Approaches (1)

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Language Teachin Approaches

Language Teachin Approaches

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  • 1. Method: A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methodology: The study of pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical underpinnings and related research). Technique: Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings. Procedure : a procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. A procedure is a sequence which can be described in terms such as first you do this, then you do that… Smaller than a method and bigger than technique.
  • 2. plan Implementation technique method approach philosophy
  • 3. Grammar Translation Method The Direct Method The Natural Approach Audio-Lingual Method Total Physical Response The Silent Way Desuggestopedia Community Language Learning Communicative Language Teaching Participatory Approaches Content Based Task Based Learning Strategy Cooperative Learning Multiple Intelligences
  • 4. THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM)
  • 5. Learning Theory: Deductive learning is essential. First, the Ts gives rules explicitly then rules are reinforced with examples and exercises. Language Theory: Language is for understanding the literature. Translation is the way to learn the language. Oral communication is not primarily important. Written language is superior to spoken language. Sts also learn the structure of their own NL. Learners become more cultured and intellectual.
  • 6. Culture: Culture is limited to literature and fine arts. Tss' Role: Ts is the strict authority. Ts centred. Sts' Role: Sts are passive receivers of the new information. Ts starts the activities and directs them. Sts are supposed to memorise the rules and new vocabulary with their meanings in their NL. Interactions: Very often ―Ts –Student‖ interactions occur. Rarely ―Student – Student‖ interactions also occur.
  • 7. Vocabulary Teaching: Memorisation of vocabulary with their NL equivalents Cognates(―cinema –sinema‖, ―theatre – tiyatro‖etc). Synonyms and antonyms Grammar Teaching: The teaching of grammar is deductive. Ts introduces rules explicitly and wants Sts to apply rules to new examples in exercises. Sts are supposed to memorise the rules. To explain the rules, comparison and contract between the Sts‘ NL grammar and TL grammar. Translation is a way to clarify the meanings of the new grammar patterns in the TL.
  • 8. Materials: Texts from the TL literature are used. Ts may either write the text or use an authentic text. Syllabus: Structural syllabus (list of structures to be taught) The order of structures starts from the easiest Role of L1: L1 (Sts’ NL) has important function in teaching vocabulary and grammar Since oral communication in the TL is not important, classroom instructions are given in L1
  • 9. Evaluation: Translation is important technique to test nprogress Fill-in-the-blank type test items are also used. Synonyms, antonyms, and cognates can be asked to test vocabulary in tests. Reading passages and comprehension questions Goals and Objectives: to teach translation, to read and understand literary texts in the TL, to make Sts aware of their native language structure and vocabulary, to improve Sts‘ mental capacities with grammar exercises.
  • 10. Error Correction: The Ts corrects the errors strictly. Errors are not tolerated. Accuracy is emphasised strictly. Accuracy means grammatical correctness. Student's Feelings: There is no information about how it deals with feelings GTM cannot be considered as a humanistic approach
  • 11. Techniques: Translation of a Literary Passage: Sts translate a passage from the TL into their native language. passage provides focus for vocabulary and grammatical structures Reading Comprehension Questions: Sts answer questions on understanding of the reading passage. First, they answer information questions whose answers are in the passage. Second, they answer inference questions based on their comprehension of the passage although the answer cannot be found in the passage. Third, they answer questions that require Sts to relate the passage to their own experience.
  • 12. Antonyms / Synonyms: Sts are given one set of words and are asked to find antonyms in the passage. Asking Sts to find synonyms for a particular set of words. Cognates: Sts are taught to recognise cognates by learning the spelling or sound patterns that correspond between the languages. Sts should be aware of ―true cognates‖ (i.e., theatre-tiyatro) and false cognates‖ (i.e., apartment-apartman). Deductive Application of Rule: Grammar rules are presented with examples. Exceptions to each rule are also noted. Once Sts understand a rule, they are asked to apply it to different examples.
  • 13. Fill-in-the blanks: Sts are given a series of sentences with words missing. They fill in the blanks with new vocabulary items or necessary items of grammatical features. Memorisation: Sts are given lists of TL vocabulary words and their native language equivalents and are asked to memorise them. Sts are also required to memorise grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. Use words in Sentences: To show that Sts understand the meaning and use of a new vocabulary, they make up sentences they use the new words.
  • 14. Composition: Ts gives the Sts a topic to write about in the TL. Topic is based on some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson. Sometimes, instead of creating a composition, Sts are asked to prepare a précis Skills: Primary skills to be improved are reading and writing Little attention is given to speaking and listening almost no attention to pronunciation.
  • 15. classical method / Prussian method literature and the fine arts exercise mental muscle translation deductive, explicit grammar language equivalents Memorization written texts questions about culture composition first reading-writing and grammar-vocabulary teacher authortiy student passive
  • 16. Key Features Classes are taught in the mother tongue Little active use of the target language. Vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together Instruction focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early. Little attention is paid to the content of texts. Texts are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue
  • 17. DIRECT METHOD (DM) DM was born as a reaction to GTM as GTM cannot prepare sts for real life language situations in which oral communication is the media.
  • 18. Learning Theory: Inductive learning is essential. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition. There is a direct exposure to the TL. Exposure of Long chunks in the TL. Learning occurs naturally. Language Theory: Language is for oral use. Each language is unique. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. No language should interfere when learning a language
  • 19. Culture: Both art or literature, and other aspects of culture (life style, customs, traditions,food,daily habits should be taken into consideration. Daily speech is important. Ts's Role: Ts directs the interactions but he is not as dominant as in GTM. Sometimes acts like a partner of the Sts. Sts' Role: S Ts are active participants. Sometimes pair works take place. Even Ts take roles in activities. Interactions: T- st and St - st interactions often occur.
  • 20. Vocabulary Teaching: Pictures, realia, examples, sample sentences are used to teach vocabulary. Use of L1 is not allowed. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. Grammar Teaching: Grammar is taught inductively. Examples and drills are given and Sts are expected to discover and acquire rules. Chain drill, yes - no question, or question are used to help Sts induce the rule.
  • 21. Materials: Reading passages (for topics), Dialogues (for situation), plays (for situations) are used. Syllabus: Situational and topical syllabuses are used. Role of L1: L1 is not permitted. Evaluation: Sts' ability to use the language is tested. Not about language, the language itself.
  • 22. Goals and Objectives: Teaching how to communicate in the TL. Teaching of thinking in the TL. Error Correction: Sts' self correction. Sts' Feelings: No information dealing with this issue. Skills: Speaking, listening, reading and writing are important Especially speaking and listening are emphasised. Vocabulary is over grammar
  • 23. Reading aloud Sts take turns reading sections of a passage, play, or dialog aloud. Question and answer exercise Sts are asked questions and answer in full sentences to practice words and structures. Getting Sts to self-correct The Ts has the Sts self-correct. Conversation practice Ts asks Sts uestions in TL which Sts have to understand and be able to answer correctly. Fill-in-the-blank exercise This technique (discussed in the Grammar- Translation Method) differs in its application in the DM. Dictation The Ts reads the passage three times. The first time the Ts reads it at a normal speed, while the Sts just listen. Second he reads the passage phrase by phrase, pausing long enough to allow Sts to write down The last time the Ts again reads at a normal speed, and Sts check their work. Listening Comprehension Practice (e.g. Map drawing) Aim is to improve listening comprehension levels of the Sts . Paragraph writing Sts are asked to write a paragraph in their own words on a relevant topic
  • 24. Demonstration self correction, conversation practice, fill-in-the-blank exercise drawing (for listening comprehension), paragraph writing. visual aids, realias integrative texts no L1 no translation inductive, implicit grammar situations, topics everyday culture Dictation
  • 25. Key Features Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in TL Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. Oral communication skills are built up in organized questionanswer exchanges between teachers and students Grammar is taught inductively. New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas. Both speech and listening comprehension are taught. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
  • 26. Grammar Translation vs Direct Method Grammar Translation Method 1. Maintains close association between the foreign language and the mother tongue 2. Lays emphasis on speech 3. Follows the adult‘s natural way of learning a language 4. Teaches the language by ‗rule‘ and not by ‗use 5. Teaches formal grammar from the very beginning The Direct Method: 1. Avoids close association between the second or foreign language and the mother tongue 2. Lays emphasis on speech 3. Follows the child‘s natural way of learning a language 4. Teaches the language by ‗use‘ and not by ‗rule‘ 5. Does not favor the teaching of formal grammar at the early stage
  • 27. AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD (ALM)
  • 28. Learning Theory: Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism. Habit Formation is essential. Rules are induced from examples. Explicit grammar rules are not given. Learning is inductive. Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills.
  • 29. Reinforcement (Behaviour is likely to occur again) Stimulus----organism No reinforcement or negative reinforcement (Behaviour is not likely to occur again)
  • 30. Language Theory: Language is based on descriptive linguistics. Every language is seen as its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels.(i.e. phonological, morphological, and syntactic). There is a natural order of skills. 1.Listening, 2.Speaking, 3. Reading, 4. Writing. Everyday speech and oral skills are important. Perfect pronunciation is required. Language is primarily for Oral Communication.
  • 31. Culture: Culture consists of everyday behaviour, and lifestyle of the TL community. Culture is presented in dialogues. Ts’s Role: T is like an orchestra leader. he directs and controls the language behaviour of the Sts. T is a good model of the TL, especially for pronunciation and other oral skills. The differences between Sts‘ L1 and L2 should be known by the Ts. Sts’ Role: Sts are imitators of Ts as perfect model of TL or native speakers in audio recordings Interactions T-St, ST- ST. Interactions are mostly initiated by the Ts.
  • 32. Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is taught directly. L1 is prohibited because it may cause bad habit formations. Vocabulary is introduced through dialogues. Grammar Teaching: Explicit rules are not provided. Sts induce the rules through examples and drills. St acquire grammar exposed to patterns through mechanical drill Materials: Dialogues
  • 33. Syllabus: Grammar points and sentence patterns in structural syllabus. Role of L1: L1 is not allowed It may cause interference and bad habit formation in L2. Evaluation: Discrete-point tests are used. Each item should focus on only one point of language at a time Goals and Objectives: to enable Sts to speak and write in the TL. make Sts able to use the TL automatically without stopping think. To form new habits in the TL. Error Correction: Errors are corrected by Ts since errors may cause bad habit form Sts’ Feelings: There are no principles related to Sts‘ feelings.
