. Silence helps Sts monitor themselves and improve inner criteria. Sts' Role: Sts should make use of what they already know. They are responsible for their own learning. They actively take part in exploring the language. The Ts works with the Sts and the Sts work on the language. St-st interaction is important. Sts can learn from each other.
  36. 36. Interactions: Ts is silent in "T-st” interactions. St-st interactions are possible, Sts can learn from each other. Vocabulary Teaching: Vocabulary is taught by means of visual aids and word-charts. Vocabulary is always recycled by means of word-charts. Vocabulary is restricted at the beginning. Grammar Teaching: focus on the structures but explicit grammar rules are never given Materials: Sound Colour Charts (For teaching pronunciation; one colour represents one sound), Colour Rods (for cognitive coding of grammatical patterns), Fidel Charts (used for sound spelling association.
  37. 37. Syllabus: There is no linear structural syllabus. Ts start with what Sts know, builds from one structure to next. The syllabus develops according to the Sts' learning needs. Role of L1: L1 can be used to give instructions when necessary. Meaning is made clear by St's perceptions, not by translation in feedback L1 be used at beginning levels. L1 can be exploited Similar sounds can be used to make Sts aware of phonological similarities. Evaluation: The Ts may never give a formal test. He/she assesses Sts' learning all the time. Continuous monitoring by the Ts is essential.
  38. 38. Goals and Objectives: Sts should use TL for self expression (express thoughts, feelings, ideas). To help Sts improve their inner criteria for correctness. Sts should rely on themselves to be able to use the TL. Error Correction: Errors are natural and inevitable. The Ts uses Sts' errors to decide where further work is necessary. Self correction is necessary to develop inner criteria. If Sts can’t selfcorrect Ts supplyy correction but only as last resort. Peer correction must be in a co-operative manner. Student's Feelings: Sts' negative feelings are treated by the Ts. During feedback, Sts can express their feelings, needs, wants. what they think about classes, learning a foreign language Sts are encouraged to co-operate with one another to create a relaxed and enjoyable classroom atmosphere.
  39. 39. Techniques: Teaching pronunciation with "sound colour charts" Cognitive coding with colour rods. Peer correction to improve co-operative manner. Self correction gestures Ts's Silence Structured feedback: Sts are invited to talk about day's instructio Sts take responsibility for their own learning by controlling and applying their own learning strategies. Fidel Charts: Used to teach sound spelling association Word Charts: Used to teach and recycle vocabulary. Skills: Pronunciation is emphasised at the very beginning. All four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) are worked on from the beginning
  40. 40. inner cirteria rely on each other students' perception peer correction progression, not perfection student attention self-correction no homework linguistic structures 4 skills structured feedback sound,pronunciation,implicit grammar learning at different rates errors are necessary to learning Ts focus on learners Sts focus on language learning learning is important rather than teaching learners are active Teacher technican / engineer charts
  41. 41. SUGGESTOPEDIA (Georgi Lazanov)
  42. 42. Learning Theory: People use 5-10% of their mental capacity. use mental reserves, limitations need to be desuggested. help Sts overcome the barriers to learning. Authority: Sts remember best when information comes from reliable authoritative source. Infantilization: Ts-student relation like parent-child relationship Double-planedness:Sts learns both the instructions and environment. Intonation: Varying intonation of material helps to avoid boredom Rhythm: Materials with varying rhythm and tones are more interesting. Concert pseudo-passiveness: Materials presented with varying rhythm, intonation, and tone should be accompanied by music.
  43. 43. Language Theory: Lazanov does not articulate a theory of language. Communication is a two-plane process. Language is the first of the two planes. In second plane, there are factors, which influence linguistic message (the way one dresses, non-verbal behaviours that affect linguistic message) Culture: It concerns everyday life of people who speak the TL. The use of fine arts is also common.
