Listening to
Transactional
Discourse
Oktari Aneliya
• What is transactional discourse?
• How do we know listeners performances on
listening transactional discourse?
• What ar...
What is transactional discourse?
•
•
•
•

Watching television program
Announcement on a train platform
Listening to news
C...
How do we know listeners
performances on listening transactional
discourse?

1. On-line tasks
(activity performed
while li...
On-line task
open tasks: note-taking
1.

Provide some evidence of how they focus on
information during parts of lecture.
2...
Types of listener notes
Topic-relation
notes
•
•
•
•
•

Topicalizing
Translating
Copying
Transcribing
Schematizing

Concep...
Closed task
completing an information grid
1. Closed tasks are easier to interpret than open
tasks.
2. The listeners must ...
How do we know listeners performances
on listening transactional discourse?
Listener representations

2. Retrospective tas...
Listener representation
1.

Verbatim
: recall specialized terminology or
names or numbers
2. Propositional : representing ...
Strategies for updating
representations
1. Context implication
: contextual cues to
generate relevant links between two or...
Type of the tasks
1.

Open task : summarizing
summary-writing strategies:
- The zero strategy
- Deletion/selection
- Addit...
Type of the tasks
2. Closed task: Multiple-choice selection
individual items on m/c tests may be
considered as selected pr...
How do we know listeners performances
on listening transactional discourse?
3. Prospective task (pre-listening tasks):
pre...
Strategies for updating listeners
representations of transactional
discourse
1. Formulating propositional sense for a
spea...
2. Formulating a conceptual framework that links utterances
together.
- Recognizing indicators of discourse for introducin...
Principles for developing listening skills
1. Listening ability is knowledge-based:
- The listener uses pragmatic knowledg...
2. Listening ability is interaction-based:
- The listener identifies understanding
problems – detecting meaning problems i...
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Listening to transactional discourse

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Listening to transactional discourse

  1. 1. Listening to Transactional Discourse Oktari Aneliya
  2. 2. • What is transactional discourse? • How do we know listeners performances on listening transactional discourse? • What are listening strategies to listen transactional discourse?
  3. 3. What is transactional discourse? • • • • Watching television program Announcement on a train platform Listening to news Classroom lectures
  4. 4. How do we know listeners performances on listening transactional discourse? 1. On-line tasks (activity performed while listening) Open task: notetaking in lectures Closed task: completing an information grid
  5. 5. On-line task open tasks: note-taking 1. Provide some evidence of how they focus on information during parts of lecture. 2. No clear correspondence between quantity of notes and quality of understanding (DiViesta and Gray, 1972; Dunkel, 1985; Chaudron et al., 1988). 3. Experienced note-takers learn to type of shorthand and thus minimize the time they must focus on writing (Janda, 1985). 4. Experienced listeners will take notes in accordance with their expectations for subsequent tasks (Dunkel, 1985; Chaudron et al., 1988).
  6. 6. Types of listener notes Topic-relation notes • • • • • Topicalizing Translating Copying Transcribing Schematizing Conceptordering notes • Sequence cuing • Hierarchy cuing • Relation ordering Focusing notes • Highlighting • Dehighlighting Revising notes • Inserting • Erasing
  7. 7. Closed task completing an information grid 1. Closed tasks are easier to interpret than open tasks. 2. The listeners must at times focus on the act of completing the grid rather than on the listening text. 3. Completion tasks may provide useful evidence of listener attention and understanding when completions tasks are limited to minimal writing, minimal visual interpretation, and maximal attention to the spoken text.
  8. 8. How do we know listeners performances on listening transactional discourse? Listener representations 2. Retrospective tasks (activity performed after listening to a text) Strategies for updating representations Type of the task: 1. Open task: summarizing 2. Closed task: multiplechoice selection
  9. 9. Listener representation 1. Verbatim : recall specialized terminology or names or numbers 2. Propositional : representing the gist of a text. The listener must select and reduce the information to a generalization which can be later modified (Schank, 1982). 3. Schematic : formulaic ways of representing a text without assigning a specific semantic relationship. 4. Argument : functional models of a text. They account for what the speaker is trying to do in the text.
  10. 10. Strategies for updating representations 1. Context implication : contextual cues to generate relevant links between two or more propositions in the text. 2. Generalization of ambiguous segment : using a principle of analogy 3. Selection and prioritization on inferences : identify salient lexical items or propositions and give priority to inferences based on these items.
  11. 11. Type of the tasks 1. Open task : summarizing summary-writing strategies: - The zero strategy - Deletion/selection - Addition/invention - Reduction/generalization Evaluating summaries: 1. Effectiveness of summary. 2. Including facts which supports the main ideas. 3. Overall fluency and cohesion of the summary text. 4. Originality in wording. (Angel and Young, 1981; Zabrucky, 1986; Flottum, 1985; Brown and Day, 1983)
  12. 12. Type of the tasks 2. Closed task: Multiple-choice selection individual items on m/c tests may be considered as selected probes of text representation rather than indications of the listener’s understanding of the overall text.
  13. 13. How do we know listeners performances on listening transactional discourse? 3. Prospective task (pre-listening tasks): prediction - Provide another indirect type of evidence of listener text representation strategies. - Prediction involves using a contextimplication strategy in which the listener projects schematic expectations onto the text.
  14. 14. Strategies for updating listeners representations of transactional discourse 1. Formulating propositional sense for a speaker’s utterance - Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items. - Inferring information not explicitly stated, through filling in ellipted information, making bridging inferences. - Inferring links between two or more propositions.
  15. 15. 2. Formulating a conceptual framework that links utterances together. - Recognizing indicators of discourse for introducing an idea, changing topic, emphasis, clarification and expansion of points, expressing a contrary view. - constructing a main idea or theme in a stretch of discourse, distinguishing main points from supporting details. - Predicting subsequent parts of the discourse at conceptual levels. - Identifying elements in the discourse that can help in forming a schematic organization. - Maintaining continuity of context to assist in prediction and verification of propositions in the discourse. - Selecting cues from the speaker’s text to complete a schematic prediction.
  16. 16. Principles for developing listening skills 1. Listening ability is knowledge-based: - The listener uses pragmatic knowledge to estimate sense of unknown/ unclear items and to make predictions about discourse events. - The listener uses procedural knowledge to accomplish tasks based on what is understood. - The listener remembers and represents discourse meaning in a usable form.
  17. 17. 2. Listening ability is interaction-based: - The listener identifies understanding problems – detecting meaning problems in speaker’s contribution; identifying inadequacy of speaker’s message for task at hand. - The listener demonstrates understanding or non-understanding in an appropriate way. - The listener, in some settings, collaborates with an interlocutor to arrive at acceptable mutual understanding or to accomplish collaborative task.

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