  • 34. Techniques: Dialog Memorization memorize an opening dialog using mimicry and applied role-playing Question anBackward Build-up (Expansion Drill) (Ts break a line into several parts, sts repeat each part starting at the end of the sentence and "expanding" backwards through the sentence, adding each part in sequence)d answer exercise, Repitition Drill (Students repeat teacher's model as quickly and accurately as possible) Chain Drill (Sts ask and answer each other one-by-one in a circular chain around the class Single Slot Substitution Drill Teacher states a line from the dialog, then uses a word or a phrase as a "cue" that students, when repeating the line, must substitute into the sentence in the correct place) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill (Same as the Single Slot drill, except that there are multiple cues to be substituted into the line) Transformation Drill (Teacher provides a sentence that must be turned into something else, for example a question to be turned into a statement, an active sentence to be turned into a negative statement, etc) Question-and-answer Drill (Students should answer or ask questions very quickly) Use of Minimal Pairs (Using contrastive analysis, Ts selects a pair of words that sound identical except for a single sound that typically poses difficulty for the learners - sts are to pronounce and differentiate the two words) Complete the Dialog(Selected words are erased from a line in the dialog - sts must find and insert) Grammar Games(Various games designed to practice a grammar point in context, using lots of repetition)
  • 35. Skills: Listening and speaking are emphasised. There is a natural order of skills. 1.Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading 4. Writing
  • 36. stimulus+response+reinforcement repitition good habit error-free dialogues,drills teacher-centred Conditioning Context pattern practice structural patterns over learn sound system minimal pairs teacher orchestra leader students imitators
  • 37. Key Features New material is presented in dialog form. There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and over-learning. Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills. Little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductively Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context. There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids. Great importance is attached to pronunciation. Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted. Successful responses are immediately reinforced. There is great effort to get sts to produce error-free utterances. There is a tendency to manipulate languae and disregard content
  • 38. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING (CLL)
  • 39. Learning Theory: CLL advocates a holistic approach to language learning. "True human learning" is both cognitive and affective. This is termed "whole person learning". "non-defensive” learning are collected under the acronym (SARD). S A R D Security Attention Aggression Retention Reflection Discrimination
  • 40. Security: Sts should feel secure to enter into a successful learning experience. Classroom atmosphere, Sts' relations with each other, Ts's attitude to Sts all affect Sts' feelings of security. Attention: Attention is the learner's involvement in learning. Aggression: self-assertion looks like a child who tries to show what he has learnt. The child tries to prove the things hehas learnt. Retention: If the "whole person" is involved in the learning process what is retained is internalised and becomes a part of the Sts‘ new persona Material should neither be too old nor be too new or conversely too familiar. Retention will best take place somewhere in between novelty and familiarity. Reflection: Sts need quiet reflection time in order to learn. The Ts reads the text for three times and the Sts relax and listen for reflection. Sts also listen to their own voice from the tape for reflection. Discrimination: Sts should discriminate the similarities and the differences among TL forms Sts should listen to discriminate if what they say is similar or different from what the Ts says.
  • 41. Language Theory: Language is for communication. Language is for developing creative thinking. Culture is integrated with language. Focus shifts from grammar to a sharing and belonging between peop. Language is what you learn and share with others. Sts should trust the learning process, the Ts and the others. Culture: Knowing target culture is vital to be successful in communication. Culture is integrated with language. Social life style, art, literature, customs, habits should be learnt. Ts's Role: T's initial role is that of a counsellor. Ts tries to remove the threatening factors in the classroom. Ts stands behind the Sts to reduce threatening factors. Sts' Role: Initially the learner is dependent on the Ts. As sts go on studying they become more and more independent.
  • 42. Interactions: st-st, T-st interactions occur in the classroom. Group work, and pair work tasks are carried out by Sts. Ts physically removes himself from circle to increase st-st interaction Vocabulary Teaching: Literal NL equivalents are given to TL to teach their meanings. This makes meaning clear. Grammar Teaching: Large chunks are analysed by means of equivalents in L1. It can be explicit when necessary. Materials: A textbook is not considered necessary. Materials may be developed by the Ts as the course develops. Materials depend on Sts' needs. Conversations are generated by the Sts.
  • 43. Syllabus: CLL does not use a conversational language syllabus, Syllabus is developed in terms of Sts' communication needs. Role of L1: Sts' security is initially enhanced by using their native language. Where possible, literal native language equivalents are given. This makes their meaning clear allows Sts to combine the TL words to create new sentences. Directions in class, Sts' expressions of feelings are in L1. In later steps, more and more L2 is used. Evaluation: Ts-made classroom test would be an integrative test Sts are asked to write a paragraph or given an oral interview
  • 44. Goals and Objectives: Sts should learn how to use the TL communicatively. Sts should learn about their own learning to take responsibility Non-defensive learning is result of treat each other as whole person. Error Correction: The error is treated in a non-threatening way. Ts repeats the correct form without calling further attention to the error and the owner of the error. Sts' Feelings: Sts' feelings are considered extremely important. One activity is getting feedback from Sts' about their feelings; how they feeling about learning a foreign language. Negative feelings may block Sts' learning. Security is basic. Clear instructions, enough time, should be given sts for respond.
  • 45. Techniques: Transcription: Ts writes the L1 equivalent of the text in the TL on the board Sts copy them in their notebooks. Reflection on Experience: Sts tell about their feelings about language learning experience. Reflective Listening: Sts relax and listen to their own voices speaking TL on the tape. Ts may also read the transcript while Sts are listening. Human Computer: Ts repeats the correct form as many times as the Sts need. Ts never corrects the student's error. Only repeats the correct form. Small Group Tasks: Sts learn from each other. Also small groups can let Sts know each other well. Skills: In the early stages, Sts design the syllabus. They decide what they want to say in L2. The most important skills are listening comprehension, speaking. Reading and writing are also worked on.
  • 46. learning is persons learning is dynamic and creative language for communication building community accepting atmosphere nondefensive L1 initiative and independence non-defensive nonthreatening learning security,-aggression,-attention,-reflection,-retention, discrimination choice teacher-student centred grammar,pronunciation,vocabulary teacher counselor & human computer
  • 47. Key Features Sts are to be considered as learner- clients and the teacher as teacher-councelor relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essential to the learning Students are permitted to use their native language, and are provided with translations from the teacher which they then attempt to apply. Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively. "Chunks" of TL produced by sts are recorded and later listened to - they are also transcribed with NL equivalents to become texts students work with. Students apply the target language independently and without translation when they feel inclined/confident enough to do so. Sts are encouraged to express not only how they feel about the language, but how they feel about the learning process variety of activities can be included (focusing on a particular grammar or pronunciation point, or creating new sentences based on the recordings/transcripts).
  • 48. THE SILENT WAY (SW) (Caleb Gattegno)
  • 49. Learning Theory: Cognitive Psychology is the basis. Language learning is not habit formation. It is rule formation. Learning has a sequence from the known to the unknown. Sts induce the rules from examples and learning is inductive Language Theory: Languages share a number of features(every language uses subject, object; adjective, adverb, verb) However each language is unique. Language is for self expression (express thoughts, perceptions, ideas and feelings). Cognitive Coding helps learners learn the language. Colour rods and Fidel Chart are used for cognitive coding.
  • 50. Culture: Culture is an inseparable part of language and it reflects language Everyday life, art, literature. etc. should be learnt. Tss' Role: The Ts is a technician or an engineer who facilitates learning. Only the learner can do learning. Ts is aware of what Sts already know and he can decide next step. The Ts is silent. Silence is a tool because Ts's silence gives responsibility to student. Silence helps Sts monitor themselves and improve inner criteria. Sts' Role: Sts should make use of what they already know. They are responsible for their own learning. They actively take part in exploring the language. The Ts works with the Sts and the Sts work on the language. St-st interaction is important. Sts can learn from each other.
  • 51. Interactions: Ts is silent in "T-st‖ interactions. St-st interactions are possible, Sts can learn from each other. Vocabulary Teaching: Vocabulary is taught by means of visual aids and word-charts. Vocabulary is always recycled by means of word-charts. Vocabulary is restricted at the beginning. Grammar Teaching: focus on the structures but explicit grammar rules are never given Materials: Sound Colour Charts (For teaching pronunciation; one colour represents one sound), Colour Rods (for cognitive coding of grammatical patterns), Fidel Charts (used for sound spelling association.
  • 52. Syllabus: There is no linear structural syllabus. Ts start with what Sts know, builds from one structure to next. The syllabus develops according to the Sts' learning needs. Role of L1: L1 can be used to give instructions when necessary. Meaning is made clear by St's perceptions, not by translation in feedback L1 be used at beginning levels. L1 can be exploited Similar sounds can be used to make Sts aware of phonological similarities. Evaluation: The Ts may never give a formal test. He/she assesses Sts' learning all the time. Continuous monitoring by the Ts is essential.
  • 53. Goals and Objectives: Sts should use TL for self expression (express thoughts, feelings, ideas). To help Sts improve their inner criteria for correctness. Sts should rely on themselves to be able to use the TL. Error Correction: Errors are natural and inevitable. The Ts uses Sts' errors to decide where further work is necessary. Self correction is necessary to develop inner criteria. If Sts can‘t selfcorrect Ts supplyy correction but only as last resort. Peer correction must be in a co-operative manner. Student's Feelings: Sts' negative feelings are treated by the Ts. During feedback, Sts can express their feelings, needs, wants. what they think about classes, learning a foreign language Sts are encouraged to co-operate with one another to create a relaxed and enjoyable classroom atmosphere.
  • 54. Techniques: Teaching pronunciation with "sound colour charts" Cognitive coding with colour rods. Peer correction to improve co-operative manner. Self correction gestures Ts's Silence Structured feedback: Sts are invited to talk about day's instructio Sts take responsibility for their own learning by controlling and applying their own learning strategies. Fidel Charts: Used to teach sound spelling association Word Charts: Used to teach and recycle vocabulary. Skills: Pronunciation is emphasised at the very beginning. All four skills (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) are worked on from the beginning
  • 55. inner cirteria rely on each other students' perception peer correction progression, not perfection student attention self-correction no homework linguistic structures 4 skills structured feedback sound,pronunciation,implicit grammar learning at different rates errors are necessary to learning Ts focus on learners Sts focus on language learning learning is important rather than teaching learners are active Teacher technican / engineer charts
  • 56. Key Features Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned. Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. Learning is facilitated by problem- solving involving the material to be learned.
  • 57. SUGGESTOPEDIA (Georgi Lazanov)
  • 58. Learning Theory: People use 5-10% of their mental capacity. use mental reserves, limitations need to be desuggested. help Sts overcome the barriers to learning. Authority: Sts remember best when information comes from reliable authoritative source. Infantilization: Ts-student relation like parent-child relationship Double-planedness:Sts learns both the instructions and environment. Intonation: Varying intonation of material helps to avoid boredom Rhythm: Materials with varying rhythm and tones are more interesting. Concert pseudo-passiveness: Materials presented with varying rhythm, intonation, and tone should be accompanied by music.
  • 59. Language Theory: Lazanov does not articulate a theory of language. Communication is a two-plane process. Language is the first of the two planes. In second plane, there are factors, which influence linguistic message (the way one dresses, non-verbal behaviours that affect linguistic message) Culture: It concerns everyday life of people who speak the TL. The use of fine arts is also common.
