English Literature


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English Literature

  1. 1. English Literature ELT Teacher Training Tarık İnce
  2. 2. An Overall View of British Literature Early and Medieval English Literature Elizabethan Drama The 17th Century The 18th Century The Romantic Period The 19th Century novels The Twentieth Century
  3. 3. Old English Literature 1 Anglo-Saxon Poetry 2 Romance 1 Anglo-Saxon Poetry English literature began with Anglo-Saxon settlement in England. Beowulf: The first piece of English literary work The national epic of the English people A long poem of over 3,000 lines The story consists of 3 fights made by Beowulf, the hero in story. 1) The fight with the monster Grendel 2) The fight with Grendel’s mother 3) The fight with a fire Dragon Features of Beowulf: Alliteration Metaphors
  4. 4. Alliteration The most striking feature in Beowulf is the use of alliteration. In alliterative verse, certain accented words in a line begin with the same consonant sound. examples: Of men he was the mildest and most beloved, To his kin the kindest , keenest to praise. Metaphor Ring-giver is used for King Hearth-companions for his attendant warriors Swan’s bath / whale’s road for sea Sea-wood for ship Such metaphors occur in great numbers in this work.
  5. 5. 2 Romance The most prevailing kind of literature in feudal England A long composition describing the life and adventures of a noble hero Central character – the knight Theme – loyalty to king and his lord Adventure of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
  6. 6. A. Themes/Influences: 1. strong belief in fate 2. juxtaposition of church and pagan worlds 3. admiration of heroic warriors who prevail in battle 4. express religious faith and give moral instruction B. Style/Genre/Literary Elements: 1. oral tradition of literature 2. poetry dominant genre 3. unique verse form 4. alliteration 5. repetition 6. four-beat rhythm
  7. 7. C. Effect Literature Had on Culture: 1. Christianity helps literacy to spread 2. introduces Roman alphabet to Britain 3. oral tradition helps unite diverse peoples and their myths D. Historical Context: 1. life centered around ancestral tribes or clans ruled themselves 2. warriors invading outlying areas: Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes 3. later they were agricultural E. A Sampling of Key Literature & Authors: ¨ Beowulf ¨ The Venerable Bede ¨ Exeter Book
  8. 8. Medieval English Literature Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Chaucer’s Literary Career Chaucer’s Contribution
  9. 9. Geoffrey Chaucer founder of English poetry He went to France at 19 on one of the campaigns of the Hundred Year’s War and was taken prisoner. Several times he was sent to the European Continent on diplomatic missions, two of which took him to Italy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, thus founding the Poet’s Corner. Chaucer’s Literary Career The first period/ works translated from French La Romaunt de la Rose/ the Romance of the Rose The second period/ works adapted from the Italian Troilus and Criseyde The third period/ works of purely English The Canterbury Tales
  10. 10. The Canterbury Tales Chaucer’s masterpiece and one of the monumental works in English literature Outline of the story The tales: The Wife of Bath The whole poem is a collection of stories On a spring evening, poet, moved by the passion for wandering, drops himself at the Tabard Inn. Here he meets 29 other pilgrims ready for a journey on horseback to Canterbury. Chaucer’s Contribution He introduced from France rhymed stanza of various types, the rhymed couplet of 5 accents in iambic meter/ heroic couplet He is the first great poet who wrote in the English language. He established English as the literary language of the country. He did much in making the dialect of London the standard for the modern English speech.
  11. 11. A. Themes/Content/Influences: 1. plays that instruct the illiterate masses in morals and religion 2. chivalric code of honor/romances 3. religious devotion B. Typical Genres/Literary Elements Used: 1. oral tradition continues 2. folk ballads 3. mystery and miracle plays 4. morality plays 5. tock epithets 6. kennings 7. frame stories 8. moral tales
  12. 12. C. Effect Literature Had on the Culture: 1. church instructs its people through the morality, miracle plays 2. an illiterate population is able to hear and see the literature D. Historical Context: 1. Crusades bring the development of a money economy for the first time in Britain 2. trading increases dramatically as a result of the Crusades 3. William the Conqueror crowned king in 1066 4. Henry III crowned king in 1154 brings a judicial system, royal courts, juries, and chivalry to Britain E. A Sampling of Key Literature & Authors: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl Domesday Book L’Morte de Arthur Geoffrey Chaucer
  13. 13. Elizabethan Drama back Renaissance Christopher Marlowe William Shakespeare
  14. 14. Renaissance Renaissance is an intellectual movement or the rebirth of the letters. It sprang first in Italy in the 14th century and gradually spread all over Europe. Two features are striking of this movement 1. There is a thirsting curiosity for the classical literature. There arose a current for the study of Greek and Latin authors. 2. Another feature of the Renaissance is the keen interest in the activities of humanity. People ceased to look upon themselves as living only for God and a future world. Thinkers, artists and poets had a new feeling of admiration for human beauty and human achievement. A feeling in sharp contrast with theology. Hence arose the thought of Humanism. Humanism is the key-note of the Renaissance.
