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  • 1. IF CLAUSE Koşul-şart cümlecikleri olarak adlandırılan IF Clauses iki bölümden oluşur. If yapısının bulunduğu koşul cümlesi ve kendisinden sonra gelen sonuç cümlesi. Koşul cümlecikleri kendi arasında ikiye ayrılır; 1. True in Present or Future Possibility: Type 0 ve Type I bu kategoriye girer. Type 0; herhangi bir koşul sağlandığında sonucun hep aynı olduğunu gösterir; If Present Simple, Present Simple If you heat the water, it boils. Type I; herhangi bir koşul sağlandığında bu koşulun olası sonucunu gösterir; If Present Simple, will/can/may If you study hard, you will pass the exam 2. Unreal or contrary-to-fact in present or past; Type II, Type III ve Mix Type bu kategoriye girer. Type II; Unreal Present: içinde bulunduğumuz anda gerçek dışı bir durumdan bahsederken kullanılır. Unreal Present: If Past Simple, Would / could / might If I won the lottery, I would buy a Ferrari. Type III; Unreal Past: geçmişte gerçek dışı bir durumdan bahsederken kullanılır. Unreal Past: If Past Perfect, Would / could / might have V3 If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a ferrari. Mixed Type; Geçmişte yapılmamış bir eylemin şu ana olası etkisi; Type III, Type II If Past perfect, would /Could/ Might V1 now. If he hadn’t wasted his money, he would be rich now. Geçmişte yapılmamış bir eylemin şu ana olası etkisi; TypeII, Type III If Past Simple, would / could / might have V3 If she knew English, she could have promoted last year. Type If Clause Main Clause True in Present If Present Simple Present Simple Future Possibility If Present Simple (Present perfect) will can may Unreal Present If Past Simple Would / could / might If Past perfect Would have V3 Could have V3 Might have V3 If Past perfect Would V1 Could V1 Might V1 If Past Simple would have V3 could have V3 might have V3 Unreal Past Mixed Type Type 0 Water softeners are particularly useful, if you live in a hard-water area. Tarık İnce If you use a computer, you must program it 1
  • 2. yourself. Herbicides cause no environmental damage if applied only in small amounts. If a hypothesis successfully passes many tests, it becomes known as a theory. If the stem cells around the cornea are destroyed, sight is lost. Apply: uygulamak Pass: geçmek Stem cell: kök hücre Destroy: hasar vermek Aggressive: saldırgan Constructive: yapıcı Focus on: yoğunlaşmak Attract: cezbetmek Disappear: yok olmak Extinct: yok olmak Insist on: ısrar etmek Dismiss: kovmak Type I Aggressive behaviors can be lessened if parents take a more constructive attitude. If the film focuses on terrorism, it is not likely to attract large audiences. if the forest disappears, the eagle will become extinct. if you insist on being late, I’ll have to take disciplinary action against you. People need to study very hard if they want to get a good score in exams. Reduce: azaltmak If you go on making such mistakes you will be dismissed. Adopt: benimsemek Some children can’t understand even a simple story if there are no pictures to help Selective: seçkin Herbicide use could be reduced by 70 per cent if farmers used it to adopt more selective spraying techniques. Type II If ozone disappeared, Earth would become unlivable for most forms of life. If there was money in people’s pockets then more would be spent on goods. Small institutions would break down if clear lines of authority did not exist. Things would be better if people took an interest in local politics. If trade unions were to close down, it would actually be a great pity. If she really respected people, she would keep her promises. It would suit me better if the meeting was held on Tuesday as usual. Type III If it hadn’t rained so heavily, we would have walked right round the lake. We would have enjoyed the play much more if we had had better seats. I would have helped you if you had asked me to. If the wind hadn’t been so strong, it would have been easy to put out the fire. If the others hadn’t voted the younger candidate, I wouldn’t have done so either. I would most certainly have met you at the station if it had been at all possible. I would have worn the right shoes if I had known we were going climbing. They would have come to the concert if we had let them know about it in advance. Mixed Type If you had consulted the dentist, you would not need this treatment now. If any such evidence existed, it would have been published in a scientific journal. If she were more pessimistic, most probably she would have given up. If microchips hadn’t been developed back in the late 1950s, computer technology would not be as advanced as it is today. If she had incorporated energy-spending activities into her daily routine when she was younger, she would not have to attend a weight control programme today. Good: mal, eşya Break down: bozulmak Exist: var olmak Trade: ticari Close down: kapatmak Respect: saygı duymak Suit: uymak Held on: düzenlemek Put out: söndürmek Vote: seçmek Candidate: aday Right: doğru In advance: önceden Consult: danışmak Treatment: tedavi Evidence: delil Publish: yayımlamak Give up: bırakmak Develop: geliştirmek Advanced: ilerlemiş Incorporate: katılmak Attend: katılmak Unless = if not Softener: yumuşatıcı Particularly: özellikle Herbicide: otkıran ilaç Tarık İnce 2
