2 modals
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  • 1. Modals Modal’lar en genel tanımıyla cümle içerisinde üslup belirtmek için kullanılırlar. Cümle de hangi modal’ın kullanılacağı cümlenin hangi context içinde kullanıldığında bağlıdır. Meaning Modals Present / Future Ability “Yetenek” Must Have to Had to Do/does not have to Do/does not need to Non necessity Gerekli değil Did not have to Did not need to %50 Be likely to May Might Can Could Must Possibility “olasılık” %95 Permission “İzin” Suggestion “Öneri” Preference “Tercih” Was-were likely to May have V3 Might have V3 Can have V3 Could have V3 Must have V3 Can Could “polite” May “more polite” Past çekimleri yok. Can Could Would Might Will Past çekimleri yok Should Ought to Had better stronger Should have V3 less polite Advice “Tavsiye” Could Was – were able to Can Be able to Necessity gereklilik Request Rica Past More polite Let’s V1 Shall We/I Why don’t Subject Would you mind If I Past Simple? Ben yapsam Would you mind Ving? Siz yaparsanız? Would rather V1 Would sooner V1 Would rather sone Past Simple Would prefer Ving Like Ving better than Past çekimi yoktur. Past çekimi yoktur. Prohibition Yasaklama Can not Must not Past çekimi yoktur. Expectation Beklenti Be to Be supposed to Was were to Was were supposed to Repeated actions in the past Would Used to tarikhoca.com Tarık İnce 1
  • 2. 1. Can a. ability “Yeterlilik” Loneliness can take many forms and cannot be detected by looking at someone. Can you give me any specific examples? The telescope can pick up signals in the universe that are 10 billion light years away. Not: CAN yeterlilik anlamında kullanıldığında;  Geçmiş zamanda Could olarak çekimlenir. Kağan could read when he was 4 years old.  Geçmiş zamanda Was-were able to zor bir şeyi başarmak anlamındadır. Emre was able to persuade his father to go abroad.  Gelecek zamanda ise Will be able to olarak çekimlenir. Ali will be able to play bağlama next month. b. possibility “Olasılık” His is paintings can become valuable assets in the future. Our dreams are important and can reveal what we unconsciously desire. Missing breakfast can affect a child’s ability to manage complex information Geçmişte olması imkansız olan durumlar için Can’t have V3 Yasin can’t have stolen that book from the library. Özge can’t have told my sicret to her friends. c. informal permission “izin” You can use my notebook. Can I enter the room? d. informal polite request “kibar teklif” I suppose we can take a walk in the garden for a while after the meal, can’t we? Excuse me, we are all waiting patiently, can you please join the queue? e. impossibility (negative only) “olasılıksızlık” You can’t pass this exam by only studying grammar and vocabulary. Salih can’t be at the AVM because he is in the classroom now. Extra: Can’t help Ving “kendini alamamak” I can’t help wondering where you get the energy for it! Detect: hissetmek Pick up: almak Valuable: değerli Asset: varlık Reveal: ortaya çıkarmak Manage: düzenlemek  2. Could a. Past ability “geçmişte yeterlilik” Until the last minute, we could not find out whether or not he would agree to sign the treaty. b. Present possibility “olasılık” Renewable fuels could improve the US economy and help it to become less dependent on other countries. c. Polite request – Permision “kibar rica ve izin” Could you bring some papers? Could you give me a week to think it over?  Suppose: varsaymak Patiently: sabırla Join: katılmak Pass: geçemek Wonder: merak etmek Find out: farketmek Agree: anlaşmak Treaty: anlaşma Renewable: yenilenebilir Improve: geliştirmek Depend on:bağımlı olma Could have V3: geçmişte olması beklenen ama gerçekleşmeyen durumlarda; You could have called us but you didn’t. tarikhoca.com He could have passed the exam but he did not study enough. Tarık İnce 2