  15. 15. Christopher Marlowe Christopher Marlowe (1564–1593) was an English dramatist, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. He is known for his magnificent blank verse, his overreaching protagonists, and his own mysterious and untimely death. University Wits back Numberless playwrights, amateur or professional, wrote for the actors. There was a group called ―university wits‖. They wrote for the stage of the time, they were all of humble birth and struggled for a livelihood through writing. The most gifted playwright in the ―university wits‖ is Christopher Marlowe. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus
  16. 16. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus 1. It is based on a German legend. The hero of the play is Doctor Faustus, a young and brilliant scholar. The chief feature of his character is a thirst for knowledge. Faustus takes one by one the chief subjects of academic curriculum, philosophy, medicine and law. He is bored with the orthodox curriculum, and turns to the study of magic in order to understand and possess the kingdoms of the earth. Then he meet the Devil and the doctor must sell his soul to the Devil so he may live 24 years, with the Devil at his command. Then Faustus signs the bond with his own blood. After the contract with the Devil, Faustus makes a tour in the universe on a dragon’s back. Then he gives a display of his magic art and plays tricks upon the Pope at a banquet. Meanwhile Faustus is drawing near his doom. It is the scholars who are his companions on his last night on earth. Even in his painful expectation of the coming of the devils, he thinks of his friends safety: ― Gentlemen, away, lest you perish with me.‖ So one hour before midnight, Faustus is left to face his awful destiny alone until he is carried away by the Devil.
  17. 17. William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (1564–1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's preeminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "The Bard"). His surviving works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Historical plays Great comedies Great tragedies
  18. 18. Historical plays: Henry Ⅳ Richard III Henry Ⅴ Henry VIII Great comedies: The Merchant of Venice As You Like It Twelfth Night A Midsummer Night’s Dream Great tragedies: Hamlet Othello King Lear Macbeth
  19. 19. III. The Renaissance (Years: 1485-1660) · The Elizabethan Period: the reign of Elizabeth I, 1586-1603 · Jacobean Period: he reign of James I of England, 1603-1625 A. Themes/ Content/Influences: 1. world view shifts from religion to one stressing the human life on earth 2. popular theme: development of human potential 3. popular theme: many aspects of love explored 4. unrequited love 5. constant love 6. timeless love 7. courtly love 8. love subject to change B. Style/Genres: 1. poetry 2. the sonnet 3. metaphysical poetry 4. elaborate and unexpected metaphors called conceits 5. drama 6. written in verse 7. supported by royalty 8. tragedies, comedies, histories
  20. 20. C. Effects Literature Had on the Culture: 1. commoners welcomed at some play productions (like ones at the Globe) while conservatives try to close the theaters on grounds that they promote brazen behaviors 2. not all middle-class embrace the metaphysical poets and their abstract conceits D. Historical Context: 1. War of Roses ends in 1485 and political stability arrives 2. Printing press helps stabilize English as a language and allows more people to read a variety of literature 3. Economy changes from farm-based to one of international trade E. A Sampling of Key Literature & Authors: William Shakespeare Thomas Wyatt Ben Jonson Cavalier Poets Metaphysical Poets John Donne Christopher Marlowe Andrew Marvell Robert Herrick
  21. 21. 17th Century English Literature King James Bible Francis Bacon John Milton
  22. 22. King James Bible The authorized version of English Bible was finished under the supervision of King James, so it is called King James Bible. The authorized version has had a great influence on English language and literature. About 93% of the words used in it are the main words of native English. So with the widespread influence of the English Bible, the standard modern English has been fixed and confirmed. A great number of Bible phrases have passed into daily English speech
  23. 23. Francis Bacon He is the founder of English materialist philosophy, founder of modern science in England and the first English essayist. His works: Essays (Of Study, Of Truth) New Instrument Advancement of Learning Of Study Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.
  24. 24. John Milton With the Restoration of Charles II, Milton was arrested and imprisoned. His book were burnt. But he was saved, he probably owed his escape from death to his blindness. A fire in London destroyed his house. He moved from place to place until he settled down on the outskirts of London. His blindness forced him to depend on his daughters for an assistance with his reading and writing. Everyday he dictated his epic Paradise Lost 10 or 20 lines at a time. His masterpiece: Paradise Lost Paradise Regained Samson Agonist
  25. 25. Paradise Lost It is a long epic of 12 books. The story was taken from the Bible. The story was taken from the Old Testament, the Creation. Content: 1. the rebellion of Satan and his fellowangles in Heaven. 2. the Creation of the earth and of Adam and Eve by God. 3. Satan’s temptation of Eve and the departure of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden. Satan and his followers are banished from Heaven and driven into the hell. Satan fearlessly withstands all pains and passionately strives for victory. He choose for his battlefield the most perfect spot ever created by God—the Garden of Eden, where live the first man and woman--Adam and Eve. They were not permit to eat the fruit that grows on the Tree of Knowledge. Satan persuade her to break God’s command,Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden and doomed to an earthly life full of hardships and sufferings
  26. 26. The 18th Century English Literature Jonathan Swift Daniel Defoe Pre-Romanticism Robert Burns & William Blake
  27. 27. Historical and social Background The 18th century is a period of comparatively peaceful development in England. After the Glorious Revolution, England entered the Golden Age. The state power passed from the king gradually to the Parliament and the cabinet ministers; therefore, capitalist system was established in England. A vast expansion abroad of British colonies in Asia, Africa and North America and Acts of Enclosure at home caused the Industrial Revolution
  28. 28. Cultural Background The Enlightenment Movement The 18th-century England is known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment Movement was a progressive intellectual movement which flourished in France & swept through the whole Western Europe at the time. The movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance of the 15th & 16th centuries. development of literature in this period can be summarized as: The predominance of neoclassical poetry and prose in the early decades of the 18th century; the rise and flourish of modern realistic novel in the middle years of the 18th century; and the appearance of gothic novel and the sentimental and pre-romantic poetry and fiction in the last few decades of the 18th century.