  • 60. Tss' Role: Ts is the authority. Sts learn better if they get information from reliable authority. Sts must trust and respect that authority. Sts' Role: Sts play a child's role (infantilization). They adopt a new identity (new name, job, family...etc) As they feel more secure, they can be less inhibited. Interactions: St-st and T-st interactions occur. Sts often do "pair work" and "group work". Vocabulary Teaching: Vocabulary is emphasised. Success of the method is focus on the large number of words Comments and explanations can be provided in st's L1. Grammar Teaching: Grammar is taught explicitly but minimally. Explicit grammar rules are provided in L1.
  • 61. Materials: Dialogues are used with translations in L1 on the opposite side. Texts with literary value are used. The textbook posters are used for peripheral learning. Syllabus: A course lasts 30 days and ten units of study. Each unit has a long dialogue consisting of 1200 words. There is grammar review and commentary with list of vocabulary The dialogues are graded by lexis and grammar. Role of L1: L1 is used to make the meaning of dialogues clear. Ts use L1 when necessary but less and less as course proceeds. Evaluation: Evaluation is conducted on Sts' "in-class-performances" and not through formal tests threatening relaxed atmosphere which is considered essential for accelerated learning.
  • 62. Goals and Objectives: Ts accelerate Sts‘ learning language for everyday communication. This can be achieved by removing psychological barriers. Error Correction: At the beginning levels, errors are not corrected immediately When errors of form occur, Tss uses the correct form later Immediate interference by Ts may destroy relaxed atmosphere Student's Feelings: A great deal of attention is given to Sts' feelings. Sts should feel relaxed and secure. Ts's and peers' existence should‘nt threaten the individual. Individual's self-confidence is important. New identity makes Sts feel more comfortable and secure. Classroom should supply feeling of relaxation and comfort.
  • 63. Techniques: Classroom set up: dim lights, soft music, cushioned armchairs, posters on the walls. Positive Suggestion: Direct Suggestion: Ts tells Sts are going to be successful to create self-confidence. Indirect Suggestion: This is provided by music and comfortable physical conditions Peripheral Learning: Posters, lists, charts, paintings, and graphs are hung on walls Visualisation: Sts are asked to close their eyes and concentrate on their breathing. Ts describes a scene or an event in detail so that Sts think they are really there. When scene is complete, Ts asks Sts to open their eyes and return to present. This can be done just before Sts write a composition to activate their creativity.
  • 64. Choose a New Identity: Sts can be asked to write about their new identity First Concert: Music is played. Ts reads slowly synchronised in intonation with music. music is classical. Ts's voice is usually hushed, but rises and falls with music. Second Concert: Sts put their scripts aside. Sts close their eyes and listen as Ts reads with music content is emphasised by the way the Ts reads the text. Music is secondarily important. At the end of the concert, the class ends for the day.
  • 65. Primary Activation: Sts read the dialogue in the TL aloud as individuals or groups. They read it sadly, angrily, and amorously. Secondary Activation: Sts engage in activities such as singing, dancing, dramatising Linguistic forms are not important. Communication is important. To make Sts focus on communication, activities are varied. Skills: Oral communication is emphasised. Speaking and listening are important. Writing and reading are also important. Sts write imaginative compositions to improve their writing, Sts read dialogues or texts to practise reading.
  • 66. psychological barriers cheerful environment peripheral learning trust / respect songs positive suggestions conscious / subconscious plane native language translation dramatization infentilization errors are corrected gently new identity everyday communication explicitly but minimal grammar vocabulary,grammar,speaking teacher authority
  • 67. Key Features Learning is facilitated in environment as comfortable as possible, dim lighting. Peripheral" learning is encouraged through the presence of posters and decorations featuring the TL and various grammatical information. The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and control in the classroom. Self-perceived and psychological barriers to learners' are "desuggested". Sts are encouraged to be child-like, take "mental trips with teacher" and assume new roles and names in the TL in order to become more "suggestible". Baroque music is played softly in the background to increase mental relaxation and potential to take in and retain new material during the lesson. Sts work from lengthy dialogs in the TL, with translation into the sts' NL Errors are tolerated, the emphasis being on content and not structure. Grammar and vocabulary are presented and given treatment from the teacher, Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialog they are studying - once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning before they get up. Music, drama and "the Arts" are integrated into the learning process
  • 68. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH (CA)
  • 69. Learning Theory: Little is known about learning theory of Communicative Approach. Activities that involve real communication promote learning. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports learning process. Language Theory: Language is for communication. The goal of language teaching is to develop communicative competence. Using the language appropriately in social contexts is important Communicative competence should be acquired. What is language according to the Communicative Approach? A) Language is a system for expression of meaning. B) primary function of language is interaction - communication C) structure reflects its functional and communicative uses. D) primary units are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discour
  • 70. Culture: Culture is the everyday life of people. There are important aspects of language important to communication Body language, which may differ from culture to culture. Ts's Role: Ts is a facilitator of his/her Sts' learning. He is a manager of classroom activities. He acts as an advisor and monitors Sts' performance. Sts' Role: Sts are communicators. They are engaged in negotiating meaning actively. Sts are responsible managers of their own learning. Interactions: St-st interactions take place very often. Sts benefit from group and pair work, group discussions, projects
  • 71. Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is paramount. Meaning conveyed through visual, real objects, models, context. Vocabulary should be taught within the context. Grammar Teaching: Each linguistic form has a function. One function may be expressed with different forms. Asking for permission "May I go out?― In addition, different forms may have one function. (The modal "can" has various functions) I can lift this chair = ability It can rain today= strong possibility Can I use your telephone?" = asking for permission Functions are taught explicitly. Grammatical explanations can be given explicitly if it is believed to be useful for the acquisition of form & function.
  • 72. Materials: Authentic materials. Articles from magazines or newspapers, songs, short stories etc., They are used in real life and used as class materials. Communicative activities are used to promote Sts' communication (information gap, opinion gap activities) Pictures, other visual and realia are vital to support meaning. Task based activities are used to promote Sts' involvement Syllabus: Usually functional-notional syllabus is used (e.g. frequency, motion, location) Role of L1: Sts' L1 has no particular role in the Communicative Approach. L2 should be used during not only activities, but also when Ts is giving explanations, instructions, homework. Sts see L2 as a tool for communication, not a subject to study.
  • 73. Evaluation: Ts evaluates Sts' accuracy and fluency. Ts give communicative tests, which are integrative tests and which have real communicative function. Ts may tell Sts to write letter to friend to test writing. Improvisation of a situation can be used to Sts' oral performance. Goals and Objectives: To make Sts communicatively competent (i.e., being able to use the TL appropriately in a given context). Sts need knowledge of linguistic forms, meanings, and functions. Sts must know many different forms can be used to perform a function, and one single form can serve a variety of functions. Sts should choose the most appropriate form for a specific function.
  • 74. Error Correction: Errors of form can be tolerated Errors are natural outcome of development of communication. Sts can have limited linguistic knowledge and still be successful communicators. Sts' Feelings: Sts' motivation is important. Sts should feel that they are learning something useful for their lives. Sts' security is enhanced by many opportunities for co-operative interactions with their fellow Sts and the Ts. Ts gives Sts an opportunity to express ideas and opinions so that Sts integrate the TL with their own personality. Thus, they feel more secure about using the TL. Games, dramas and other enjoyable activities are used make classroom atmosphere better, more friendly and relaxing.
  • 75. Techniques: Authentic Materials: Genuine materials from newspapers, magazines, videos. Scrambled Sentences: for cohesion and coherence. Language Games: to provide valuable communicative practice of the TL Picture Strip Story: provides opinion gaps.Sts discuss which activity should come first. Role Play: provides the opportunity to practise TL in various social contexts. Skills and Language Areas: Language functions are emphasised over forms. The TL is taught at supra sentential or discourse level, too. Sts learn cohesion and coherence. Conversation structure in the TL is also reviewed. The four language skills are learnt from the very beginning. Skimming, and "Scanning in reading and listening are improved.
  • 76. language at he discourse and suprasentential level social context real language use authentic language cohesion, coherence 4 skills scrambled sentences picture strip functional syllabus judicious use of L1 games teacher____facilitator student____communicator
  • 77. Key Features of CLT An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on the language but also on the learning process itself. An enhancement of the learner's own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom
  • 78. (1) CLT: Meaning is paramount. ALM: Attends to structure and form more than meaning. (2) CLT: Dialogs center around communicative functions and are not memorized. ALM: Demands more memorization of structure-based dialogs. (3) CLT: Contextualization is a basic premise. ALM: Language items are not necessarily contextualized. (4) CLT: Language learning is learning to communicate. ALM: Language Learning is learning structures, sounds or words. (5) CLT: Effective communication is sought. ALM: Mastery or "overlearning" is sought. (6) CLT: Drilling may occur, but peripherially. ALM: Drilling is a central technique. (7) CLT: Comprehensible pronunciation is sought. ALM: Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought.
  • 79. 8) CLT: Any device which helps Sts is accepted - varying according to age, interest, etc. ALM: Grammatical explanation is avoided. (9) CLT: Attempts to communicate may be encouraged from the very beginning. ALM: Communicative activities come after a long process of rigid drills and exrecises. (10) CLT: Judicious use of native language is accepted where feasible. ALM: The use of the students' native language is forbidden. (11) CLT: Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it. ALM: Translation is forbidden at early levels. (12) CLT: Reading and writing can start from the first day, if desired. ALM: Reading and writing are deferred until speech is mastered. 13)CLT: linguistic system will be learned best through process of struggling to communicate. ALM: target linguistic system is learned through overt teaching of the patterns of the system. (14) CLT: Communicative competence is the desired goal. ALM: Linguistic competence is the desired goal.