  • 3. 3. Must a. strong necessity “güçlü gereklilik” Children must master three basic skills in order to be successful in school. I have looked through the report, but I must admit, only superficially. For something to be considered cultural, it must be learned as well as shared. b. 95% certainty “olasılık” Gold must be the only element in the world that has really stirred men’s dreams. One of them must be lying, and I suspect it is Emma. c. prohibition (negative) “Yasaklama” You must not smoke in a closed place. You must not take a photo around a military zone. d. Inference “Çıkarım” He is ill and confined to his bed so he must be terribly bored and in need of company. 4. Have to: a. necessity “Gereklilik” Employees have to arrive at work on time every day. Check-in clerks have to check the tickets of passengers, and take their luggage. b. Lack of necessity Do not have to: bir şeyi yapmaya gerek yok anlamındadır. You do not have to come here tomorrow as you have not any lessons tomorrow. 5. Need a. Necessity “Gereklilik” The rural people in Africa need to be trained efficiently. The West needs to keep talking to Russia about many things. Your paper needs to be extensively revised. b. Lack of necessity: Do not need to We don’t need to phone for a taxi! There are always plenty at the corner. He really doesn’t need to come at 5 o’clock. The film doesn’t start till half-past. c. Need + Ving “edilgen yapı zorunluluk” I have a book that needs returning. d. Necessity in the past He needed to stop smoking if he wanted to get back to his days of glory. 6. Should / Ought to: a. Necessity (gereklilik) Language learning should include a real life use of language. Doctors should inspire a feeling of trust, not fear. b. Advise – Responsibility “Tavsiye- sorumluluk” I think you should solve your problem right away. One should protect the environment even if this causes fuel prices to rise Had better: a. Advise – Responsibility “Tavsiye- sorumluluk It’s up to you. If you want to give up the lessons then you had better do so. They don’t want us to be late for the meeting, so we had better take a taxi. Look through: incelemek Admit: Kabul etmek Consider: düşünmek As well as: hem de Stir: duygu uyandırmak Suspect: şüphelenmek Military: askeri Confine to: hapsolmak In need of: ihtiyaç duyma Arrive: varmak Passenger: yolcu Train: eğitmek Efficiently: etkili Keep Ving: sürdürmek Revise: gözden geçirmek Extensively: geniş ölçüde Return: geri dönmek Get back: geri dönmek Glory: Include: içermek Real: gerçek Inspire: ilham vermek Solve: çözmek Right away: derhal Protect: korumak Rise: artmak Give up: bırakmak Dismiss: işten atılmak tarikhoca.com Basic: temel, esas Master: öğrenmek Tarık İnce 3
  • 4. 7. Supposed to a. expectation Teachers are supposed to wear suits at school. Architects are supposed to give more attention to appearance than construction. 8. Be to a. strong expectation Students are to do their homework before they come to school. 9. MAY/MIGHT a. Possibility less than 50% certainty ”Olasılık” Air pollutants may or may not be the primary stress that results in forest decline. You might be good at research, but your arguments are extremely controversial. A drug may affect several functions, even though it’s targeted at only one. Don’t do anything while you are so angry; you may regret it later. b. Polite Request “Rica” May I take a look at the figures? c. Formal Offer “Teklif” You might as well follow the advice from the researcher. We might as well try to get this report finished within three week d. Permission “İzin isteme-verme” Attention: ilgi, dikkat Appearance: görüntü Construction: yapı Pollutant: kirletici Primary: temel, esas Result: sonuç Decline: azalma gerileme Extremely: aşırı derecede Controversial: Target: hedeflemek Prevent: önlemek Extinction: yok olmak Regret: pişman olmak Follow: takip etmek Advice: Tavsiye Try to: denemek If you would like to ask any questions you may do so. 10. Would a. polite request If the weather is nice at the weekend, we plan to go to the lake and have a picnic there; Saturday, probably. Would you like to join us? Join: katılmak b. repeated action the past I would get up at 5 o’clock when I was high school. 11. Used to a. repeated action in the past I used to play basketball several times a week while I was at university. When we lived in İzmir, I used to go to a concert every week.  Be used to: Present da alışkanlık bildirir. Busy people are used to doing things quickly. Windmills have been used to produce electricity for thousands of years. Some people are so used to being directed by an authority.  Be accustomed to: Present da alışkanlık bildirir. Salih is accustomed to reading books. Yasin is accustomed to living in Germany.  Get used to: Present da alışmaya başlamak. I am getting used to getting up early nowadays. It was during my university years that I got used to playing basketball. tarikhoca.com Tarık İnce Quickly: alel acele Produce: üretmek Windmill: yel değirmeni Direct: yönlendirmek 4