  29. 29. Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (1667–1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for the Tories) poet. Swift is probably the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. Swift originally published all of his works under pseudonyms or anonymously. He is also known for being a master of satire. His major works: A Tale of a Tub Gulliver’s Travels A Modest Proposal A Tale of a Tub This book is written in the form of a parable, an old man died and left a coat, i.e. the Christian doctrine, to each of his three sons, Peter, Martin and Jack. The three sons stand for Roman Catholics, Protestants and Puritans. They evade their father’s will, interpret it each in his own way, and change the fashion of their garment. This is a satire upon all religious sects. Swifts satire becomes an attack on Christianity itself.
  30. 30. Gulliver’s Travels The First Voyage In first part Gulliver describes his shipwreck in Lilliput where tallest people were 6 inches high. The two parties in this country were distinguished by use of high and low heels, Swift satirizes the Tories and the Whigs in England. Religious disputes were laughed at in account of a problem which divided the people: ―Should eggs be broken at the big end or the little end?‖ The Second Voyage The voyage to Brobdingnag is described in this part. Gulliver now found himself a dwarf among men 60 feet in height. The King regarded Europe as if it were an anthill. The Third Voyage The third part is a satire on philosophers and projectors who were given to dwelling in the air, like the inhabitants of the Flying Island. The Fourth Voyage In the last part, Gulliver’s satire is bitterest. Gulliver was now in a country where horses were possessed of reason, and were governing class, while the Yahoos, though in shape of men, were brute beasts with such vices as stealing and lying. This work gives an satirical depiction of the vices of his age.
  31. 31. Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?]—1731[?]) was an English writer, journalist, and pamphleteer, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being a prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than five hundred books, pamphlets, and journals on various topics (including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology and the supernatural). His works: Moll Flanders Captain Singleton Robinson Crusoe
  32. 32. Robinson Crusoe When Robinson is 19, he runs away from home and sets out to sea. After many adventures on the sea, he settles down in Brazil. But the call of the sea is so strong that he embarks on another voyage to Africa. A frightful storm changes the course Of ship and it is wrecked off coast of an uninhabited island. Of all the ship’s crew Robinson alone escapes to the shore. He spends the night on a tree for fear of wild animals. He set up a tent, he plants barley and corn, and harvests crops in time. He spend many months of hard toil in shaping a stone-mortar. It takes Robinson over five months to fell a big tree and fashion it into a boat. But great is his disappointment when he is unable to shift the heavy boat to the sea. Robinson’s will-power in bettering his living conditions is amazing, strong winds, rains and earthquakes do not stop him from attaining his once set resolutions. Many years go by. One day Robinson discovers the imprint of a man’s foot on the sand. Then he learns that the island is occasionally visited by some cannibals who come to celebrate their victories over their enemies and to eat their captives. Robinson happens to see one such celebration and manages to save one of the victims, this man, named Friday by Robinson, proves to be a clever young Negro. An English ship drops anchor off the island, the captain takes Robinson and Friday to England.
  33. 33. Robert Burns Robert Burns (1759–1796) was a poet and a lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a 'light' Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. Major works: My Heart’s in the High Land Holy Willie’s Prayer A Red Red Rose To a Mouse To a Louse William Blake William Blake (1757– 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. His major works: Songs of Innocence Songs of Experience
  34. 34. IV. The Neoclassical Period (Years: 1660-1798) The Restoration: the reign of Charles II, 1630 - 1660 (after his restoration to the thrown in 1630 following the English Civil War and Cromwell) The Age of Enlightenment (the Eighteenth Century) A. Themes/Content/Influences: 1. emphasis on reason and logic 2. stresses harmony, stability, wisdom 3. Locke: a social contract exists between the government and the people. The government governs guaranteeing ―natural rights‖ of life, liberty, and property B. Style/Genres: 1. satire 2. poetry 3. essays 4. letters, diaries, biographies 5. novels
  35. 35. C. Effects: 1. emphasis on the individual 2. belief that humanity is basically evil 3. approach to life: ―the world as it should be‖ D. Historical Context: 1. 50% of males are functionally literate (a dramatic rise) 2. Fenced enclosures of land cause demise of traditional village life 3. Factories begin to spring up as industrial revolution begins 4. Impoverished masses begin to grow as farming life declines and factories build 5. Coffee houses—where educated men spend evenings with literary and political associates E. A Sampling of Key Literature & Authors: Alexander Pope Daniel Defoe Samuel Johnson John Bunyan Jonathan Swift John Milton
  36. 36. Romantic Period Romantic Period Roughly the first third of the 19th century. Writers of romantic literature are more concerned with imagination and feeling than with the power of reason. The glory of the age is notably seen in the Poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley and Keats, who were grouped into two Passive poets/ Lake poets William Wordsworth Samuel Taylor Coleridge Robert Southey Active poets George Gordon Byron Percy Bysshe Shelley John Keats