  44. 44. Tss' Role: Ts is the authority. Sts learn better if they get information from reliable authority. Sts must trust and respect that authority. Sts' Role: Sts play a child's role (infantilization). They adopt a new identity (new name, job, family...etc) As they feel more secure, they can be less inhibited. Interactions: St-st and T-st interactions occur. Sts often do "pair work" and "group work". Vocabulary Teaching: Vocabulary is emphasised. Success of the method is focus on the large number of words Comments and explanations can be provided in st's L1. Grammar Teaching: Grammar is taught explicitly but minimally. Explicit grammar rules are provided in L1.
  45. 45. Materials: Dialogues are used with translations in L1 on the opposite side. Texts with literary value are used. The textbook posters are used for peripheral learning. Syllabus: A course lasts 30 days and ten units of study. Each unit has a long dialogue consisting of 1200 words. There is grammar review and commentary with list of vocabulary The dialogues are graded by lexis and grammar. Role of L1: L1 is used to make the meaning of dialogues clear. Ts use L1 when necessary but less and less as course proceeds. Evaluation: Evaluation is conducted on Sts' "in-class-performances" and not through formal tests threatening relaxed atmosphere which is considered essential for accelerated learning.
  46. 46. Goals and Objectives: Ts accelerate Sts’ learning language for everyday communication. This can be achieved by removing psychological barriers. Error Correction: At the beginning levels, errors are not corrected immediately When errors of form occur, Tss uses the correct form later Immediate interference by Ts may destroy relaxed atmosphere Student's Feelings: A great deal of attention is given to Sts' feelings. Sts should feel relaxed and secure. Ts's and peers' existence should’nt threaten the individual. Individual's self-confidence is important. New identity makes Sts feel more comfortable and secure. Classroom should supply feeling of relaxation and comfort.
  47. 47. Techniques: Classroom set up: dim lights, soft music, cushioned armchairs, posters on the walls. Positive Suggestion: Direct Suggestion: Ts tells Sts are going to be successful to create self-confidence. Indirect Suggestion: This is provided by music and comfortable physical conditions Peripheral Learning: Posters, lists, charts, paintings, and graphs are hung on walls Visualisation: Sts are asked to close their eyes and concentrate on their breathing. Ts describes a scene or an event in detail so that Sts think they are really there. When scene is complete, Ts asks Sts to open their eyes and return to present. This can be done just before Sts write a composition to activate their creativity.
  48. 48. Choose a New Identity: Sts can be asked to write about their new identity First Concert: Music is played. Ts reads slowly synchronised in intonation with music. music is classical. Ts's voice is usually hushed, but rises and falls with music. Second Concert: Sts put their scripts aside. Sts close their eyes and listen as Ts reads with music content is emphasised by the way the Ts reads the text. Music is secondarily important. At the end of the concert, the class ends for the day.
  49. 49. Primary Activation: Sts read the dialogue in the TL aloud as individuals or groups. They read it sadly, angrily, and amorously. Secondary Activation: Sts engage in activities such as singing, dancing, dramatising Linguistic forms are not important. Communication is important. To make Sts focus on communication, activities are varied. Skills: Oral communication is emphasised. Speaking and listening are important. Writing and reading are also important. Sts write imaginative compositions to improve their writing, Sts read dialogues or texts to practise reading.
  50. 50. psychological barriers cheerful environment peripheral learning trust / respect songs positive suggestions conscious / subconscious plane native language translation dramatization infentilization errors are corrected gently new identity everyday communication explicitly but minimal grammar vocabulary,grammar,speaking teacher authority
  52. 52. Learning Theory: CLL advocates a holistic approach to language learning. "True human learning" is both cognitive and affective. This is termed "whole person learning". "non-defensive” learning are collected under the acronym (SARD). S A R D Security Attention Aggression Retention Reflection Discrimination
  53. 53. Security: Sts should feel secure to enter into a successful learning experience. Classroom atmosphere, Sts' relations with each other, Ts's attitude to Sts all affect Sts' feelings of security. Attention: Attention is the learner's involvement in learning. Aggression: self-assertion looks like a child who tries to show what he has learnt. The child tries to prove the things hehas learnt. Retention: If the "whole person" is involved in the learning process what is retained is internalised and becomes a part of the Sts’ new persona Material should neither be too old nor be too new or conversely too familiar. Retention will best take place somewhere in between novelty and familiarity. Reflection: Sts need quiet reflection time in order to learn. The Ts reads the text for three times and the Sts relax and listen for reflection. Sts also listen to their own voice from the tape for reflection. Discrimination: Sts should discriminate the similarities and the differences among TL forms Sts should listen to discriminate if what they say is similar or different from what the Ts says.