  • 80. 15) CLT: Linguistic variation is a central concept in materials and methods. ALM: Varieties of language are recognized but not emphasized. 16 CLT: Sequencing is determined content function, meaning which maintains interest. ALM: The sequence is determined solely on principles of linguistic complexity. (17) CLT: Ts help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language. ALM: Ts control Sts and prevents them from doing anything that conflicts with theory. (18) CLT: Language is created by the individual often through trial and error. ALM: "Language is habit" so error must be prevented at all costs. (19) CLT: Fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal: accuracy is in context. ALM: Accuracy, in terms of formal correctness, is a primary goal. 20 CLT: Sts are to interact with others either in the flesh or pair and group work ALM: Sts are to interact with TL system, embodied in machines or controlled materials. (21) CLT: The teacher cannot know exactly what language the students will use. ALM: Tacher is expected to specify the language that students are to use. (22) CLT: Intrinsic motivation will spring from an interest in what is being communicated by the language. ALM: Intrinsic motivation will spring from an interest in the structure of the language
  • 81. Natural Approach Krashen
  • 82. An approach proposed by Terrell and Krashen emphasizes the informal acquisition of language rules tolerance of sts' errors and natural communication promote language and content learning activities encourage authentic communication natural and genuine language leaning; conscious and subconscious focus on acquire rather than teach to learn goal: COMMUNICATIVE COMPENTENCE; no explicit grmmar or correction or force to speak
  • 83. Theory of Language: essence of lang is meaning; vocab is heart of the language Theory of Learning: Learning cannot lead to acquisition; learning- conscious process; acquisitionnatural, subconscious process Syllabus: Based on selection of communicative activities and topics derived from learners' needs Learner Roles: should try to lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication Teacher Roles: source of comprehensible input; must create positive; low-anxiety climate; lead rich mixture of activities Materials Roles: realia rather than textbooks; promote comprehension and communication
  • 84. Krashen's Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis: ACQUISITION: Unconscious exposure to meaningful language happens with interaction; inductive; internalize rules; creative construction and hypothesis testing/ LEARNING: Conscious formal process of getting rules via instruction, teaching happens with formal instruction; learn and state rules; Learning is less effective than acquiring; in brain there is a section responsible for language acquisition. This is LAD (black box)
  • 85. Krashen's Affective Filter Hypothesis: Controls how much input sts come in contact with and how much is learned; defense mechanism; prevents/impedes learning and acquisition; negatively impacts motivation, confidence, anxiety; TO CONTERACT:spark interest. low-anxiety environment, bolster self-esteem Relevant variables for this filter Motivation: Learners with high motivation do better. Self confidence: Learners with self confidence tend to be successful Anxiety: Low anxiety means more acquisition Affective Filter Hypothesis states that acquirers with low affective filter Seek and receive more input Interact and communicate with confidence More receptive to the input they receive
  • 86. Krashen's Input Hypothesis: Acquisition; I+1 is one step beyond current level Comprehensible Input: way of speaking and explaining so students can understand); model, visual, hands-on, gesture, body language; too high or too low level means learner will not grow way of speaking and explaining that the students can understand modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures,body language a) Input in this sense related to the acquisition not learning. b) Learners acquire best, if language exposed to is slightly beyond their current level of competence. c) Speaking fluently is result of acquisition (not learning) and its occurrence is independent of time d) If there is sufficient quantity of comprehensible input, I+1 will usually be provided automatically.
  • 87. Krashen's Monitor Hypothesis: Learned system acts as editor to production; learned system check speaking; Acquired=fluency; learned=accuracy (this is the monitor for acquisition) There are 3 factors that have effect on monitoring the language production: 1) Time: think about rules and evaluate utterance according to these rules requires time. daily conversations do not allow lnrs to think about rules. over-use of rules can prevent fluency. Spending too much time results in correct but hesitant (not fluent) production. 2) Focus on form:learner should pay attention the correct form of the output. Even learner has time; he should deal with what he is saying and how he is saying it. 3) Knowledge of rules: Speaker must know rules to monitor utterance. If a) rules are simple to describe, and b) they do not require complex rearrangements then monitor does best.
  • 88. Krashen's Natural Order Hypothesis: grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable sequence it does little good to learn them in any other order; ignores transfer and individual variability Similar developmental errors occur.
  • 89. Pronoun case he him Article a the Copula am is are Progressive v+ing Plural -s Auxiliary be+verb+ -ing Regular past -ed Irregular past came, went Possessive -„s 3rd person singular -s
  • 90. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR)
  • 91. Learning Theory: There are three hypothesis A)Innate Bio-program There exists a specific, innate bio-program for language learning. It defines an optimal path for NL and SL development. Sts develop listening competence before they develop ability to speak. They make ―a blue-print‖ of the language first They develop a cognitive map of the language during listening. B) Brain Lateralisation: Brain has two main parts: left hemisphere, and right hemisphere If both hemispheres are activated, learning is more effective. C) Stress (an affective filter): Stress intervenes between act of learning and what is to be learned The lower the stress is, the greater the learning becomes.
  • 92. Language Theory: Language is primarily oral. It is just like the acquisition of NL Learners first listen (silent period), then oral production starts. Oral communication is crucial. Skilful use of imperatives by the instructor is crucial. It helps for acquisition of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Verbs in the imperative are the central linguistic motif. Culture: Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively. Daily habits, social life traditions should be learned. Tss' Role: Initially Ts is the director of all behaviour. In the later stages, the Ts is being directed. Sts' Role: Initially Sts are the followers of the Ts. After twenty hours, some Sts will be ready to speak language. At this point they start to direct the Ts. Interactions: T s - whole group,T- respond by Sts non-verbally; Sts - Sts; St - st
  • 93. Vocabulary Teaching: Vocabulary is introduced through imperatives. Verb is the kernel. Objects in the immediate environment are introduced. Grammar Teaching: Imperatives play an important role. Multi-word chunks, single-word chunks are used with imperatives. Ts uses his creativity to introduce grammatical patterns with imperatives Materials: Objects around in the classroom, visuals, written texts, Tasks for kinaesthetic learning can be used. Syllabus: Sentence based syllabus with grammatical&lexical criteria is used. TPR requires attention to meaning rather than forms of items.
  • 94. Role of L1: The method is introduced in the Sts' L1. After introduction, mother tongue can be used. Meaning is made through body movements. Evaluation: Ts know their Sts‘ understanding by observing. Formal evaluations can be conducted by commanding individual Sts to perform a series of actions. As Sts become more advanced, their Performance can become the basis for evaluation. Goals and Objectives: To make Sts enjoy learning TL and communicate with it. Stress should be reduced.
  • 95. Error Correction: Errors are inevitable. The Ts should be tolerant of Sts' errors; only major errors should be corrected. The Ts should be gentle when correcting Sts' errors. As Sts get more advanced, Ts can correct more minor errors. Student's Feelings: Ts should not force the Sts to speak. Silent period must be taken into consideration. When they begin to speak, perfection is not necessary. Stress should be reduced. Ts should use "zany commands" and humorous skits of actions to make classes more enjoyable.
  • 96. Techniques: 4. Commands: Use of commands is the major technique. Commands are given to Sts to perform an action Actions make meaning clear Role reversal: Sts command their Ts and classmates to perform actions. Sts speak after the silent period. Sts should not be forced before they feel ready. Action sequence: The Ts may give three connected commands "Point to the door, walk and touch the door“ Skills: Natural order of skills: Listening (Very important during the silent period) Speaking (Ts should not force sts to produce the language Sts are expected to produce the TL voluntarily) Readinga Writing
  • 97. actions, commands learner response chunks understanding before speaking low anxiety demonstrate,modeling,performing lifestyle of people novelty corection in an unobtrusive way spoeken language tolerance of errors in the beginning introduction is in L1 fun teacher____director student____imitator
  • 98. Key Features Ts direct and sts "act" in response - "instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors" (Asher, 1977:43). Listening and physical response skills are emphasized over oral production. Imperative mood is most common language function employed, even into advanced levels. Interrogatives are also heavily used. Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners. Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally ready or confident enough to do so. Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas. Spoken language is emphasized over written language
  • 99. CONTENT-BASED APPROACH
  • 100. Joins language learning to content/subject matter and engages them both concurrently. –Language is seen as a tool or medium for acquiring knowledge about other things Content itself determines what language items need to be mastered, not the other way around. When sts study math or science using English as medium, they are more intrinsically motivated Content-Based ESL Instruction: Content-based teaches grammar and vocabulary and uses written assignments to practice these skills. It emphasizes an integrated approach to learning English. Content-Based Language Instruction: Combines information, hands-on tasks and instructional techniques and uses these tools to develop language skills, learn subject matter and acquire cognitive and study skills. Ts use English and the native language to explain and evaluate the student's verbal, written and group efforts. Content-based Language Programs: Content area and language objectives are introduced simultaneously.
  • 101. THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE CBI CBI is based on these two principles 1-People learn TL more successfully when they USE IT as a tool for learning sometg new 2-Using lang to learn something REFLECTS LLS‘ NEEDS for learning TL. (If you need something it is important for you, it is more worthy to deal with) Basic assumptions Lang is a vehicle for learning content, this implies that learners need to deal with language units longer than sentence. Units composed of sentences are called texts. Texts produced as a result of communication (regarding coherence and cohesion) are called discourse. LANGUAGE FOR COMMUNICATION IS TEXT AND TEXT IS DISCOURSE BASED. Actual language use requires using four skills together when necessary. We perform activities that link different skills together. (Following lecture requires, listening, glancing at slides, taking notes, answering questions) ACTUAL LANGUAGE USE REQUIRES INTEGRATION OF LANGUAGE SKILLS We use language to ask question, to learn something, to regulate world around us. These are all language functions. Language function is the reason why we use language. It has always a purpose.
  • 102. LANGUAGE IS PURPOSEFUL Considering the principles and assumptions stated above we can make these claims: People learn language more successfully when they can use it as a tool to learn smthing. If the subject matter is interesting, beneficial, useful or leading to a desired goal, then they learn lang more successfully. (Such kind of learning is purposeful learning.) Sts learn best when instruction is relevant to the needs and expectations of the learners. People learn best when what s/he is learning can be related to previous learning. In most CBI courses syllabus consists of the content, not language. Only in Theme Based model, syllabus is organized by considering lang learning goals. SOME EXAMPLES OF CONTENT: Drugs, Advertising, Modern Architecture, Microchip technology, Ecology, Alternative energy, Professional ethics, CHALLENGING POINTS ARE: Tss A lack of training in content-based instruction Collaboration between language teachers and the subject matter teachers Language proficiency of the subject matter teachers and the language teachers Sts Limited time to achieve adequate academic level Instructional Materials Little material available on the market Assessment How to assess subject matter and language skills within the educational system
  • 103. APPLICATION OF THE CBI IS VERY DIFFICULT. SOME BASIC MODELS OF CBI Theme based instruction Focus is on the language development of the learners. Lang structures, skills are taught in a syllabus that organized around themes or topics. TOPIC: Immigrants in a new city. LANGUAGE vs RELEVANT THEME Reading skill: A news about the immigrant in Bursa from Muş Vocabulary: The same text Listening: A video record of the CNN news on the illegal immigration Speaking: Discussion about the reason why they need to immigrate Writing: Writing a report on possible solutions to immigration problem Sheltered content instruction Teaching content courses in the target language Adjunct language instruction Sts follow 2 linked courses, one lang course and a content course sharing same content. They are assessed mutually coordinated assignments. Team teach approach This is a variation of adjunct approach. Lang Ts and subject Ts together prepare the course. Lectures and exams are conducted together by these two Tss. Skills-based approach This is a type of course based on specific academic skill area. Writing academic papers, Conducting research
  • 104. The goals of teachers: give priority to process over predetermined linguistic content. The roles of the teachers: assist learners in understanding subject matter. The roles of the students: both study academic subject matters and learn a foreign language. The characteristics of the teaching/learning process: integrates learning with content, that is, academic subject matter.. objectives are dictated by texts. Sts are engaged in purposeful use of language The nature of student-teacher/student-student interaction: while completing the academic tasks, all interaction types are possible. The feelings of the students dealt with: no principles about feelings.
