1Review4-1 Past participle4-2 Present perfect with since and for4-3 Negatives, questions, and short answer forms4-4 Present perfect with unspecified time4-5 Simple past vs. present perfect4-6 Present perfect progressive4-7 Present perfect progressive vs. present perfect4-8 Past perfectCONTENTS
2Jenna _____ her dog. His name __ Max.Jenna’s grandfather ____ Max to her. Hergrandfather _____ him at an animal shelter.Jenna _____ very good care her dog.He __ a great dog.lovesbeReview and PreviewPRESENT AND PAST VERBS lovegivefindtakegavefoundtakesisisbe
34-1 PAST PARTICIPLEShe has forgotten his name.
44-1 PAST PARTICIPLEREGULARVERBSIRREGULARVERBSSIMPLEFORMSIMPLEPASTPASTPARTICIPLEfinishstopwaitseemakeputfinishedstoppedwaitedsawmadeputfinishedstoppedwaitedseenmadeputpast perfect tensepresent perfect tense
64-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FORI have been here since 6:00 AM.
7(a) I’ve been here since 6:00 a.m.(b) I have played the violin for six years.present perfect +sinceforpast present4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR
8xxx6:00now(a) I’ve been here since 6:00 a.m..4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR
94-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR(c) I haveYou haveShe, He, It hasWe haveThey haveSTATEMENT: have / has + past participlebeen here for a week.
10(d) I have worked heresince noon.since Wednesday.since April.since 2010.since May 9, 2011.since yesterday.since last week.Since Specific point in time(hour, day, month, etc.)4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR
11(e) CORRECT: I have studied English since 2007.CORRECT: I have used a computer since 2007.(f) INCORRECT: I am studying English since 2007.4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR(g) INCORRECT: I study English since 2007.(h) INCORRECT: I studied English since 2007.(i) INCORRECT: I was study English since 2007.
12(j) We have been friends since I was fifteen.MAIN CLAUSE(present perfect)SINCE-CLAUSE(simple past)(k) Jim has played many sports since he tried soccer.since + subject + simple presentverb4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FORSINCE
13(h) I have worked herefor fifty minutes.for five hours.for ten days.for about six weeks.for almost two months.for many years.for a long time.For length of timeFOR4-2 PRESENT PERFECT WITH SINCE AND FOR
144-2 LET’S PRACTICEMary has been playing the pianosince ___________.3 hoursshe was sixshe was sixMary has been playing the pianofor ___________.three hours
154-2 LET’S PRACTICEAlejandro has studied Englishsince ________________.he started school15 yearshe started schoolAlejandro has studied Englishfor __________________.fifteen years
164-2 LET’S PRACTICEMy uncle has driven a taxi _____ 1982.forsincesinceMy uncle has driven a taxi ____ thirty years.for
174-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMSHas he finished all his work?
18(a) I have not (haven’t) gone home yet.(b) Fatima has not (hasn’t) gone home.4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMSNEGATIVE:have/has + not + past participleNegative Contractions:have + not = haven’thas + not = hasn’t
19(c) Have you read the report?4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMS
20(d) Has Marcy gone home?have/has + subject + past participle4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMS(c) Have you read the report?(e) How long have you worked there?QUESTION:
21No, I’ve never been to Paris.Ever = in your entire lifetime4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMS(f) Have you ever been to Paris?EVER and NEVER:Never use for negative responses
22(g)SHORT ANSWER:have / haven’tHave you read allof this article?No, I haven’t. Ihave only read afew pages.4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMS
23(h)SHORT ANSWER:has / hasn’tYes, she has. Shedid it after school.Has Kyungfinished herhomework?4-3 NEGATIVE, QUESTION, AND SHORT-ANSWERFORMS
24___________________ a snake?4-3 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECTHave you ever touchedyoutouchever
25________________4-3 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECTI’ve never touchedtouchneverNo,a snake.
26_________________ a shark?4-3 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECTHas Justin ever seenJustinseeever
27Yes, he ___. He saw one near Cape Town,4-3 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECThasSouth Africa.
284-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIMETyler has taken hisfirst steps.Zoe hasn’t walkedby herself yet.
29(a) Micah has just gotten his first job.(b) Leah has recently visited Singapore.The activity occurredbefore now orsometime in the past.4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
30nowtime?Xbefore nowX(a) Micah has just gotten his first job.(b) Janelle has recently visited Singapore.4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
31(c) Mary has painted portraits many times.(d) Her students have painted portraits twice.activity repeatedbefore now, unspecified past times4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
32nowXbefore nowXXX(c) Mary has painted portraits many times.(d) Her students have painted portraits twice.4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
33(e) Tyler has already taken his first steps.ORTyler has taken his first steps already.Use already inaffirmative statementsALREADY:4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
34(f) Zoe hasn’t walked by herself yet.YET:Use yet innegative statements4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
35(g) Has she already seen the movie?Both ok in questions.ALREADY and YET:Has she seen the movie yet?Has she seen the movie already?4-4 PRESENT PERFECT WITH UNSPECIFIED TIME
364-4 LET’S PRACTICEKyung __________________the test.take, alreadyhas already taken
374-3 LET’S PRACTICEI ______________ _______ 8 AM.studysinceORfor‘ve been studying since
384-4 LET’S PRACTICERosa ___________ to Italy three times.behas been
394-5 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTI had an angel fishwhen I was a child.I have had many otherfish since then.