  37. 37. Lake Poets The three poets have often been mentioned as the ―Lake Poets‖. Because they lived in the Lake District in the northwestern part of England. The three traversed the same path in politics and in poetry, beginning as radicals and closing as conservatives. William Wordsworth He is the representative poet of the early Romanticism. Like other Romantics, Wordsworth’s personality and poetry were deeply influenced by his love of nature, especially by the sights and scenes of the Lake Country, in which he spent most of his mature life. A profoundly earnest and sincere thinker, he displayed a high seriousness tempered with tenderness and a love of simplicity. His works: Lyrical Ballads To the Cuckoo I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Lines Written in Early Spring Lucy Poems
  38. 38. Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772–1834) an English poet, critic and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. He is known for his poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, as well as his major prose work Biographia Literaria. Robert Southey (1774–1843) an English poet of Romantic school, one of the "Lake Poets", and Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 to his death in 1843. He was a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer, historian and biographer. Perhaps his most enduring contribution to literary history is the immortal children's classic, The Story of the Three Bears, the original Goldilocks story, which first saw print in 1834
  39. 39. George Gordon Byron (1788–1824) a British poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. He is regarded as one of the greatest European poets and remains widely read and influential, both in the English speaking world and beyond. Byron's fame rests not only on his writings but also on his life, which featured extravagant living, numerous love affairs, debts, separation, marital exploits. He was famously described by Lady Caroline Lamb His major works: Child Harold’s Pilgrimage Don Juan Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822) one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets in the English language. He was famous for his association with John Keats and Lord Byron. His major works: Prometheus Unbound Ode to the West Wind A Defence of Poetry The Revolt of Islam
  40. 40. John Keats (1795–1821) one of the principal poets of the English Romantic movement. During his short life, his work received constant critical attacks from periodicals of the day, but his posthumous influence on poets has been immense. Elaborate word choice and sensual imagery characterize Keats's poetry. Major works: Isabella The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia Ode to a Nightingale
  41. 41. V. The Romantic Period (Years: 1798 – 1832 ) A. Content/Themes/Influences: 1. human knowledge consists of impressions and ideas formed in the individual’s mind 2. introduction of Gothic elements and terror/horror stories and novels 3. in nature one can find comfort and peace that the man-made urbanized towns and factory environments cannot offer B. Style/Genres: 1. poetry 2. lyrical ballads C. Effects Literature Had on the Culture: 1. evil attributed to society not to human nature 2. human beings are basically good 3. movement of protest: a desire for personal freedom 4. children seen as hapless victims of poverty and exploitation
  42. 42. D. Historical Context: 1. Napoleon rises to power in France and opposes England militarily and economically 2. gas lamps developed 3. Tory philosophy that government should NOT interfere with private enterprise 4. middle class gains representation in the British parliament 5. railroads begin to run E. Key Literature/Authors: 1. Novelists : Jane Austen and Mary Shelley 2. Poets Robert Burns William Blake William Wordsworth Samuel Taylor Coleridge Percy Shelley Lord Byron John Keats
  43. 43. 19th Century Novels Mary Shelley Walter Scott Jane Austen Bronte Sisters Charles Dickens William Makepeace Thackeray Thomas Hardy
  44. 44. Mary Shelley (1797–1851) A British novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer. She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her works: Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) Sir Walter Scott(1771 – 1832) A prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. His novels and poetry are still read, and many of his works remain classics of both English and of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of The Lake, Waverley, The Heart of Midlothian
  45. 45. Jane Austen(1775-1817) a famous English novelist. With detail, Austen portrayed the quiet, day-to-day life of members of the upper middle class. combine romantic comedy with social satire and psychological insight. Her major works: Pride and Prejudice Sense and Sensibility Emma Northanger Abbey Mansfield Park Persuasion The Brontë sisters, Charlotte (1816), Emily (1818) Anne (1820) Their novels caused a sensation when they were first published and were subsequently accepted into the canon of great English literature. Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre The Professor Emily Bronte Wuthering Heights Anne Bronte Agnes Grey The Tenant of Wildfell hall
  46. 46. Charles John Huffam Dickens(1812–1870), pen-name "Boz“ one of the most popular English novelists of the Victorian era. Many of Dickens's novels first appeared in periodicals and magazines in serialized form. Unlike many other authors who completed entire novels before serial production commenced, Dickens often composed his works in parts, in the order in which they were meant to appear. His Major works: Oliver Twist A Tale of Two Cities Great Expectations David Copperfield
  47. 47. William Makepeace Thackeray (1811– 1863) an English novelist of the 19th century. He was famous for his satirical works, particularly Vanity Fair, a panoramic portrait of English society. His major works : Vanity Fair ----- A novel without a hero Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (1850–1894) a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist and travel writer. He was the man who "seemed to pick the right word up on the point of his pen, like a man playing spillikins.‖ Stevenson was greatly admired by many authors. His works: Treasure Island (1883) Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) Kidnapped (1886)