  • 105. The views of language and culture: As sts have a content, it is easier for them to master the TL The language areas: language areas are dictated by texts that are used for content. The language skills: all four skills The role of the students’ native language: there is no role of the native language. Evaluation: students are evaluated for the content they are learning.
  • 106. Integrated Language Teaching: L2 instruction method to promote language and content learning in SEI; reading, writing and speaking are integrated; content and language instruction are integrated; collaborative and supportive environment; teach across curriculum(family, genes, probaility) Dual Immersion: In dual language education programs, students are taught literacy and academic content in English and a partner language. Goals are for students to develop high levels of language proficiency and literacy in both program languages, to demonstrate high levels of academic achievement, and to develop an appreciation for and an understanding of diverse cultures. Works well with young students. Language Across The Curriculum: Content-based teaching that deliberately coordinates English language instruction (grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc.) in all classes no matter what the subject matter. Sometimes this program uses an integrated curriculum approach; sometimes it uses a team teaching approach and sometimes a combination of the two.
  • 107. subject matter scaffolding contextual clues authentic material and tasks adjunct model academic course sheltered language communicative competence specific content related language skills process writing and journal keeping
  • 108. TASK-BASED APPROACH
  • 109. Task-based learning: Lang focus can be made, before or after, though this is not always felt to be essential. It equates idea of a "learning task" to a learning technique in itself. This could be a problem solving activity or a project, task has clear objective, appropriate content, working/application procedure, outcomes It is another application of COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH. For that reason it is not a different method. Try to teach language through the use of tasks Tasks are meaningful activities that are carried out or executed using language. Conveying information, discussions or interaction facilitates language learning. (Because language is a tool for communication) meaningful and interesting tasks promote learning. learning language in natural learning situations outside the classroom. Learning language outside the classroom takes places through these two processes 1-We receive comprehensible input. (that was a condition for acquisition and using language was result of acquisition) Only input is not sufficient. 2-We negotiate the meaning. At that time we not only receive but also produce.
  • 110. What is a TASK? Task is an ACTIVITY or a GOAL that is carried out (performed, executed) using language. It should have a ―completeness‖that ends in an expected result to which Sts try to achieve. The communicative task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the TL while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form. REAL LIFE TASKS. If this task is relevant to the real life needs or daily activities Making a telephone call, Giving directions, Planning a vacation, Application to a jop PEDAGOGICAL TASKS. designed for language learning but they might not be relevant to real life activities. Drawing geometrical figures, Positioning hour and minute hands of a model clock, Naming parts of a complex model Some characteristics or key assumptions of TBI Pay more attention to process rather than product. (Telephone call: Finding number, using directory, having card /token, dialing number) Language is used in interaction with purposeful communication When Sts need to achieve a task or a task satisfies needs of the learner, language is learned more successfully The difficulty of a task depends on some factors and it can be arranged Procedures Skills required Topic content Time allowed Role of the Ts
  • 111. steps to form a classroom-task in TBTeaching; Analysis: What type of real-world activities can be teaching task? requiring interaction, communication, sharing, participation) Translation: How can translate tasks into learning activities? where and how I can use the task Designing: Relating activities with goals of instruction considering lang functions, structures in detailed Sequencing: Order the sub-steps of the activities considering the classroom teaching process Pretask activities Ts introduce topic and gives Sts clear instructions on what they have to do at task stage. Sts can take notes and spend time preparing for the task. Task cycle Sts complete a task in pairs or groups using lang resources that they have As Ts monitors and offers encouragement. Sts prepare a short oral or written report to tell class what happened during their task Post task activities (Analysis): The Ts then highlights relevant parts for the Sts to analyze. Ts can also highlight the language that Sts used during the report phase for analysis. Finally, Ts select lang areas to practice based on Sts‘ needs,what emerged from task report phases Sts do practice activities to increase their confidence and make a note of useful language
  • 112. TASK TYPES Jigsaw Tasks: Combining different pieces to form a whole. Information gap tasks: Two groups have set of information which forms complementary parts of whole. They can negotiate the meaning. Problem solving tasks: They are given a problem and a set of information. They try to arrive at a solution using the information. Decision making tasks: With a problem that have several solutions, Sts negotiate to reach a decision. Opinion exchange tasks: Learners engage in a discussion to exchange ideas. (They do not need to reach agreement)
  • 113. The goals of teachers: Provide learners with a natural context for language use. The roles of the teachers: The teacher acts as counselor and consultant. The roles of the students: Learning by solving problems with knowledge that sts hold, new knowledge. The characteristics of the teaching/learning process: The tasks practiced in the classroom have perceived purpose and a clear outcome. The nature of student-teacher/student-student interaction: Sts-Sts interaction, Sts-Ts interaction is for counseling and consultation. The feelings of the students dealt with: Low anxiety and high motivation are of vital significance. The views of language and culture: Both linguistic and cultural knowledge are of great importance.
  • 114. The language areas: Functional properties of the language are stressed. The language skills: All skills are considered important. The role of the students’ native language: Without simplifying the TL, only foreign language is used. Evaluation: No formal tests but through observing and feed backing. Error correction: Correction is done by reformulating or recasting what sts say. The techniques: information, opinion and reasoning gap activities.
  • 115. clear outcome jigsaw task authentic and meaningful tasks procedural task padegogic task real-world task
  • 116. PARTICIPATORY APPROACH
  • 117. Task Based Language teaching is another application of COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH. To perform an activity that requires conveying information, discussions or interaction facilitates language learning. If these activities are arranged as meaningful and interesting tasks that learners do want to perform, then this process promotes learning. It is based on the idea that language learning with grammar focused language teaching activities in classroom is different from learning language in natural learning situations outside the classroom. Learning language outside the classroom takes places through these two processes 1-We receive comprehensible input. (that was a condition for acquisition and using language was result of acquisition) Only input is not sufficient. 2-We negotiate the meaning. At that time we not only receive but also produce.
  • 118. What is a TASK? Task is an ACTIVITY or a GOAL that is carried out (performed, executed) using language. It should have a ―completeness‖ that is something that ends in an expected result to which learners try to achieve. The communicative task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the TL while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form. If task is relevant to real life needs or daily activities then it is called REAL LIFE TASKS. Making a telephone call Giving directions to somebody in the street Planning a vacation Application to a job Some tasks are designed for language learning but they might not be relevant to real life activities. Such tasks are called PEDAGOGICAL TASKS. Drawing geometrical figures Positioning hour and minute hands of a model clock Naming parts of a complex model
  • 119. Some characteristics or key assumptions of TASK BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING We pay more attention to process rather than product. (Telephone call: Finding number, using directory, having card /token, dialing number Language is used in interaction with purposeful communication When learner needs to achieve a task or a task satisfies needs of the learner, language is learned more successfully The difficulty of a task depends on some factors and it can be arranged Procedures Skills required Topic content Time allowed Role of the Ts
  • 120. To form a classroom-task in Task Based Teaching, several steps were suggested; Analysis: What type of real-world activities can be teaching task? (Complete, interaction, communication, sharing, participation) Translation: How can translate these tasks into learning activities? (Considering the learning context, learning variables, where and how I can use task ) Designing: Relating activities with goals of instruction considering lang functions and structures in a detailed manner Sequencing: Order the sub-steps of the activities considering class teaching process Pretask activities Ts introduce topic and give Sts clear instructions on what they have to do at task stage. The Sts can take notes and spend time preparing for the task. Task cycle Sts complete a task in pairs or groups using the language resources that they have as Ts monitor and offer encouragement. Sts prepare a short oral or written report to tell the class what happened during their task Post task activities (Analysis): The Ts then highlights relevant parts for the Sts to analyze. Ts can also highlight the language that the Sts used during the report phase for analysis. Finally, Ts select lang areas based on needs of Sts and what emerged from task and report phases. Sts then do practice activities to increase their confidence and make a note of useful lang.
  • 121. TASK TYPES Jigsaw Tasks: Combining different pieces to form a whole. Information gap tasks: Two groups (or two Sts ) have the set of information which forms the complementary parts of a whole. They can negotiate the meaning. Problem solving tasks: They are given a problem and a set of information. They try to arrive at a solution using the information. Decision making tasks: With a given problem that might have a number of possible solutions, Sts negotiate to reach a decision. Opinion exchange tasks: Learners engage in a discussion to exchange ideas. (They do not need to reach agreement) TASKS IN GROUPS To perform learning tasks in group structure provide the learners with the opportunity of ―team performance functions‖. Orientation function: They are guided to be familiar with ask and group structure. Organizational Function: They make coordination to perform the task together Adaptation Function: Members adapt their performances to each other to perform task Motivational Function: Achieving a goal together gives energy, motivate the learners
  • 122. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT LANGUAGE Meaning has the central role in language not the form: Task based language learning does not deal with language display. Performing a task combines different models of language: Structural view: Lang consists of structures (phonological, grammatical units [phrase, clause, sentence) lexical units (words) Functional view: Language is a vehicle to perform functions Interactional view: Language is a tool to realize interpersonal relations We can adjust the complexity of task (structural), we can emphasize different language functions in task (functional) we can foster interaction among Sts by special tasks. Lexical units have importance in language: Lexicon plays much role in learning and lexicon is not limited with words. Sts acquire word combinations (terrible accident), fabricated utterances (If I were you) Conversation is the keystone in language acquisition: Speaking and communication through the spoken language is very important In Task based language teaching learners try to achieve this aim.
  • 123. THEORY OF LEARNING Tasks provide both input and output processing necessary for language learning: According to Krashen, comprehensible input was necessary for language acquisition. This might be considered as ―input‖. On the other hand, opportunities to produce language seem to be also important. Tasks provide both. Task activities and achievement motivates learners Since tasks include physical activities in which learners involve, partnership, collaboration-cooperation and based on Sts‘ past experience, is motivating. Learning difficulties can be fine tuned Selecting & designing specific tasks, learning particular aspects of lang can be facilitated. OBJECTIVE Giving learners the ability to communicate accurately and effectively in most common English language activities they may be involve in.
  • 124. ROLES OF THE LEARNER Group participant Monitor (Provide opportunity to Sts to notice how language is used in communication in different settings Risk taker and innovator: (The skill of guessing the meaning form the context, asking for clarification) In a task-based lesson the lesson is organized around the completion of a central task. The language studied is determined by what happens as the Sts complete the task. Sts are free of lan control. In all stages they use all their language resources rather than just practicing one pre-selected item. Natural context is developed from Sts' experiences that is personalized and relevant to them. Sts will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBI. They will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language forms. The language explored arises from the Sts ' needs. This need dictates what will be covered in the lesson rather than a decision made by the Ts or the course book. It is a strong communicative approach where Sts spend a lot of time communicating.