404-5 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(a) They completed the game at 4:00.PRESENT PERFECT(b) They have already completed the game.specific timeunspecified time
414-5 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(c) I was in Nigeria when I was five years old.PRESENT PERFECT(d) I have been to Nigeria three times.specific timeunspecified time
424-5 SIMPLE PAST vs. PRESENT PERFECTSIMPLE PAST(e) Jack camped in France for 9 days.PRESENT PERFECT(f) Eli has been camping for 9 days.(f) Eli has been camping since last Monday.for activity began & ended in pastfor / since activity began & continues
434-5 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED TIME ?We have been to Tokyomany times.ORUNSPECIFIEDPRESENTPERFECT
444-5 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED TIME ?Barry has never been to Tokyo.ORUNSPECIFIEDPRESENTPERFECT
454-5 LET’S PRACTICESPECIFIED UNSPECIFIED TIME ?Gina went to Tokyolast month.ORSPECIFIED SIMPLE PAST
464-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEDee has been workingfor ten hours.
474-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE(a) Dee has been working since6 o’clock.(b) She has been working forten hours.STATEMENT:have/has + been + -ing
484-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE(c) How long has she been working?QUESTION FORM:have/has + subject + been + -ing
494-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE(d) Mary is playing the piano right now.PRESENT PROGRESSIVEin progress right nowduration of time not mentionedMary has been playing the piano right now.
504-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE(e) Mary has been playing since noon.PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEbegan in pastin progress right nowtime expressedMary is playing the piano since noon.(f) Mary has been playing for an hour.
514-6 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE(g) CORRECT: It belongs to Amy.(h) INCORRECT: It is belonging to Amy.(i) CORRECT: She has owned itfor one month.(j) INCORRECT: She has been owningit for one month.non-action verbs progressive tenses
524-6 LET’S PRACTICEMy sister _________ thephone.useis usinghas been usingPRESENT PROGRESSIVEORPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEShe _____________ it for threehours. I need to make a call.
534-6 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PROGRESSIVEORPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEHer parents __________.They ________________together for over thirty years.danceare dancinghave been dancing
544-6 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PROGRESSIVEORPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEWhere are you _______forthe summer holiday?I am ______ to the beach.I ______________ to the beachgogoinggoinghave been goingevery summer since I was a child.
554-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECTMike, Bob, and Lee are hiking.They have been hiking for several days.
564-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECTPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE(a) My cousin is hiking with his friends.They have been hiking for several days.repeated activitiesunspecified times in the pastPRESENT PERFECT(b) My cousin has hiked many mountains.duration of present activities,action verbs
574-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECT(c) INCORRECT: My cousin has been hikingmany mountains.(b) My cousin has hiked many mountains.
584-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECT(e) INCORRECT: The guys have been knowingeach other for ten years.(d) The guys have known each other forten years.duration of present activities,non-action verbs
59(f) I have been studying medicine for one year.OR(g) I have studied medicine for one year.4-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECTsame meaning
60(h) Rolf has been running every day since hewas a child.ORRolf has run every day since he was a child.4-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECTusual, habitual activitieseither tense okay
61(i) I’ve been studying Spanish ever since Ivisited Mexico.ORI’ve studied Spanish ever since I visitedMexico.4-7 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs.PRESENT PERFECTusual, habitual activitieseither tense okay
624-7 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECTHow long ___ your family ______ here?We __________ here for ten years.livelivedhave livedhas
634-7 LET’S PRACTICEPRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEHow long ___ your family _________ here?We _____________ here for ten years.livebeen livinghave been livinghas
644-8 PAST PERFECTWhen they arrivedat the store, it hadalready closed.
654-8 PAST PERFECT(a) When they arrived at the store, it hadalready closed.two events in the past1stevent - Past Perfect2ndevent – Simple Past
664-8 PAST PERFECT(b) The store had already closed whenthey arrived.FORM: had + past participle
674-8 PAST PERFECT(c) It’d closed.She’d gone home.He’d gone home.They’d gone home.We’d gone home.You’d gone home.CONTRACTION:I / you / she / he / it / we / they + ’d
684-8 PAST PERFECT(e) Andrea finished dinner before Kris got home.(d) Andrea had finished dinner before Kris got home.(f) Kris had gotten home after Andrea finished dinner.(g) Kris got home after Andrea finished dinner.beforeandafter=Clear timerelationshipPerfecttense notnecessary
694-8 PAST PERFECT1st2ndI had already gone to bed when it startedsnowing.a. it started snowing ____b. I went to bed ____1st2nd
704-8 PAST PERFECT1st2ndI tried to go shopping, but the store hadclosed.a. store closed ____b. tried to go shopping ____1st2nd
714-8 PAST PERFECT1st2ndA friend called to suggest a good movie.She had seen it last Friday.a. the friend saw the movie ____b. the friend called ____1st2nd
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