  48. 48. Thomas Hardy(1840–1928) an English novelist, short story writer, and poet of the naturalist movement, though he saw himself as a poet and wrote novels mainly for financial gain only. His Major works: Tess of the D’urbervilles Under the Greenwood Tree Far from the Madding Crowd Major of Casterbridge Jude the Obscure
  49. 49. VI.The Victorian Period –(Years: 1832-1900 ) A. Themes/Content/Influences: 1. conflict between those in power and the common masses of laborers and the poor 2. shocking life of sweatshops and urban poor is highlighted in literature to insist on reform 3. country versus city life 4. sexual discretion (or lack of it) 5. strained coincidences 6. romantic triangles 7. heroines in physical danger 8. aristocratic villains 9. misdirected letters 10. bigamous marriages
  50. 50. B. Genres/Styles: 1. novel becomes popular; mass produced for the first time 2. bildungsroman 3. political novels 4. detective novels (Sherlock Holmes) 5. serialized novels (Charles Dickens) 6. elegies 7. poetry: easier to understand 8. dramatic monologues 9. drama: comedies of manners 10. magazines offer stories to the masses C. Effects on the Culture: 1. literature begins to reach the masses
  51. 51. D. Historical Context: 1. paper becomes cheap; magazines and novels cheap to mass produce 2. unprecedented growth of industry and business in Britain unparalleled dominance of nations, economies and trade abroad E. Key Literature/Authors: Charles Dickens Thomas Hardy Rudyard Kipling Robert Louis Stevenson George Eliot Oscar Wilde Alfred Lord Tennyson Charles Darwin Charlotte Bronte Robert Browning
  52. 52. The 20th Century Literature Modernism Joseph Conrad Virginia Woolf D. H. Lawrence E. M. Forster T. S. Eliot William Butler Yeats Oscar Wilde
  53. 53. Joseph Conrad (1857–1924) A Polish-born English novelist. Many critics regard him as one of the greatest novelists in English language. He became a naturalized British subject in 1886. Conrad is recognized as a master prose stylist. Some of his works have a strain of romanticism, but more importantly he is recognized as an important forerunner of modernist literature. His works: The Heart of Darkness 1902 Edward Morgan Forster(1879– 1970), an English novelist, short story writer, essayist, and librettist. He is known best for his ironic and well-plotted novels examining class difference and hypocrisy in early 20th-century British society. His works: A Room with a View (1908) Howards End (1910) A Passage to India (1924)
  54. 54. Virginia Woolf (1882–1941) novelist and essayist, the foremost modernist literary figures of 20th century. During the interwar period, Woolf was a significant figure in London literary society and a member of the Bloomsbury Group. The Bloomsbury Group was an English collectivity of friends and relatives who lived in or near London during the first half of the twentieth century. Their work deeply influenced literature, aesthetics, criticism, and economics as well as modern attitudes towards feminism, pacifism, and sexuality. Its best known members were VirginiaWoolf, John Maynard Keynes, E. M. Forster, and Lytton Strachey She sometimes used the ―stream of consciousness‖ technique. ▶Stream of Consciousness is a psychological term indicating the flux of conscious and subconscious thoughts and impressions moving in the mind at any given time independently of the person’s will. ▶under the influence of Fleud’s theory of psychological analysis , a number of writers adopted the Stream of Consciousness as a method of novel writing. Her most famous novels Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928), and the book-length essay A Room of One's Own (1929), with its famous dictum,
  55. 55. David Herbert Richards Lawrence (1885 – 1930) an English writer of the early 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism. His collected works represent an extended reflection upon the dehumanizing effects of modernity and industrialization. Lawrence confronts issues relating to emotional health and vitality, spontaneity, human sexuality and instinct. Lawrence is perhaps best known for his novels Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love and Lady Chatterley's Lover. Others T. S. Eliot William Butler Yeats Oscar Wilde
  56. 56. VI. The Modern Period: (Years: 1900-(subject to debate) A. Content(still evolving): 1. Dystopia/utopia 2. Freedom/protests/anti-government sentiment 3. Racial tensions 4. Technology 5. Politics—democracies/global challenges 6. Interconnectedness B. Genres/Styles: poetry: free verse epiphanies begin to appear in literature speeches memoirs novels stream of consciousness
  57. 57. D. Historical Context: 1. British Empire loses 1 million soldiers to World War I 2. Winston Churchill leads Britain through WW II, and the Germans bomb England directly 3. British colonies demand independence E. A Sampling of Key Literature and Authors: James Joyce Virginia Woolf T. S. Eliot Joseph Conrad D.H. Lawrence Graham Greene Dylan Thomas George Orwell
  58. 58. Short Story
  59. 59. Non-fiction / Fiction Fiction: is mostly about probabilities. short story novel, romance drama Components of fiction: Characters Plot Emotion Point of view / focus: subjective and objective narration Symbolism: universal and original symbols Theme / main idea
  60. 60. SHORT STORY Shorter than the shortest novel. It is a fictional work and generally has one event. It is about probable events and tells about human nature, strength, ambition etc.. The character development is limited and characters are realistic. It is as old as the human history ( from eve and adam). In cultures, there are mythological stories; legends and fairytales. Canterbury Tales is the first story recorded in English literature. Boccacio’s Decomeron is the first in the world
  61. 61. Setting Time and place are where the action occurs Details that describe:  Furniture  Scenery  Customs  Transportation  Clothing  Dialects  Weather  Time of day  Time of year
  62. 62. Elements of a Setting Location Era Life Place Time Setting Physical History Day Atmosphere Mood Feelings Word Choice Weather Use as activator to activate prior know ledge. Write the w eb on the board or overhead and students cre ate one at their seats. Then as class share and fill in.