  • 125. The goals of teachers: to exposure Sts TL through issues of concern to students. The roles of the teachers: the teacher conducts the flow of the lesson. The roles of the students: participatory is self-explanatory. Students are active participants. The characteristics of the teaching/learning process: content is determined by Sts‟ social, cultural-historical background. The nature of student-teacher/student-student interaction: All types of interaction can be observed. The feelings of the students dealt with: Students are motivated by their personal involvement.
  • 126. The language areas: everything that happens in the classroom should be connected outside world The language skills: All skills are emphasized. The role of the students’ native language: There is no need to use learners‘ mother tongue. Evaluation. no formal tests but Ts evaluate sts in ongoing way in the class Error correction: Often self-correction is preferred. The techniques: discussions, debates, and problems posed by Ts are primary techniques.
  • 127. ongoing context experience-centred collaborative investigations real communication
  • 128. COOPERATIVE LEARNING
  • 129. In learning environments there are some basic models i) Competitive ii) Cooperative iii) Individualized approach for learning based on using cooperation, workingtogether, either in pairs or small groups. General aim is in a socially structured group environment to exchange of information between Sts a) who are both accountable of their own learning b) and motivated to increase of the learning of the other group members. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING? Raise achievements of all Sts including both gifted ones and handicapped ones. Creates positive relationships among Sts. This positive relationship provides Sts healthy social, psychological and cognitive development Replace competition with team based organization with cooperation GOALS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING Language acquisition through interaction Opportunities for learners to develop communication and learning strategies In positive classroom climate increasing motivation and decreasing stress and anxiety of learners THEORETICAL BACKGROUND In 20th century it was the idea of John Dewey that cooperative classroom environment promotes learning. Later, Piaget and Vygotsky pointed out important role of SOCIAL INTERACTION in learning. Some people relate Critical Thinking Approach with Learning in Cooperation.
  • 130. Based on the interactive / cooperative nature of language acquisition theories. We acquire language in a social environment. Acquired language is organized as conversations (in social environments). Conversations take place in a certain set of cooperative rules (called MAXIMS). This is called CO-OPERATIVE PRINCIPLE. Grice has defined four maxims for conversations 1-Quantity: In conversation give as much information as it is needed. Not more or less that it is required. 2-Quality: Speak truthfully. Do not say anything that you don‘t believe or you cannot prove. 3-Relevance: Never say any irrelevant thing. 4-Manner: Avoid ambiguity, be clear. Speakers give enough and not too much information: quantity. They are genuine and sincere, speaking "truth" or facts: quality. Utterances are relative to the context of the speech: relevance. Speakers try to present meaning clearly and concisely, avoiding ambiguity: manner.
  • 131. FORMING COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUPS 1-Formal (cooperative learning) groups: Groups formed for one class hour or for several weeks. They are formed for a specific task achieved within these time limits. 2-Informal (cooperative learning) groups: These groups are formed for a few minutes or for a class hour. Aim is to focus Sts ‘ attention to a point or to facilitate the learning of something. 3-Cooperative base groups: Long term groups with stable members. Aim is to allow members to support, encourage or assist each other. CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS The success depends on the nature and the organisation of the groups. While forming the groups the following key elements should be taken into consideration; Positive interdependence: group members feel that what helps one member helps all the members, what hurts one member will hurt all members. Spirit of mutual understanding. Size, formation and roles: Size of the groups depends on task, age and time. Typical group size varies between 2 to 4. Ts can select the members or Sts can form their own groups, or it can be done randomly. There might be different roles for Sts such as presenter, monitor, summarizer, researcher etc. Individual accountability: Each member should feelresponsibility for his performance and performance of group as a whole. Member should know his individual performance has contribution to group performance. Social skills: How Sts interact with each other as team members requires some skills. Either members should have these skills or these skills should be taught via instruction. Structuring: The ways of interaction among Sts should be determined and known by the Sts .
  • 132. SOME ACTIVITY TYPES Team practice from common input: Ts gives the topic / material traditionally. All group members work on the same topic or material. Aim is to make sure that every member masters the topic. When Ts asks a question anyone in the group can answer. Evaluation is conducted individually. Jigsaw: Each member takes a different piece of the information. These members form expert groups and make preparation to teach the topic. Sts return home (original) groups to share information with each other. They combine information through discussion, they produce something, they complete task, they take test, or make presentation. Circle Sage is similar to Jigsaw Ts find Sts who has special knowledge on something and spread them out class. One team member form each group surrounds the sages. All Sts then return to their teams. Each in turn, explains what they learned Cooperative Projects: Each group receives different topic. Group members analyze the topic and identify sub topics to master. Group members research parts of topic,they synthesize their work and present to class. Studying on sub topics is based on Sts ‘ interest and choice.
  • 133. Three-step interview: 1) Sts are in pairs and they interview. One is interviewer the other is interviewee. 2) They reverse roles 3) Each shares with other team members what s/he has learned form interview. Roundtable: There is one sheet of paper and a pen. There is a topic /problem / or a matter. One makes contribution and passes the paper and pen to the next one. Each student makes contribution in turn. If done orally then it is called Round Robin. Think-Pair-Share A question is given to group. Sts form pairs. Each student thinks of the answer and discusses his answer with the partner. Sts share their partners‘ response with the class Solve-Pair-Share A problem is given to group. Each student tries to solve individually by using her/his own strategy. Then they explain how they solve either in interview or in round robin Numbered Heads Group members are tagged with numbers. Ts asks a question. Members together find the solution or answer. Ts calls a number and that number raise hands as in traditional setting
  • 134. Cooperative Learning: – This concept stresses the "team" like nature of the classroom and emphasizes cooperation as opposed to competition. Students share information and help, and achieve their learning goals as a group. CONTENT; BILINGUAL; bilingual; students as translators a classroom strategy not whole class; class in teams peer tutoring; more and better communication in 2 languages; , students work in either language; more content learning
  • 135. positive interdependence mixed groups sharing responsibility and accountability academic and social purposes
  • 136. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
  • 137. intelligence‖ in a dictionary, we see a number of definitions ability to learn learning capacity reasoning capacity understanding new things aptitude (innate ability) in grasping truths ability to see relationships mental alertness (quick to response) quickness of understanding etc. Jean Piaget, intelligence is to adapt to a new environment or to adapt to the changes in the current environment. (assimilation and accommodation) Charles Spearman intelligence consiSts of one general cognitive ability [factor „g‟] and a number of special abilities. Louis Thorndike proposed a multi-factored approach to intelligence. These factors can be grouped under the following headings Abstract Intelligence (related to words, numbers) Mechanical Intelligence (related to instrument design, tool making) Social Intelligence (related to interpersonal relationships)
  • 138. Howard Gardener proposedMultiple Intelligences Theory According to Gardner, an ability (or talent) is any dimension of Multiple Intelligence. a) that enables people either to solve a problem or to create something valuable in the culture b) that has a section or point in the human brain, that is responsible for it c) that distinguishes people whom are notable or remarkable due to their talent Gardner defined eight intelligence types. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): words Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") numbers or logic Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") pictures Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") Musical intelligence ("music smart") Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") a social experience Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") an experience in the natural world. it is difficult to relate MI Theory to any theory of language learning. For that reason it is not a method or an approach. But instruction is more successful if learner differences were taken into consideration. Gardner has defined one more intelligence type called Existential Intelligence., It is sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here
  • 139. Although there is no specific syllabus design for MI instruction, and there are no specific goals stated for MI instruction in linguistic terms, there are some suggestions. The following is four stage consequence can be used by language Tss Stage 1: Awakening the intelligence Through multi-sensory experiences suchas seeing, tasting, touching, smelling Sts can be sensitized to events or objects that have many aspects or properties in environments Stage 2: Amplifying the intelligence Sts can choose the aspects of events or objects in the learning environment. The can experience in the way they want. (This way will reflect their dominant intelligence type) Stage 3: Teaching with /for the intelligence intelligence is linked to some aspects of language instruction. Sts can prepare worksheet with pictures, can form groups, can solve a problem, can perform an act etc. Stage 4: Transferring the intelligence Sts share what they feel about, and how they manage their learning experiences in the previous stages. They should try to relate these experiences out-of-class world.
  • 140. Different Sts prefer different learning environments. This is called LEARNING MODALITY and LEARNING STYLE. Learning modality is related to RECEPTION and it is something ―receptive‖. Tss may prefer ―teaching styles‖ that are modes of instruction that fit for learning styles of Sts. Any of the ―Multiple Intelligence‖ is a talent or ability that enables learner to PRODUCE something and it is something related to ―production‖. Some educators consider MI ―seven styles of learning‖. By means of education, you can SHARPEN any intelligence. MI is not prescriptive in language teaching. To benefit form MI, first Tss should understand what MI is and what their intelligence types are. It is related to personal development of Sts . Tss should see this point. As Ts, you may notice intelligence type of Sts as early as possible and you may try to sharpen them. MI may provide you with the opportunity of designing flexible, colourful, creative and personal learning environments for your Sts .
  • 141. LEARNING STRATEGY TRAINING
  • 142. When behaviorism could not account for complex human behaviours exactly, The focus shifted to another viewpoint. Learner himself or herself. Main concern was on the learner. In successful learning 2 factors might be responsible for success of the learners. Learning environment, (Tss, books, materials, curriculum etc) Learning context (methods, techniques, roles assigned) provided to learners. What learners can do to make use of these opportunities. Considering the second point, the crucial question was asked What do good language learners do in order to learn better? They take the responsibility of learning At the risk of appearing foolish they attempt to communicate They guess the meaning They practice more and they monitor their practice. Strategy is plan, step or conscious action towards achievement of an object. Procedures used in learning, thinking which serve as a way of reaching a goal.