  54. 54. Language Theory: Language is for communication. Language is for developing creative thinking. Culture is integrated with language. Focus shifts from grammar to a sharing and belonging between peop. Language is what you learn and share with others. Sts should trust the learning process, the Ts and the others. Culture: Knowing target culture is vital to be successful in communication. Culture is integrated with language. Social life style, art, literature, customs, habits should be learnt. Ts's Role: T's initial role is that of a counsellor. Ts tries to remove the threatening factors in the classroom. Ts stands behind the Sts to reduce threatening factors. Sts' Role: Initially the learner is dependent on the Ts. As sts go on studying they become more and more independent.
  55. 55. Interactions: st-st, T-st interactions occur in the classroom. Group work, and pair work tasks are carried out by Sts. Ts physically removes himself from circle to increase st-st interaction Vocabulary Teaching: Literal NL equivalents are given to TL to teach their meanings. This makes meaning clear. Grammar Teaching: Large chunks are analysed by means of equivalents in L1. It can be explicit when necessary. Materials: A textbook is not considered necessary. Materials may be developed by the Ts as the course develops. Materials depend on Sts' needs. Conversations are generated by the Sts.
  56. 56. Syllabus: CLL does not use a conversational language syllabus, Syllabus is developed in terms of Sts' communication needs. Role of L1: Sts' security is initially enhanced by using their native language. Where possible, literal native language equivalents are given. This makes their meaning clear allows Sts to combine the TL words to create new sentences. Directions in class, Sts' expressions of feelings are in L1. In later steps, more and more L2 is used. Evaluation: Ts-made classroom test would be an integrative test Sts are asked to write a paragraph or given an oral interview
  57. 57. Goals and Objectives: Sts should learn how to use the TL communicatively. Sts should learn about their own learning to take responsibility Non-defensive learning is result of treat each other as whole person. Error Correction: The error is treated in a non-threatening way. Ts repeats the correct form without calling further attention to the error and the owner of the error. Sts' Feelings: Sts' feelings are considered extremely important. One activity is getting feedback from Sts' about their feelings; how they feeling about learning a foreign language. Negative feelings may block Sts' learning. Security is basic. Clear instructions, enough time, should be given sts for respond.
  58. 58. Techniques: Transcription: Ts writes the L1 equivalent of the text in the TL on the board Sts copy them in their notebooks. Reflection on Experience: Sts tell about their feelings about language learning experience. Reflective Listening: Sts relax and listen to their own voices speaking TL on the tape. Ts may also read the transcript while Sts are listening. Human Computer: Ts repeats the correct form as many times as the Sts need. Ts never corrects the student's error. Only repeats the correct form. Small Group Tasks: Sts learn from each other. Also small groups can let Sts know each other well. Skills: In the early stages, Sts design the syllabus. They decide what they want to say in L2. The most important skills are listening comprehension, speaking. Reading and writing are also worked on.
  59. 59. learning is persons learning is dynamic and creative language for communication building community accepting atmosphere nondefensive L1 initiative and independence non-defensive nonthreatening learning security,-aggression,-attention,-reflection,-retention, discrimination choice teacher-student centred grammar,pronunciation,vocabulary teacher counselor & human computer
  61. 61. Learning Theory: There are three hypothesis A)Innate Bio-program There exists a specific, innate bio-program for language learning. It defines an optimal path for NL and SL development. Sts develop listening competence before they develop ability to speak. They make “a blue-print” of the language first They develop a cognitive map of the language during listening. B) Brain Lateralisation: Brain has two main parts: left hemisphere, and right hemisphere If both hemispheres are activated, learning is more effective. C) Stress (an affective filter): Stress intervenes between act of learning and what is to be learned The lower the stress is, the greater the learning becomes.