  • 3. Depletion of fish stocks cannot be prevented unless overfishing is forbidden. Unless something unexpected comes up, I will attend the conference. Most coastal areas may be flooded unless they are protected by dikes. Unless the native people learn how to use the land and their own resources, the problem of famine in Africa can never be solved. Unless further steps are taken to dismantle their extensive nuclear arms, the Arctic may become a nuclear front again for Russia and the US. As long as Like many people I become very happy as long as the sun shines brightly. Some living things remain as single cells for as long as they live. Fossil fuels will exist as long as the world exists. Clinton’s overall popularity remained high as long as the economy was good. So long as I’ll do anything so long as I can earn a little money. Trust in internet cannot exist so long as there are so many suspicious people. Theories are subject to revision or may lose their validity so long as they are not supported through arguments. So long as sleeping pills are taken at very high doses for several weeks or longer, they can cause dependency in a number of people. Unexpected: beklenmedik Come up: çıka gelmek Protect: korumak Native: yerli Famine: kıtlık Solve: çözmek Dismantle: dağıtmak Front: cephe Remain: geriye kalmak Fossil fuel: fosil yakıt Exist: var olmak Overall: tüm Earn: kazanmak Trust: güven Suspicious: şüpheli Revision: revizyon Validity: geçerlilik Support: desteklemek Cause: sebep olmak Dependency: bağımlılık Wish Present I wish you wouldn't work so hard. It's not good for you. I wish I could help, but I don’t know how. I wish I knew whether or not our teacher will approve of our cooperation. Past I wish they had included some music to make the play more enjoyable. I wish I could have helped you but I was short of money myself. Approve: onaylamak Include: içermek Short of: yoksun olmak Discuss: tartışmak Bore: yol açmak Treat: davranmak Critic: eleştirmen Conversation: konuşma Accidentally: kazara Criminal: suçlu As if Questions of education are discussed as if they bore no relation to the social system Many pet owners treat their animals as if they were human beings. Critics tell us to read a book as if we were having a conversation with the author. Mixture: karışım When I accidentally broke his antique vase, I felt as if I had been a criminal. As Though Each gas in a mixture of gases acts as though it were the only gas in mixture. EU acts as though they were essentially in control of environmental policies. Only if I’ll take the position only if I can find a good school for my children. A drug becomes effective only if it is taken for a specific function. Biodiversity can be preserved only if poor farming practices can be prevented. Only if we are careful from now on, it is possible to extend the time that we have. Act: davranmak Essentially: aslında Environmental: çevresel Drug: ilaç Effective: etkili Take for: biçim almak Biodiversity: bio çeşitlilik Preserve: korumak Extend: genişletmek If only Depletion: tükenmek Prevent: önlemek Forbid: yasaklamak Tarık İnce 3
  • 4. If only I had been wearing suitable shoes I would have enjoyed the climbing. If only you had read his report you would have realized how prejudiced he was against the minorities. If only you'd told me you were planning to spend the summer in Alanya, I would have joined you there. Even if The functions expected of a drug are various even if it is used for a specific disease We would have walked right round the lake even if it had rained heavily. They couldn’t have proved his guilt even if they’d had more evidence. Even if you are immunized, you may still contract other gastro-intestinal disorders Minority: azınlık Join: katılmak Expect: ummak Various: çeşitli Disease: hastalık Prove: kanıtlamak Guilt: suç Immunize: bağışıklık Contract: hastalığa tutulma Compatible: uygun Frustrated: sinirli Annoy: sinirlendirmek Otherwise Expectations should be compatible with the child’s level of development otherwise they will become frustrated and de-motivated. There was something else annoying him; otherwise, he would never have treated Ill-balanced: dengesiz you like that. Children need to laugh otherwise they will become ill-balanced adults. Doubt: şüphelenmek Trade: ticaret yapmak Regard: değerlendirmek Whether or not Member: üye Economists doubt whether trade can be regarded as an effective means of growth. Aim. Amaç I wonder whether all the committee members will attend the meeting today. Assess: değerlendirmek The aim of interview is to assess whether or not you are the right person for the job. Increase: artırmak Controversial: karmaşık Tests to see whether eating breakfast increases a child’s IQ remain controversial. I wonder whether you’ll have to change your diet. Without Wound infections can result in gangrene if not treated successfully. Without insects to pollinate flowers, the human race would soon run out of food. Without advertising, commercial television companies would have to close down. Without the sun’s energy, all water on planet Earth would be frozen. Without the internet to help education in schools would be less efficient. Without the water from the melting snow, agriculture would become impossible. Wound: yara Result in: sonuçlanmak Insect: böcek Run out of: tükenmek Freeze: donmak Education: eğitim Efficient: etkili Melt: erimek Realize: farketmek Prejudice: önyargı Tarık İnce 4