  • 143. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGY: A way in which Sts attempt to work out meaning and use of words, rules, and other aspects of TL Strategies are conscious thoughts and behaviors used by learners with the explicit goal of improving their knowledge and understanding of a target language most efficient way to raise Sts‘ consciousness about strategy use is to provide them strategy training STRATEGY TRAINING is explicit instruction of how to apply learning strategies as part of the language learning process WHY STRATEGY TRAINING? Strategy training aims to provide learners with the tools to do the following: 1. Self-diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in language learning 2. Become aware of what helps them to learn the TLmost efficiently 3. Develop a broad range of problem-solving skills 4. Experiment with familiar and unfamiliar learning strategies 5. Make decisions about how to approach a language task 6. Monitor and self-evaluate their performance 7. Transfer successful strategies to new learning contexts STRATEGIES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING 1-Language Learning Strategies: Conscious thoughts and behaviors used by learners with the goal of improving their knowledge and understanding of TL. 2-Language Use Strategies: Strategies to help Sts make use the language they have already learned
  • 144. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES: A) Cognitive strategies: Strategies to keep and manipulate TL structures in your mind Create mental links (grouping, associating, placing word in different context) Apply images /sounds (use keywords, semantic mapping) Reviewing (analyzing, getting main idea,structured reviewing= highlighting,note taking,transferring, translating) B) Metacognitive strategies: Strategies based on monitoring the learning when it takes place. Thinking about one‘s his/her own learning and controlling the learning process. Controlling the learning: (linking with previous info, paying deliberate attention, Arranging learning: (setting goals and priorities, identifying the purpose, planning tasks, seeking opportunities) Evaluating the learning: (self monitoring, self evaluating) C) Affective strategies: Strategies for controlling emotional reactions and lowering the anxiety Lowering your anxiety (deep breathing, meditation, relaxation, using music,using laughter, humor) Encouraging yourself (positive thinking, taking risks wisely, rewarding yourself) Regulating your emotions (listening to your body,using checklist (for panic), writing learning diary,discussing feelings with friends) D) Social strategies: Strategies to enhance learning with cooperation and interaction with other people. Asking question (questions for clarification, verification, asking for correction) Cooperating with others: (cooperating with peers, with proficient language users) Empathizing with other (developing cultural understanding, becoming aware of others‘ thoughts and feelings)
  • 145. 2 LANGUAGE USE STRATEGIES A) Information retrieval strategies: Strategies for retrieving information about the language already stored in memory Guessing intelligently: using linguistics clues (clues about language), using other clues (knowledge of context, personal relationships, text structure, general world knowledge) Overcoming limitations: switching to L1, getting help, using mime/gesture, avoiding communication partially, selecting the topic, coining words, using synonyms B) Rehearsal Strategies: Strategies for rehearsing TL structures Verbal repeating & Mental Repeating C) Communication Strategies: Strategies for communicating in the language despite gaps in TL knowledge Role-playing in advance, if applicable recording oneself and playing back to compare with a model, where appropriate Seeking confirmation that one‟s expression of language is being understood; if not successful, starting again, using different tactics Finding an alternative means of expressing an oral or written message in order to sustain the communication, Asking for repetition or clarification using expressions such as Pardon?
  • 146. FRAMEWORKS FOR STRATEGY TRAINING 1 Modeling of the strategy by Ts, with direct explanation of strategy‘s use and importance Guided practice with the strategy Consolidations, where Ts help Sts identify strategy and decide when it might be used Independent practice with the strategy Application of the strategy to new tasks proposed by Pearson and Dole (1987) with reference to first language learning but applicable to the study of a second language as well FRAMEWORKS FOR STRATEGY TRAINING 2 Introduction of strategies emphasizes awareness, Discussion benefits of strategy use, Functional, contextualized practice with strategies, Selfevaluation and monitoring of performance Suggestions for or demonstrations of the transferability of the strategies to new tasks. FRAMEWORKS FOR STRATEGY TRAINING 3 Planning: Sts plan ways to approach a learning task. Monitoring: Sts self-monitor their performance by paying attention to their strategy use and checking comprehension . Problem Solving: Sts find solutions to problems they encounter. Evaluation: Sts learn to evaluate effectiveness of a given strategy after it has been applied to a learning task. developed by Chamot and O’Malley (1994), which is especially useful after Sts have already had practice in applying a broad range of strategies in a variety of contexts
  • 147. OPTIONS FOR PROVIDING STRATEGY TRAINING General Study Skills Courses: Intended for Sts with academic difficulties but can also target successful Sts. (Overcoming anxiety, and learning good note-taking skills) Awareness Training: Lectures and Discussion. Consists of isolated lectures and discussions It is usually separate from regular classroom instruction. Strategy Workshops: Short workshops with various consciousness-raising and strategy-assessment activities. These may be offered as non-credit courses Peer Tutoring. ―a direct language exchange‖ program pairs Sts of different NL backgrounds for mutual tutoring sessions (e.g. English-speaking student studying Italian and a native-Italian-speaking student learning English). Sts have regular meetings, alternate roles of Sts and Ts, practice the two languages separately,
  • 148. Strategies in Language Textbooks: Many FL textbooks embed strategies into their curricula. These textbooks reinforce strategy use across both tasks and skills Videotaped Mini-Courses: Rubin (1996) developed interactive videodisc program and accompanying instructional guide aimed at raising Sts‘awareness of learning strategies and of learning process in general. Materials are structured to expose Sts to various strategies for use in many different contexts. Strategies-Based Instruction (SBI). SBI is a learner-centered approach to teaching that extends classroom strategy training to include both implicit and explicit integration of strategies into the course content. Sts experience the advantages of systematically applying the strategies to the learning and use of the language they are studying. In addition, they have opportunities to share their preferred strategies with other Sts and to increase their strategy use in typical language tasks they are asked to perform. Tss can individualize strategy training, suggest language-specific strategies, and reinforce strategies while presenting the regular course content.
  • 149. STEPS FOR DESIGNING STRATEGY TRAINING (1) Determine learners‘ needs and the resources available for training. (2) Select the strategies to be taught. (3) Consider the benefits of integrated strategy training. (4) Consider motivational issues. (5) Prepare the materials and activities. (6) Conduct explicit strategy training. (7) Evaluate and revise the strategy training. In a typical SBI classroom, Tss do the following: 1) Describe, model, and give examples of potentially useful strategies 2) Elicit additional examples from Sts , based on Sts ‘ own learning experiences 3) Lead small-group and whole-class discussions about strategies 4) Encourage Sts to experiment with a broad range of strategies 5) Integrate strategies into everyday class materials, explicitly and implicitly embedding them into the language tasks to provide for contextualized strategy practice
  • 150. learning experiences to teach language and learning hands-on experience self-assessment transferring knowledge continuing to learn
  • 151. NEURO - LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING
  • 152. program brain to control behaviors through leading, inspiring or influential communication NEURO a) how we perceive and experience the world through our senses b) how we represent it in our mind through our neurological processes. LINGUISTIC. language we use influences and shapes our experience of world. language frames our perceptions. If we change way we speak, that will influence way we think, consequently it possible to change our behavior We can also use language to help other people who want to change. PROGRAMMING is concerned with training ourselves to think, speak, and act in new and positive ways to release our potential and reach those heights of achievement which we previously only dreamt of. Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) is a training philosophy and set of training techniques NLP was developed by John Grindler and Richard Bandler in 1970s as an alternative of therapy. Grindler (a psychologist) and Bandler (a student of linguistics) were interested in how people influence each other and how the behaviors of very effective people could be duplicated. They were interested in discovering how successful communicators achieved their success
  • 153. NLP is a collection of techniques, patterns, and strategies for assisting effective communication, personal growth and change learning, It is based on a series of underlying assumptions about how the mind works and how people act and interact. NLP provides a theoretical framework and a set of working principles for directing or guiding therapeutic change, but principles of NLP are applied in a variety of other fields, including management training, sports training, communications, sales and marketing, and language teaching . Since NLP is a set of general communication techniques, NLP practitioners generally use the techniques in their own fields. NLP was not developed with any applications to language teaching in mind, but the assumptions of NLP refer to attitudes to life, to people, and to self-discovery and selfawareness. For that reason it is relevant to humanistic approaches that focus on developing one's sense of self-actualization and self-awareness.
  • 154. THEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING Learning ―effective behaviors‖ is viewed as ―skill learning‖. It takes place as moving from ―controlled stage‖ to ―automatic process‖. From “Controlled Processing” → to “Automatic Processing” Modeling is very important in NLP. people can learn by imitating the behaviors, emotions, experiences, beliefs and values. Modeling successful performance leads to excellence. If one person can do something it is possible to model and teach others how to do it. (Then, Tss are expected to model their teaching on expert Tss they most admire. Look at what they do, how they act, what sort of relationship they have with their Sts and colleagues. As you learn techniques and strategies, put them into practice. If you want to speak a language like a native speaker, model native speakers
  • 155. FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES OF NLP 1. OUTCOMES: the goals or ends. This principle can be expressed as ' NLP claims that knowing precisely what you want helps you achieve it. Know what you want. 2. RAPPORT: (relation based on mutual understanding) Establish rapport with yourself and then with others a factor that is essential for effective communication - maximizing similarities and minimizing differences between people at a non-conscious level. 3. SENSORY nonverbally. ACUITY: noticing what another person is communicating, consciously and Use your senses. Look at, listen to, and feel what is actually happening. 4. FLEXIBILITY: doing things differently if what you are doing is not working: having a range of skills to do something else or something different. Keep changing what you do until you get what you want.
  • 156. 13 PRESUPPOSITIONS (Points taken for granted) Revell and Norman (1997) present 13 presuppositions that guide the application of NLP in language learning and other fields. 01. Mind and body are interconnected: They are parts of the same system, and each affects the other. 02. The map is not the territory: We all have different maps of the world. 03. There is no failure, only feedback and a renewed opportunity for success. 04. The map becomes the territory: What you believe to be true ether is true or becomes true. 05. Knowing what you want helps you get it. 06. The resources we need are within us. 07. Communication is nonverbal as well as verbal. 08. The non-conscious mind is benevolent. (expressing goodwill) 09. Communication is non conscious as well as conscious. 10. All behavior has a positive intention. 11. The meaning of my communication is the response I get. 12. Modeling excellent behavior leads to excellence. 13. In any system, the element with the greatest flexibility will have the most influence on that system.
  • 157. AN EXAMPLE OF UTILISING THE KEY PRINCIPLE RAPORT Example of how a T might apply rapport in responding to following statements from Sts : a) I hate this stuff. It's such a waste of time. Is a part of you saying that you want to be sure your time is well spent today? b) Everyone says that. It makes me sick. Who says that? c) I can't do it. What, specifically, can't you do? d) This is all theory. Are you saying you want practical suggestions? AN EXAMPLE OF UTILISING THE PRESUPPOSITION: Presupposition: All behavior has a positive intention The Ts can seek for a possible positive intent in the following situations as follows; a) A learner disagrees strongly with the Ts. desire to have expertise acknowledged b) A student frequently comes late to class. having other important priorities c) A student seeks to dominate discussions. needing to vocalize thoughts in order to internalize them NLP is not a language teaching method. It does not consist of a set of techniques it is a humanistic philosophy and a set of beliefs based on popular psychology, designed to convince people that they have power to control their own and others lives practical prescriptions on how to do so.
  • 158. The lesson begins with a guided fantasy of eating a food item and then reflecting on the experience. 1. Sts are told that they are going on an ''inner grammatical experience as you eat a biscuit.‖ 2. Check that they understand vocabulary of experience (smell, taste, chew, swallow, bite, lick, etc.) 3. Sts are asked to relax, close their eyes, and ''go inside.'' Once ''inside,'' they listen to the Tsproduced fantasy, which is given as the following: 4. ''Imagine a biscuit. A delicious biscuit. The sort you really like. Pick it up and look at it closely. Notice how crisp and fresh it is. Smell it. Notice how your mouth is beginning to water. In a moment you are going to eat the biscuit. Say the words to yourself: 'I am going to eat this biscuit.' 5. Ask the Sts to describe how they are feeling now -''the feeling of the present perfect.'' Listen for any statements that link the past experience of eating the biscuit with their present feelings (e.g., ''I feel full,'' ''I am not hungry anymore,‟‟ „„I‟ve got a nice taste in my mouth,'' 6.Ask them to say again the sentence that describes cause of way they feel (''I've eaten a biscuit''). 7.Put a large piece of paper on wall with words ''I've eaten a biscuit'' at the top. Have Sts write how they feel underneath.