  62. 62. Language Theory: Language is primarily oral. It is just like the acquisition of NL Learners first listen (silent period), then oral production starts. Oral communication is crucial. Skilful use of imperatives by the instructor is crucial. It helps for acquisition of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Verbs in the imperative are the central linguistic motif. Culture: Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively. Daily habits, social life traditions should be learned. Tss' Role: Initially Ts is the director of all behaviour. In the later stages, the Ts is being directed. Sts' Role: Initially Sts are the followers of the Ts. After twenty hours, some Sts will be ready to speak language. At this point they start to direct the Ts. Interactions: T s - whole group,T- respond by Sts non-verbally; Sts - Sts; St - st
  63. 63. Vocabulary Teaching: Vocabulary is introduced through imperatives. Verb is the kernel. Objects in the immediate environment are introduced. Grammar Teaching: Imperatives play an important role. Multi-word chunks, single-word chunks are used with imperatives. Ts uses his creativity to introduce grammatical patterns with imperatives Materials: Objects around in the classroom, visuals, written texts, Tasks for kinaesthetic learning can be used. Syllabus: Sentence based syllabus with grammatical&lexical criteria is used. TPR requires attention to meaning rather than forms of items.
  64. 64. Role of L1: The method is introduced in the Sts' L1. After introduction, mother tongue can be used. Meaning is made through body movements. Evaluation: Ts know their Sts’ understanding by observing. Formal evaluations can be conducted by commanding individual Sts to perform a series of actions. As Sts become more advanced, their Performance can become the basis for evaluation. Goals and Objectives: To make Sts enjoy learning TL and communicate with it. Stress should be reduced.
  65. 65. Error Correction: Errors are inevitable. The Ts should be tolerant of Sts' errors; only major errors should be corrected. The Ts should be gentle when correcting Sts' errors. As Sts get more advanced, Ts can correct more minor errors. Student's Feelings: Ts should not force the Sts to speak. Silent period must be taken into consideration. When they begin to speak, perfection is not necessary. Stress should be reduced. Ts should use "zany commands" and humorous skits of actions to make classes more enjoyable.
  66. 66. Techniques: 4. Commands: Use of commands is the major technique. Commands are given to Sts to perform an action Actions make meaning clear Role reversal: Sts command their Ts and classmates to perform actions. Sts speak after the silent period. Sts should not be forced before they feel ready. Action sequence: The Ts may give three connected commands "Point to the door, walk and touch the door“ Skills: Natural order of skills: Listening (Very important during the silent period) Speaking (Ts should not force sts to produce the language Sts are expected to produce the TL voluntarily) Readinga Writing
  67. 67. actions, commands learner response chunks understanding before speaking low anxiety demonstrate,modeling,performing lifestyle of people novelty corection in an unobtrusive way spoeken language tolerance of errors in the beginning introduction is in L1 fun teacher____director student____imitator
  69. 69. Learning Theory: Little is known about learning theory of Communicative Approach. Activities that involve real communication promote learning. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports learning process. Language Theory: Language is for communication. The goal of language teaching is to develop communicative competence. Using the language appropriately in social contexts is important Communicative competence should be acquired. What is language according to the Communicative Approach? A) Language is a system for expression of meaning. B) primary function of language is interaction - communication C) structure reflects its functional and communicative uses. D) primary units are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discour
  70. 70. Culture: Culture is the everyday life of people. There are important aspects of language important to communication Body language, which may differ from culture to culture. Ts's Role: Ts is a facilitator of his/her Sts' learning. He is a manager of classroom activities. He acts as an advisor and monitors Sts' performance. Sts' Role: Sts are communicators. They are engaged in negotiating meaning actively. Sts are responsible managers of their own learning. Interactions: St-st interactions take place very often. Sts benefit from group and pair work, group discussions, projects
  71. 71. Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is paramount. Meaning conveyed through visual, real objects, models, context. Vocabulary should be taught within the context. Grammar Teaching: Each linguistic form has a function. One function may be expressed with different forms. Asking for permission "May I go out?“ In addition, different forms may have one function. (The modal "can" has various functions) I can lift this chair = ability It can rain today= strong possibility Can I use your telephone?" = asking for permission Functions are taught explicitly. Grammatical explanations can be given explicitly if it is believed to be useful for the acquisition of form & function.
