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  • 1. Modal VerbsHelping verbs – they give information about the main verb. • Necessity • Possibility • Permission • Etc.
  • 2.  Can: Natalie can play tennis today. (ability or permission) Could: They could play the guitar. (Formal of “can”) May: It may be a nice day tomorrow. (possibility) Might: It might be a nice day tomorrow. (possibility)Modal + Simple Form
  • 3.  Should: Natalie should go outside. Ought to: You ought to tell her how you feel! Had better: They had better be on time. Must: He must eat all his food. Have to: I really have to study for my exam.
  • 4.  Similar meaning about obligation MUST: Usually used for feelings and wishes of the speaker. ◦ I must stop smoking. (I want to) HAVE TO: Usually obligations that come from „outside‟ ◦ I have to stop smoking (The doctor ordered me)Must / Have to?
  • 5.  They have the same meaning in most situations (suggestion or recommendation) SHOULD: Suggestion or advice about the best thing for them. ◦ You should tell her how you feel. OUGHT TO: Suggesting something they can‟t avoid or the last option. ◦ You ought to tell her how you feel.Should / Ought to?
  • 6.  Make suggestions or recommendations ◦ You had better take your umbrella with you today. Warning ◦ You had better be careful with the way you talk to me in the future! Show desperation (hope). ◦ The bus had better arrive on time or I‟ll be late for work!Had better!
  • 7.  You should clean your room, it is very messy. You ought to clean your room, your girlfriend is coming to visit you. You had better clean your room, or you will be grounded!Levels of severity