  63. 63. The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or atmosphere To show a reader a different way of life To make action seem more real To be the source of conflict or struggle To symbolize an idea
  64. 64. CHARACTERS Characterization: In order for a story to be realistic, its characters must seem real. Characterization is the information that the author gives about the characters themselves. The author may reveal a character in several ways. Dramatic Characterization: No adjectives are used to introduce the characters. We infer by the speech, thoughts and dreams of the characters. Non-dramatic Characterization: We are spoonfed by the writer. High use of adjectives. Characterization by narration: Mentioned indirectly. Flashbacks are used. The importance of what others say about the character and how they react to him.
  65. 65. Characters The people (or animals, things, etc. presented as people) appearing in a literary work. Round Characters are convincing, true to life. Have many different and sometimes even contradictory personality traits. Dynamic Characters undergo some type of change or development in story, often because of something that happens to them Flat Characters are stereotyped, shallow, and often symbolic. Have only one or two personality traits Static Characters do not change in the course of the story STEREOTYPE a fixed idea or conception of a character or an idea which does not allow for any individuality, often based on religious, social, or racial prejudices.
  66. 66. Characterization A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story. Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer tells what the character is like Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character. Important qualities of characters: Consistency: convincing and coherent Plausibility: life-likeness, reality, credibility, easily found in real life. Motivation: the characters must have a logical reason to act. Balancing Of The Forces: The protagonist or antagonist are neither too strong nor too weak. This technique is used to raise suspension.
  67. 67. Major Protagonist: the one who is clearly central to the story. Minor He/she doesn’t have to be good or poor. Antagonist: the opposer of the main character. It can be time, death or money as well as one of the other characters. Round: many sided and complex personalities Flat: functional characters. Drawn both physically and psychologically. Confidante Dynamic: changes, for better or worse, by the end of the story. Static: has one or two characteristics that never change and is emphasized such as brilliant detective, drunk, cruel stepmother Femme fatale: her duty is to do bad things. She is seductive. Villain: the bad man. Archetypal: universal characters. Stock/literary character: one dimensioned, flat, functional charac Foil character: he fail at the end. Şener Şen is a foil character
  68. 68. Elements of Character Fully Developed Friends Relatives Main Minor Not Fully Developed Character Protagonist Flat Antagonist Co-Main Enemy
  69. 69. PLOT OF A STORY PLOT series of related events in a story or play, sometimes called storyline. Characteristics of PLOT: CONFLICT the struggle between opposing forces or characters in a story. • EXPOSITION introduces characters, situation, and setting • RISING ACTION complications in conflict and situations (may introduce new ones as well) • CLIMAX that point in a plot that creates the greatest intensity, suspense, or interest. Also called ―turning point‖ • RESOLUTION the conclusion of a story, when all or most of the conflicts have been settled; often called the denouement. • EXTERNAL CONFLICT conflicts can exist between two people, between a person and nature or a machine or between a person a whole society. • INTERNAL CONFLICT a conflict can be internal, involving opposing forces within a person’s mind. • MOTIVATION the reasons for a character’s behavior.
  70. 70. Parts of a Plot Overt Plot: The story is open and follows a chronological order. No flashbacks. Nothing secret in the story Covert Plot: Flashbacks and narrative projections are used Inciting incident – event that gives rise to conflict (opening situation) Development- events that occur as result of central conflict (rising action) Climax- highest point of interest or suspense of story Resolution- when conflict ends Denouement- when characters go back to their life before the conflict
  71. 71. Diagram of Plot Climax Introduction Inciting incident/ Opening situation Denouement
  72. 72. Elements of plot: Suspense- excitement or tension Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past Dramatic / tragic Irony Dilemma / conflict: Crisis. Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect
  73. 73. Point of View The angle or perspective from which the story is told Who is telling the story? • For instance, is it a player on the home team or someone watching the game? How do we know what is happening? • For instance, does a character tell us?
  74. 74. First Person Point of View Told from the viewpoint of one of the characters, using the first person pronoun ―I‖. Innocent Eye: The story is told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult). Stream of Consciousness: The story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions. Second Person Point of View The main character in the story is referred to using the second person pronoun ―you‖.
  75. 75. Third Person Point of View The story is told using a narrator who is located outside of action of the story and uses third person pronouns such as ―he‖, ―she‖,―his‖,―her‖,―they‖ etc. Third Person Point of View can be broken up into three different types: Omniscient Limited Omniscient Objective Omniscient Point of View The narrator has the power to show the reader what is happening though a number of characters’ eyes. Limited Omniscient Point of View Third person, told from the viewpoint of a character in the story. Objective Point of View Third person, told as if from a camera that follows the characters. Only what is said and done is recorded.
  76. 76. Theme A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life May be stated directly or implied Interpretation uncovers the theme
  77. 77. Types of Irony Dramatic Irony: Tcontrast between what character thinks to be Verbal Irony: we (thethe contrast betweentrue. Sometimes as we true and what This is reader) know to be what is said and what is meant.are other words: sarcasm. of knowing more than what read we In Irony: This isposition common in literature. It is the Situational placed in the the most one character knows. happens and what was expected (or what contrast between whatBecause we know something the character does not, we read to discover how it emerges from react when would seem appropriate). Becausethe character willthe events he or she learns the truth of it situation. and circumstances of a storytheis often more subtle and effective than verbal or dramatic irony.