  • 159. 8. On other pieces of paper, write sentences such as: I've panted a picture. I've had a row with my boy/girlfriend. I've finished my homework. I've cleaned my teeth. 9 .Ask Sts to stand in front of each sentence, close their eyes, and strongly imagine what they have done in order to be saying that sentence now. 10.Sts write on the paper how they feel now about these sentences. 11.Leave the papers on wall as a reminder of feeling link to the grammatical structure. 12. As follow-up, contrast the feeling of present perfect with feeling of simple past. Ask Sts to remember things they did in last lesson (I ate a biscuit). Ask them to close their eyes and notice how they are feeling now. Contrast this feeling with feeling they remember from last lesson and which they wrote down on papers. 13. Ask them to say the sentence ''Yesterday, I ate a biscuit.'' 14. Discuss comparison between feelings (''I remember taste, but I can't actually taste it'') 15. You can do similar exercises to exemplify other tenses using different tastes and sensory experiences.
  • 160. Whole Language
  • 161. Whole Language is related to teaching reading and writing in NL. Reading and writing in NL is called literacy and the NL studied by the speakers of that language is called ―language arts‖. We teach ―Turkish Language and Literature‖ to Sts who are NL of Turkish. This case indicates that reason is not enable learners to communicate in Turkish directly. Dealing with language in this sense is absolutely different from teaching L2. We teach children how to read and write, which is called ―literacy‖ and this can be considered a different mood of communication. Especially reading or communicating for pleasure. One common approach about teaching literacy (both teaching and writing) is DECODING approach. According to this approach, language consiSts of separate components such as Grammar Syntax Phonology Vocabulary Morphology language cannot be seen as a WHOLE, but is seen an integration of various components to learn language, Sts should analyze language and try to understand each component separately reading is a kind of word recognition and can be the result of teaching phonics Phonics means teaching reading by identifying letters and then turning them into sounds.
  • 162. Whole language (which is not a systemized approach, but rather a philosophy) assumes that reading and competencies are acquired through integrated use of thematic studies Not through learning separate, finite skills, such as word recognition, comprehension, and vocabulary) It is related to the Holism, a theory claims that it is not possible to understand ―learning of any kind‖ by analyzing small chunks of the learning system, because they believe that ―the whole is greater than the sum of its parts‖. reading and writing should be considered as wholes and these can be learned more by experience and exposure (than analysis and didactic instruction). They suggest to spent too much time for independent reading and as a result, many classroom programs include silent reading time (sometimes called DEAR [Drop Everything And Read] TIME or SSR (sustained silent reading). Whether it is an approach, method or belief is still a matter of discussion.
  • 163. As for language teaching; According to Whole Language, language is a tool for encoding and conveying message message includes intended meaning, language is ―making meaning, even in encoding phase or in decoding phase. this viewpoint emphasizes the meaning. Then it shares the philosophy of CLT Whole Language considers learning process as it is in the same way that children acquire their NL Lang is a vehicle for communication in form of interactional relationship between readers -writers. Language functions relate with Interactional Function (a function for getting along with other people) Personal Function (a function for identifying and expressing the self) Sociolinguistic competence (pragmatic competence) appropriate use of lang in different social settings Considers language psycholinguistically a vehicle for egocentric speech or self-thinking to discover what we think, what we know, what we feel. (Writing diary can be related directly to this function) Whole language is related to constructivism. It claims that knowledge is not imported from the external world, but it (the knowledge) is created in the minds of the learners by them. Then, the whole language considers the language the vehicle to construct meaning. Considering above discussion we conclude that we can make use of whole language a) enable learners to use language for communication and interaction especially considering the interactional and personal functions and sociolinguistic competence b) enable Sts to express their personal opinions and internal world (one‟s own feelings and opinions) c) enable Sts to interpret the knowledge from external world by means of constructivism
  • 164. How can we do these? We should use authentic literature (that is, texts created not for instructional purposes, but for real communication) We provide learners with the opportunity of discovering the real meaning of the language as children do during the language acquisition process. We spend much time for independent reading sessions Sts read for pleasure (that is they have choice of what to read) and they use language purposefully because the reason why they read directly serves to their aims or purposes. (Choice is very important, for purposeful language use learners can select activities, materials and conversational partners.) We encourage learners to write diaries or let them conduct “free writings” Learners will have the opportunity to discover their own internal worlds, thoughts, opinions of their own, and will express them by using language as a vehicle. We encourage learners to integrate the language skills In real life situations we do not use language skills independently; to make the meaning in communication we can use necessary skills together in an integrated manner. Making meaning requires taking risks and encouragement of risk taking is important.
  • 165. What can we do? We can use (authentic literature) Reading sessions / Writing their opinions about these authentic texts We can use process writing In process writing emphasis is on process of writing rather than end product. Creation of writing takes place in 5 stages: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing 1-Prewriting is the planning and idea-gathering stage. 2-Drafting is composing a rough draft. 3-Revising is process of improving draft. Sts reread their work and share it with a partner or small group; they then make changes in writing based on feedback from their peers. 4-Editing is the process of correcting mechanical errors. 5-Publishing, is putting the work in its final form)
  • 166. We use “cooperative learning” techniques To provide the Sts with opportunity of communicating with each other. Sts should evaluate their own learning and learning of others as well. Learning experiences of the learners should be used resources for learning. When we look at activities we see that Whole Language use the same activities as in Communicative Language Teaching Task Based Instruction Content Based Instruction Cooperative Language Learning. What makes Whole Language different from CLT is focus on use of literature. The main focus on activities is giving new meaning to content besides communication.
  • 167. Lexical Approach
  • 168. Based on idea that words and word combinations are building blocks of lang. speakers use ―words‖ and ―multiword units‖ functioning as chunks These important parts (chunks) are referred to ―holophrases‖ ( a single word explaining the ideas of a phrase or sentence especially used by children with body language) milk (I want to drink milk) ―prefabricated patterns‖ (word groups constructed beforehand, that can be modified) (That is a book, pen, toy, banana, baby etc.] gambits(word or phrase which helps one express what he is trying to say) [Today, I'm/we're going to talk about,To summarise/sum up, We may now look at...] It concentrates on developing learners' proficiency with lexis.(Words and word combinations) The lexical approach makes a distinction between ―vocabulary‖ and ―lexis‖ Vocabulary (traditionally understood as a stock of individual words with fixed meanings) Lexis, (not only single words but also word combinations that we store in our mental lexicons)
  • 169. According to the approach, an important part of language acquisition is the ability to comprehend and produce lexical phrases as unanalyzed wholes, or “chunks”. Michael Lewis (1993), who coined the term lexical approach, suggests the following: Lexis (words and word combinations) is the basis of language. Lexis is misunderstood in language teaching because of the assumption that grammar is the basis of language and that mastery of the grammatical system is a prerequisite for effective communication. The key principle of a lexical approach is that language consiSts of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar. İt means that lexical phrases offer far more language generative power than grammatical structures. According to the approach, language is not learnt by learning individual sounds and structures and then combining them. Grammar is acquired by a process of observation, hypothesis and experiment. We can learn and use whole phrases without understanding their constituent parts.
  • 170. The other definitions which refer to lexical units binomials (Siamese words or Siamese twins) far and away, hide and seek, sink or swim, apples and oranges, man and wife, trinomials (consisting of 3 words) cool, calm and collected lights, camera, action, signed, sealed, delivered idioms (expressions whose meaning is not predictable from usual meanings of words) armed to the teeth (have lots of weapons) make your blood boil (makes you very angry) split hairs (concentrate on tiny and unimportant details) similes (a figure of speech in which two distinct things are compared) as busy as a bee as cold as ice,as dense as a brick,as dry as a bone as hard as rock connectives He has no money. In addition, he has no means of getting any A is B. A is C. To sum up, A is several things The French love music. In other words, music is appreciated in France Miss Gold lost her job. She, therefore, had no money
  • 171. LERANING THEORY It may be related to Krashen‘s Natural Approach. (Through reading, such lexicon can be considered as ―language input‖) Encountering selected items can raise learners‘ consciousness. (Noticing, similarities, differences, restrictions may contribute to turning input into intake. Roles of MATERIALS Complete course packages (Reading texts, Ts manuals, tapes) Vocabulary teaching materials Printouts of computer corpora collections Concordancing software + electronic corpora PROCEDURE Teaching individual collocations Making Sts aware of collocation Extending what Sts already know by adding knowledge of collocation restrictions to known vocabulary Storing collocations through encouraging Sts to keep lexical notebooks.
  • 172. COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING
  • 173. COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING In traditional educational system, unit of progression is time and Ts-centered. In CBT system, unit of progression is mastery of specific knowledge and skills and is learner-or participant-centered. focuses on the outcomes or outputs of learning. Competencies describe the Sts ‘ ability to apply basic and other skills in situations that are encountered in everyday life.
  • 174. KEY FEATURES A focus on successful functioning in society. Enable Sts to become autonomous sts capable of coping with demands of world. A focus on life skills. Sts are taught language forms/skills required by situations in which they will function. Task-or performance-centered orientation. Behavior, observable performance than knowledge or ability to talk about lan. skills. Modularized instruction. Objectives are broken into narrowly focused sub-objectives so that both Ts and Sts can get a clear sense of progress. Outcomes that are made explicit a priori. Outcomes are public knowledge, known and agreed upon by both learner and Ts. Continuous and ongoing assessment. Program evaluation is based on test results and, is considered objectively quantifiable. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives. Base on the ability to demonstrate pre-specified behaviors. Individualized, student-centered instruction. Prior learning and achievement are taken into account in developing curricula.
  • 175. Two key terms used in competency-based training are: Skill— tasks performed to specific level of proficiency which use motor functions and require manipulation of instruments and equipment Some skills, however, such as counseling, are knowledge- and attitude-based. Competency— A skill performed to a specific standard under specific conditions. Competency-based training requires that trainees demonstrate competence in every skill taught before they are permitted to progress to training in next skill. Means that overall performance is divided into some sub- skills trainee must demonstrate competence in all of the skills individually and in the entire process that is the focus of the training. To be considered successful for the entire process, each sub-skill should be performed within a satisfactory standard.
  • 176. Ecology of language acquisition
  • 177. Bibliography Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching Approaches. In M. CelceMurcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. (pp.310). Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle. Brown, D. H. (1987). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Printice Hall Regents. Larsen-Freeman, D. (1993). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Richards, J. C. & Rodgers, T. S. (1990). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A description and analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.