  • 5. 12. WILL a. 100% certainty There will be 50 researchers there aiming to develop intelligent, independent robots. If it’s going to be hot and crowded I will certainly not go there. b. willingness I can’t possibly produce the play, but I’ll willingly help with the costumes. c. polite request Will you come with us? Aim: amaçlamak Develop: geliştirmek Independent: bağımsız. Crowded: kalabalık Certainly: kesinlikle Produce: üretmek 13. Be going to a. 100% certainty More robots are going to be needed in Japan as the population increases. He’s not going to make my speech today on the effects of the economic crisis. If one is going to play the piano one needs to start at an early age! b. definite plan He’s certainly going to recommend that the changes in the structure of the company be introduced step by step. Population: nüfus Increase: artmak  Would rather do something (present) All my classes are after lunch, but I would rather teach in the morning. Thank you for considering me for this position, but I’ve decided I’d rather stay where I am for now.  Would rather have done (past) Galileo would rather have been a musician like his father.  Would rather somebody did something: unreal present I would rather him treated students more humanistic way. Her father would rather her allocated much time to his parents.  Would rather someone had done something: Unreal Past I would rather her had been much strong person.  Would you mind doing something? Would you mind closing the door please?  Would you mind if I did something? Would you mind if I smoked here? Would like Would prefer Noun Would love Would you like a cup of tea? Kağan would prefer an ice-cream. (Present) Would you like coffee or would you prefer tea? Would like Would prefer to Verb Would love Would you like to watch the match? I would prefer to study my lesson rather than go to cafe. Shall a. Polite question to make a suggestion with "I" or "we" as subject tarikhoca.com Shall we go to cinema? Tarık İnce Crisis: kriz Exactly: tam, kesin Certainly: kesinlikle Structure: yapı Allocate: ayırmak 5
  • 6. Modals Past Must have V3 Inference in the past “Çıkarım yapma” His ankle is wrapped in a bandage. He must have twisted his ankle. You have been very successful; but you must have had some disappointments. He must have had some sound reasons for drawing up such a rigid timetable. Wrap: sarmak Twist: burkulma Disappointment: düş kırıklığı Draw up: düzenlemek. Rigid: sert Can’t have V3 Impossibility in the past “olamaz” The president can’t have said those words. Yasin can’t have made such an easy mistake. Nurullah can’t have gone to Istanbul last week. Could have V3 “olabilirdi ama olmadı” Possibility in the past negative meaning “geçmişte olasılık” Nobody could have predicted the impact of the steam engine in 1750. Following a wrong guideline could have been catastrophic. A true partnership between develop and developing countries could have achieved a breakthrough. Should have v3: “olmalıydı ama olmadı” You should have thought possible consequences before. “a ahmak! We should have weighed the matter more carefully at the start You should have told us you were entering the competition; why didn’t you? Nuclear weapons should have been prohibited before that deadly war. Your family are very upset. You should have done your best. May – Might have V3 “olmuş olabilir” I wish I’d known about the competition; I might have entered photographs, too. What they did may have been legal, but it was still unfair to dismiss him in that way She reads a lot, so she may have read it already. Need have V3 “gerekliydi ama olmadı” I failed my exams. I need have studied much more. But I did not study. Need not have V3: “gereksizdi ama yaptı” Yesterday morning it was raining. I need not have watered the plants. But I was bored and I watered them. Real Past Modals May have V3 “olmuş olabilir” Might have V3 “olmuş olabilir” Must have V3 “kesinlikle olmuştur” Can’t have V3”kesinlikle olmamıştır” Did not need to V1 Did not have to Unreal past modals Could have V3”olabilirdi ama olmadı” Need have V3 “olmalıydı ama olmadı” Would have V3 “olabilirdi ama olmadı” Should have V3 “olmalıydı ama olmadı” need not have V3 tarikhoca.com Tarık İnce 6
  • 7. Not: modal soruları zaman bilgisi hatırlanmadan ve göz önünde bulundurulmadan çözülmemelidir. Çünkü cümle de hangi modal’ın kullanılacağı cümlenin zamanına bağlıdır. Özellikle test sorularında seçenekleri elemek için zaman çok işe yarar. Tarık İnce tarikhoca.com 7