  78. 78. Symbolism A symbol represents an idea, quality, or concept larger than itself. • A journey can symbolize life • Water may represent cleanliness and renewal • A lion can be a symbol of courage. • A red rose can represent love.
  79. 79. Flashback This is a writers’ technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incident of an earlier time (goes back in time; like giving the reader a memory). This device is often used to provide additional information to the reader.
  80. 80. Foreshadowing This is a writers’ technique in which the author provides clues or hints as to what is going to happen later in the story. It’s like the music in a scary movie when we know that something bad is about to happen.
  81. 81. TYPES OF STORIES ALLEGORY story or poem in which characters, settings, and events stand for other people or events or for abstract ideas or qualities. COMEDY in general, a story that ends with a happy resolution of the conflicts faced by the main character or characters. • TALL TALE an outrageously exaggerated, humorous story that is obviously unbelievable. • FARCE a type of comedy in which ridiculous and often stereotyped characters are involved in silly, far-fetched situations. TRAGEDY in general, a story in which a heroic character either dies or comes to some other unhappy end. DIDACTIC form of fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking. • FABLE a very short story told in prose or poetry that teaches a practical lesson abouthow to succeed in life. • PARABLE a relatively short story that teaches a moral, or lesson about how to lead agood life. ROMANCE in general, a story in which an idealized hero or heroine undertakes a questand is successful. SATIRE a type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an attempt to bring about a change. PARODY a work that makes fun of another work by imitating some aspect of thewriter’s style.
  82. 82. POETRY COUPLET two consecutive rhyming lines of poetry. ELEGY a poem of mourning, usually about someone who has died. A Eulogy is great praise or commendation, a laudatory speech, often about someone who has died. EPIC a long narrative poem, written in heightened language , which recounts the deeds of a heroic character who embodies the values of a particular society. FREE VERSE poetry that does not conform to a regular meter or rhyme scheme. LYRIC POEM a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of the speaker. A ballad tells a story. QUATRAIN a poem consisting of four lines, or four lines of a poem that can be considered as a unit. CONFESSIONAL POETRY a twentieth century term used to describe poetry that uses intimate material from the poet’s life. SOLILOQUY a long speech made by a character in a play while no other characters are on stage.
  83. 83. Connotation: Emotional impact attached to words beyond their literal meaning. Paraphrase: Putting something into your own words. In poetry, you lose the musical quality and rhyme Prose: The ordinary form of written language. Everyday speech. *Personification: Giving human qualities or characteristics to inanimate objects or animals. Narrative poem: A poem that tells a story in poetic form. Contains plot, setting, characters, etc. Relies on rhythm and rhyme. Organized in stanzas. Stanzas: Groups of lines that form units in a poem. Ballad: A Narrative poem that tells a simple and dramatic story. Intended to be sung or recited. Has strong rhythms and rhymes. *Juxtaposition: placing of two images or ideas side by side allowing reader to make comparison. Not a direct comparison.
  84. 84. Rhythm: A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of a poem. Usually contributes to meaning. Rhyme: The repetition of sounds in words that appear close to one another in a poem. End Rhyme: The repetition of sounds in words which occurs at the end of two or more lines. Refrain: A word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated regularly in a poem. Infer: reasonable conclusion one draw on clues or evidence given. Figurative language: Language that is meant to be interpreted imaginatively, not literally. (I'm so hungry I could eat a horse.) *Simile: A comparison between two basically unlike things using the words "Like" or "AS.― (She is like the sun.) *Metaphor: direct comparison between two unlike things saying something is something else. Doesn't use Like or As.(She is sun.) *Extended metaphor: A comparison that makes more than one continued point of comparison.
  85. 85. *Imagery: use of vivid language to describe people, places, things, and ideas. Creates a mental picture. Suggests how things look and also how they sound, smell, taste, and feel. *Alliteration: The repetition of an initial consonant sound in two or more words in a phrase. Picked to enhance meaning. *Onomatopoeia: The use of a word or phrase that actually imitates or suggests the sound of what it describes. (Buzz, Whir) * Symbol: Any person, place, or thing that has meaning in itself and also stands for or represents something else. (Flag . nation, Dove . peace. *Parallel structure: The repetition of a grammatical structure. Lyric poetry: Poetry expresses poet.s thoughts and feelings. Creates a mood through vivid images, descriptive words,musical quality of lines. *Sensory language: Language that appeals to the senses. Free verse: Poetry with irregular rhythms and varied line lengths. Free of traditional forms of poetry. Similar to regular speech. Concrete poetry: Poetry in which the shape of the poem on the page resembles the subject of the poem. Stereotype: an oversimplified mental picture or judgment.
  86. 86. Novel Vocabulary
  87. 87. Genre: A group, type, classification of Literature.(Novel, Poetry) Plot: What happens in story. Multiple plots and subplots in novel Setting: Where the story takes place. Includes description and sensory images. Multiple settings in a novel. Characterization: Drawing of three-dimensional characters including looks, personality, character traits. Dilemma: A struggle between opposing forces. The conflict can be internal or external. It.s often Climax: That point in the story where you know that the dilemma has been resolved. Denouement: What happens as a result of the dilemma being resolved.