  72. 72. Materials: Authentic materials. Articles from magazines or newspapers, songs, short stories etc., They are used in real life and used as class materials. Communicative activities are used to promote Sts' communication (information gap, opinion gap activities) Pictures, other visual and realia are vital to support meaning. Task based activities are used to promote Sts' involvement Syllabus: Usually functional-notional syllabus is used (e.g. frequency, motion, location) Role of L1: Sts' L1 has no particular role in the Communicative Approach. L2 should be used during not only activities, but also when Ts is giving explanations, instructions, homework. Sts see L2 as a tool for communication, not a subject to study.
  73. 73. Evaluation: Ts evaluates Sts' accuracy and fluency. Ts give communicative tests, which are integrative tests and which have real communicative function. Ts may tell Sts to write letter to friend to test writing. Improvisation of a situation can be used to Sts' oral performance. Goals and Objectives: To make Sts communicatively competent (i.e., being able to use the TL appropriately in a given context). Sts need knowledge of linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. Sts must know many different forms can be used to perform a function, and one single form can serve a variety of functions. Sts should choose the most appropriate form for a specific function.
  74. 74. Error Correction: Errors of form can be tolerated Errors are natural outcome of development of communication. Sts can have limited linguistic knowledge and still be successful communicators. Sts' Feelings: Sts' motivation is important. Sts should feel that they are learning something useful for their lives. Sts' security is enhanced by many opportunities for co-operative interactions with their fellow Sts and the Ts. Ts gives Sts an opportunity to express ideas and opinions so that Sts integrate the TL with their own personality. Thus, they feel more secure about using the TL. Games, dramas and other enjoyable activities are used make classroom atmosphere better, more friendly and relaxing.
  75. 75. Techniques: Authentic Materials: Genuine materials from newspapers, magazines, videos. Scrambled Sentences: for cohesion and coherence. Language Games: to provide valuable communicative practice of the TL Picture Strip Story: provides opinion gaps.Sts discuss which activity should come first. Role Play: provides the opportunity to practise TL in various social contexts. Skills and Language Areas: Language functions are emphasised over forms. The TL is taught at supra sentential or discourse level, too. Sts learn cohesion and coherence. Conversation structure in the TL is also reviewed. The four language skills are learnt from the very beginning. Skimming, and "Scanning in reading and listening are improved.
  76. 76. language at he discourse and suprasentential level social context real language use authentic language cohesion, coherence 4 skills scrambled sentences picture strip functional syllabus judicious use of L1 games teacher____facilitator student____communicator
  78. 78. subject matter scaffolding contextual clues authentic material and tasks adjunct model academic course sheltered language communicative competence specific content related language skills process writing and journal keeping
  80. 80. clear outcome jigsaw task authentic and meaningful tasks procedural task padegogic task real-world task
  82. 82. ongoing context experience-centred collaborative investigations real communication
  84. 84. learning experiences to teach language and learning hands-on experience self-assessment transferring knowledge continuing to learn
  86. 86. positive interdependence mixed groups sharing responsibility and accountability academic and social purposes
  87. 87. Bibliography Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching Approaches. In M. CelceMurcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. (pp.310). Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle. Brown, D. H. (1987). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Printice Hall Regents. Larsen-Freeman, D. (1993). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. (1990). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A description and analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.