  88. 88. Antagonists: Forces creating the dilemma. Must have both positive and negative forces or there is no dilemma. They can be a person, thing, situation, or belief. Theme: A universal truth about people . the things they do, the way they are, that can be applied to your life. Not a dippy moral. Parable: Short tale that illustrates a universal truth, a belief that appeals to all people. Foreshadowing: A device where the author gives clues that hint at later events in the story. Makes surprise endings more believable. Symbol: Something that has meaning in itself and also stands for or represents something else. (American flag . patriotism, Dove . peace, Crucifix . our faith)
  89. 89. Drama Vocabulary
  90. 90. Characterization: The developing of three-dimensional characters: not just what the person looks like, but who they are on the inside, what kind of person they are, what they stand for and believe. A good author shows you personality through what a person says and does. Casting: Picking the right person for the role. Setting: Not just where and when the story takes place, but all of the visual details that make up the look of the drama. Limited by time, space, and money. Staging: Creating the illusion of the setting. Director: The person who translates the drama from the written word in to visual. Dialogue: The words the character speaks. Costuming: The way the characters are dressed. Can be used to create mood, illusion, and set the piece in a particular time.
  91. 91. Plot: What happens in the story, may not be sequential. Has to hold the audience.s attention, visually interesting. Theme: A universal truth about people . the things they do, the way they are, that can be applied to your life. Not a dippy moral. Infer: A reasonable conclusion one can draw from facts or evidence given. Aside: A character speaks directly to the audience. Through asides, characters in a play reveal directly to the audience their thoughts or other characters. thoughts. Usually delivered in confidence pretending that other characters cannot hear. Nota Bene, N.B.: Note well. Used to call attention to something important. Flash-pot: A device that creates a burst of fire and smoke that creates a magical effect.
  92. 92. Soliloquy: A speech in which a character talks to himself or the audience and reveals what he is thinking. Longer than an aside. Scrim: A light, semi-transparent curtain. Protagonist: Main character of a story, can be one person or a group of people. Parody: A humorous mimicking of a serious piece of literature. Flashback: A literary device where an event from the past is inserted into the present. Seems as if it is happening in present time. Shows how the present is influenced by the past. Foreshadowing: A device where the author gives clues that hint at later events in the story. Makes surprise endings more believable. Euphemism: A nice way of saying something that is not usually nice (fat = big bones).
  93. 93. Nonfiction Vocabulary
  94. 94. Letter: A written communication from one person to another. In personal letters writer shares information, thoughts, and feelings with one other person. Journal: A daily account of events and the writer.s thoughts and feelings about those events. Media accounts: Reports, explanations, opinions, descriptions written for television, radio, newspapers, magazines. Essay: A short piece of nonfiction in which a writer presents a personal view of a topic. Expository essay: A short, nonfiction piece that explains or gives information about a topic. Autobiography: The story of a person's life written by that person. Includes key events of a person's life and reveals his struggles, values, and ideas. Biography: The story of someone's life told by someone else. The subject is known and of interest to other people. Tells you the facts of the subject's life and explains what these facts mean.
  95. 95. Narrative essay: A short nonfiction composition that tells a story that may focus on a character other than the writer. Descriptive essay: A short nonfiction composition that uses vivid sensory details to describe people or places. Personal essay: A short nonfiction composition that gives an informal account of an episode from a person's own life. Reflective essay: A short nonfiction composition that presents a writer's thought about ideas or experiences. Persuasive essay: A short nonfiction composition where a series of arguments are presented to convince readers to believe or act in a certain way. Humorous essay: A short nonfiction composition meant to amuse readers. Writers sometimes create humor by contrasting the reality of the situation with the character.s mistaken views of what is happening.
  96. 96. Humorous commentary: contains amusing personal observations or opinions to help readers look at life a little less seriously. Analytical essay: A short nonfiction composition that breaks down a big idea into parts. Helps the reader understand how the parts fit together and what they mean as a whole. Tribute: A literary expression of gratitude or admiration to honor a special person. Describes a person's traits. Opinions: Beliefs or judgments. Not subject to verification. Character traits: The qualities that make a person, or even an animal, an individual. Memoir: A biographical piece usually written by a relative or personal friend of the subject. Can be one person's recollection or based on interviews and anecdotes of several people. Anecdote: Brief story about interesting, amusing, strange event.
  97. 97. Myth Vocabulary
  98. 98. Legend: • Traditional story about the past • based on real people/events • passed down by word of mouth. • Details increasingly exaggated. • Have fantastic details, larger than life characters, amazing feats. • Reveals culture’s attitudes/values. Folktales: • Communicates values/ideals. • Composed orally. • Passed by word of mouth. • Anonymous. • Has heroes, amazing feats of strength or daring. • Solves problems. • Uses repetition to make easy to remember. • To be authentic, must have at least two versions
  99. 99. Myth: • Stories about gods and heroes. • Deals with right/wrong. • Explains world in human terms. • Explains natural occurrences. Fable: • Teaches lessons at end of story. • Short. • Underdeveloped characters, situations, conflicts. • Animals act like humans. • Points out our human failings/weaknesses. Folklore: Records the customs, traditions, and beliefs of people. Yarn: A tale or story filled with exaggeration. The subject is the best, worst, or most unusual of its kind.
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